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Detailed assessment of the distribution of Astrocaryum sect. Huicungo (Arecaceae) in Peru Evaluación detallada de la distribución de Astrocaryum sec. Huicungo (Arecaceae) en Perú  [cached]
Francis Kahn,Betty Millán,Jean-Christophe Pintaud,Miguel Machahua
Revista Peruana de Biología , 2012,
Abstract: Detailed distribution of Astrocaryum sect. Huicungo (Arecaceae) in Peru is presented and discussed. Twelve out of the 15 species that compose this section are found in the Peruvian territory from North to South in the eastern Andean foothills and western Amazonian lowlands. All these species have a parapatric distribution, except for Astrocaryum macrocalyx and A. urostachys, which share a very limited area. Limits of distribution areas may be related to geographical, geomorphological and ecological barriers (river, geological rising, soil drainage). In some cases, however, the contact between species is almost contiguous; no natural barrier could be detected in the field. Se presenta y se discute la distribución detallada de las especies de Astrocaryum sect. Huicungo (Arecaceae) en Perú. Doce de las 15 especies que componen esta sección se encuentran en el territorio peruano, del Norte al Sur en el piedemonte de los Andes orientales y en la llanura amazónica. Todas las especies presentan una distribución parapátrica, salvo Astrocaryum macrocalyx y A. urostachys que se superponen en una franja muy reducida. Las áreas de distribución son separadas por pasillos estrechos, que se pueden relacionar a barreras geográficas, geomorfológicas y ecológicas (ríos, levantamientos geológicos, drenaje del suelo). En algunos casos, las especies se suceden en el espacio sin que se haya podido identificar barreras naturales separándolas.
Morfologia da plantula em desenvolvimento de Astrocaryum aculeatum Meyer (Arecaceae)
Gentil, Daniel Felipe de Oliveira;Ferreira, Sidney Alberto do Nascimento;
Acta Amazonica , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0044-59672005000300005
Abstract: astrocaryum aculeatum (tucum?) is an amazonian palm tree, whose fruit pulp is rich in vitamin a and can be consumed fresh or in ice creams, juices, liqueurs and sweets. its propagation is slow and little knowledge exists about the seed germination and seedling development. this study describes and characterizes the morphological stages of seedling development, during the germination of seeds, pre-treatmented or not with soaking in water. the germination of seeds is of the adjacent ligular, cryptocotylar and hypogeal type. the time to each stage was shorter for the soaked seeds, indicating a beneficial effect on the speed of the germination process, with mean time of emergence of the cotyledonal petiole being 99 days and complete expansion of the first leaf bifid by 253 days.
Phenology, fruit production and seed dispersal of Astrocaryum jauari (Arecaceae) in Amazonian black water floodplains
Maria Teresa,F. Piedade; Parolin,Pia; Junk,Wolfgang J;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2006,
Abstract: astrocaryum jauari mart. (arecaceae) is one of the commonest palm species occurring in nutritionally poor amazonian black water floodplains. it is an emergent or subcanopy tree that grows on river banks and slands, with a wide distribution along the entire flooding gradient, tolerating flood durations between 30 and 340 days. the species is important for fish nutrition in the floodplains, and is also used for hearts of palm. in the present study, the auto-ecology of a. jauari w,as analysed over a period of two years in the anavilhanas archipelago, rio negro, brazil, with a focus on phenology, fruit production, and seed dispersal. fruit fall is annual and synchronized with high water levels, with a production of 1.6 ton of fruit ha-1. the fruits are eaten by at least 16 species of fish which either gnaw the pulp, fragment the seed, or ingest the entire fruit, thus acting as dispersal agents. besides ichthyocory, barochory (with subsequent vegetative propagation) is an important dispersal mode, enhancing the occurrence of large masses of individuals in the anavilhanas islands and in the region of maximum palm heart extraction near barcelos
Phenology, fruit production and seed dispersal of Astrocaryum jauari (Arecaceae) in Amazonian black water floodplains
F. Piedade Maria Teresa,Pia Parolin,Wolfgang J Junk
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2006,
