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A Fuzzy Fair Packet Dropping Algorithm Supporting Differentiated Services
一种支持区分服务的模糊公平分组丢弃算法

Chen Yuan,Li Le-min,
陈 远
,李乐民

电子与信息学报 , 2006,
Abstract: Random Early Detection (RED) is a kind of buffer management algorithms which is widely used in the current Internet. To improve the adaptability and fairness of RED is one of the main tasks of the active queue management. In this paper, the buffer occupancy of individual flow is replaced by a new introduced variable - Sharing Index to indicate the network resource share among different flows, so as to overcome the limitation of buffer occupancy. The definition of Sharing Index in wireless networks is also extended to make it consider both fairness and system performance (channel condition). Through defining rules of both Sharing Index and queue length, a fuzzy logic based buffer management algorithm named FF-RED is proposed. When calculating packet dropping probability in FF-RED algorithm, the probability will further increase or decrease based on the sharing of network resource (by means of Sharing Index), so it can use the difference between flows to make congestion relief more quickly, and it has better adaptability and fairness. Simulation results show that the system performance is improved through using the proposed algorithm.
A New Fairness-Oriented Packet Scheduling Scheme with Reduced Channel Feedback for OFDMA Packet Radio Systems  [PDF]
Stanislav NONCHEV, Mikko VALKAMA
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2009.27068
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a flexible and fairness-oriented packet scheduling approach for 3GPP UTRAN long term evolution (LTE) type packet radio systems, building on the ordinary proportional fair (PF) scheduling principle and channel quality indicator (CQI) feedback. Special emphasis is also put on practical feedback reporting mechanisms, including the effects of mobile measurement and estimation errors, reporting delays, and CQI quantization and compression. The performance of the overall scheduling and feedback re-porting process is investigated in details, in terms of cell throughput, coverage and resource allocation fairness, by using extensive quasistatic cellular system simulations in practical OFDMA system environment with frequency reuse of 1. The performance simulations show that by using the proposed modified PF ap-proach, significant coverage improvements in the order of 50% can be obtained at the expense of only 10-15% throughput loss, for all reduced feedback reporting schemes. This reflects highly improved fairness in the radio resource management (RRM) compared to other existing schedulers, without essentially com-promising the cell capacity. Furthermore, we demonstrate the improved functionality increase in radio re-source management for UE’s utilizing multi-antenna diversity receivers.
Attribute framing affects the perceived fairness of health care allocation principles  [PDF]
Eyal Gamliel,Eyal Peer
Judgment and Decision Making , 2010,
Abstract: Health care resource allocation is a central moral issue in health policy, and opinions about it have been studied extensively. Allocation situations have typically been described and presented in a positive manner (i.e., who should receive medical aid). On the other hand, the negative valence allocation situation (i.e., who should not receive medical aid) has been relatively neglected. This paper demonstrates how positive versus negative framing of the exact same health care resource allocation situation can affect the perceived fairness of allocation principles. Participants usually perceived non-egalitarian principles (i.e., need, equity and tenure) to be fairer in positively framed situations (i.e., to deliver health care resources to certain patients) than negatively framed situation (i.e., not to deliver health care resources to other patients). However, framing did not affect the perceived fairness of the equality principle (i.e., a random draw). The paper offers a theoretical explanation for the effect of framing on the perceived fairness of heath care resource allocation and discusses implications for both researchers and policy makers.
Deficit Round Robin with Fragmentation Scheduling to Achieve Generalized Weighted Fairness for Resource Allocation in IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX Networks  [PDF]
Chakchai So-In,Raj Jain,Abdel-Karim Al Tamimi
Future Internet , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/fi2040446
Abstract: Deficit Round Robin (DRR) is a fair packet-based scheduling discipline commonly used in wired networks where link capacities do not change with time. However, in wireless networks, especially wireless broadband networks, i.e., IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX, there are two main considerations violate the packet-based service concept for DRR. First, the resources are allocated per Mobile WiMAX frame. To achieve full frame utilization, Mobile WiMAX allows packets to be fragmented. Second, due to a high variation in wireless channel conditions, the link/channel capacity can change over time and location. Therefore, we introduce a Deficit Round Robin with Fragmentation (DRRF) to allocate resources per Mobile WiMAX frame in a fair manner by allowing for varying link capacity and for transmitting fragmented packets. Similar to DRR and Generalized Processor Sharing (GPS), DRRF achieves perfect fairness. DRRF results in a higher throughput than DRR (80% improvement) while