Abstract: Astrocaryum jauari Mart. (Arecaceae) is one of the commonest palm species occurring in nutritionally poor Amazonian black water floodplains. It is an emergent or subcanopy tree that grows on river banks and slands, with a wide distribution along the entire flooding gradient, tolerating flood durations between 30 and 340 days. The species is important for fish nutrition in the floodplains, and is also used for hearts of palm. In the present study, the auto-ecology of A. jauari w,as analysed over a period of two years in the Anavilhanas Archipelago, Rio Negro, Brazil, with a focus on phenology, fruit production, and seed dispersal. Fruit fall is annual and synchronized with high water levels, with a production of 1.6 ton of fruit ha-1. The fruits are eaten by at least 16 species of fish which either gnaw the pulp, fragment the seed, or ingest the entire fruit, thus acting as dispersal agents. Besides ichthyocory, barochory (with subsequent vegetative propagation) is an important dispersal mode, enhancing the occurrence of large masses of individuals in the Anavilhanas islands and in the region of maximum palm heart extraction near Barcelos Astrocaryum jauari Mart. (Arecaceae) es una de las especies más comunes de palma en las llanuras de inundación por las llamadas "aguas negras", aguas ricas en taninos que tienen pocos nutrientes para la fauna. Habita el subdosel que se desarrolla en riberas e islas, con una distribución amplia en toda la gradiente de inundación (resiste entre 30 y 340 días bajo el agua). La especie es importante para la nutrición de los peces y en la producción de palmito. La autoecología de A. jauari fue analizada por dos a os en el Archipiélago Anavilhanas, río Negro, Brazil, con énfasis en fenología, producción de frutas, y dispersores de semillas. La caída de los frutos es anual y sincronizada con el aumento de los niveles de agua, con una producción de 1.6 ton de fruta ha-1. Las frutas son comidas por al menos de 16 especies de peces que roen la pulpa o fragmentos de semilla, o ingieren la fruta entera y actúan como agentes dispersores. Además de la ictiocoria, la barocoria y la subsecuente progragación asexual son básicos para la alta densidad de la especie
Characterization of leaf anatomy in species of Astrocaryum and Hexopetion (Arecaceae) Caracterización de la anatomía foliar de especies de Astrocaryum y Hexopetion (Arecaceae)  [cached]
Betty Millán,Francis Kahn
Revista Peruana de Biología , 2011,
Abstract: Leaf anatomy of 23 species of the genus Astrocaryum and of the two species of the genus Hexopetion is described. A total of 109 characters with at least one difference between species are reported from the lamina (83), main rib (11), petiole (9) and sheath (6). An identification key to species is given based on leaf anatomy. Distribution of the characters is discussed in order to evaluate their taxonomic relevance. Se describe la anatomía foliar de 23 especies del género Astrocaryum y de las dos especies del género Hexopetion. Se identifican 109 caracteres diferenciales del limbo (83), de la nervadura principal (11) del pecíolo (9) y de la vaina (6). Se elabora una clave de identificación de las especies a partir de los caracteres anatómicos de hoja. Se discute la distribución de los caracteres en los grupos infragenéricos de Astrocaryum a partir de las especies estudiadas para evaluar su importancia taxonómica.
Morfologia Floral de uma Popula??o de Tucum?, Astrocaryum aculeatum Meyer (Arecaceae) na Amaz?nia Central
Bacelar-Lima, Christinny Giselly;Mendon?a, Maria Silvia de;Barbosa, Tereza Cristina T. S.;
Acta Amazonica , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0044-59672006000400002
Abstract: morphological descriptions are provided for inflorescences of pistillate and staminate flowers of a population of astrocaryum aculeatum meyer located on the campus of the instituto nacional de pesquisas da amaz?nia (inpa). the inflorescence is an interfoliar, panicle of spikelets, with a peduncle, and medium size of 146 ± 20.3 cm in length. woody, thorny bracts are present on the entire external surface, protecting the inflorescence. each inflorescence had approximately 375 ± 49.5 rachillae. each inflorescence was estimated to have about 500 to 1.200 pistillate flowers and 190.000 to 260.000 staminate flowers. staminate flowers varied in colouration from wine to cream and intermediate mixes of wine and cream.
Morfometria das fibras das folhas de Astrocaryum murumuru var. murumuru Mart. (ARECACEAE)
Rocha, Clarisse Beltr?o Rosas;Potiguara, Raimunda Concei??o de Vilhena;
Acta Amazonica , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0044-59672007000400005
Abstract: the analysis morphometric of the leaf fibers of astrocaryum murumuru var. murumuru mart. demonstrated that the petiole's fibers had presented length and wall thickness superiors than the rachis and leaflets, with yours means varying of 1.266,09 μm to 3.270,56 μm and 5,56 μm to 10,67 μm, respectively. in relation the index of runckel and flexibility's coefficient the petiole and rachis had gotten values considered favorable for its use in the paper industry and, the felting index it probably demonstrated that the fibers of these regions will present good crash resistance when submitted to the evaluations physical-mechanical. therefore, the results show the species is a alternative source of raw material to produce paper, but its necessary to do physical-mechanical resistance studies to consolidate this pre diagnostic.
Extra??o, embebi??o e germina??o de sementes de tucum? (Astrocaryum aculeatum)
Ferreira, Sidney Alberto do Nascimento;Gentil, Daniel Felipe de Oliveira;
Acta Amazonica , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0044-59672006000200002
Abstract: the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the extraction and imbibition period on the germination of tucum? (astrocaryum aculeatum meyer, arecaceae) seeds. after cleaning and drying the pyrenes, the endocarp was broken and removed to liberate the seeds that, before sowing, were soaked in water for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days. the germination was superior to 58%, confirming the possibility of extracting the endocarp without damaging the viability of the seeds. the seeds submitted to nine days of soaking, had a moisture content of 30%, obtained better germination (70%) and index of germination velocity, with mean time of germination of 104 days. the removal of the endocarp and the soaking of seeds accelerated and increased the germination.
Vegetative adaptability of the Peruvian palm Astrocaryum perangustatum to deforestation Adaptabilidad vegetativa a la deforestación de la palma peruana Astrocaryum perangustatum  [cached]
Héctor Aponte,Francis Kahn,Betty Millán
Revista Peruana de Biología , 2011,
Abstract: Variation in vegetative morphology of the palm Astrocaryum perangustatum as a response to deforestation was evaluated from a sample of 60 individuals (30 in forest and 30 in pasture) located in the Pozuzo region of Pasco, Peru. Several parameters are significantly different between palms growing in the forest understory and those growing in pasture. These include: number of leaves in the crown, length of the stem, of the leaves, length and width of proximal pinnae, width of medial pinnae, size of spines in adult palms, and number and length of leaves in seedlings. Variation in vegetative morphology of Astrocaryum perangustatum between forest and pasture is discussed in relation to environmental conditions. Morphological variability in the Pozuzo region is compared with that obtained from herbarium vouchers collected throughout the distribution area of the species. Se evalúan los cambios de morfología de los órganos vegetativos de la palmera Astrocaryum perangustatum en relación a la deforestación al comparar una muestra de 60 palmeras (30 en áreas de bosque y 30 en pastizales) de la región de Pozuzo (Pasco, Perú). Múltiples parámetros morfológicos (número de hojas, largo del tallo y de las hojas, largo y ancho de las pinnas proximales, ancho de las pinnas mediales, tama o de los aguijones en palmeras adultas, número y tama o de las hojas de las plántulas) se revelan significativamente diferentes entre las palmeras que crecen en el bosque y aquellas que crecen en los pastizales. Se discute la variabilidad en la morfología de las partes vegetativas en relación a las condiciones del entorno. Se compara la variabilidad morfológica encontrada en la región de Pozuzo con la obtenida de muestras de herbario recolectadas en toda el área de distribución de la especie.
Germina??o in vitro de embri?es zigóticos de murmuru (Astrocaryum ulei)
Pereira, Jonny Everson Scherwinski;Maciel, Tissiane Maria Silva;Costa, Frederico Henrique da Silva;Pereira, Maria Aparecida Alves;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542006000200009
Abstract: the work aimed to evaluate the influence of sucrose concentrations and seed physiologic age on the in vitro germination of murmuru zygotic embryos. fruits collected from field plants in two development stages had the embryos excised, desinfected and inoculated onto ms medium with 75% salts, 2.5 g.l-1 of giberelic acid and different sucrose concentrations: 15, 30 and 45 g.l-1. all cultures were kept for 30 days in the dark at 25±2oc, being transferred afterwards to a growth chamber with 30 mmol.m-2s-1 of radiation and 16 hours photoperiod for complete development. the statistical design was a 2x3 factorial, with six repetitions and five embryos by experimental unit. after 30 days it was evaluated the germination percentage and plantlets height. it was verified that embryos from immature fruits presented higher germination percentage and the sucrose concentration of 30 g.l-1 was the one that provided the best results among the others tested. embryos from mature fruits gave rise to plantlets with average height significantly greater than that of plantlets from immature fruits and 30 g.l-1 of sucrose was the concentration that provided the best results.
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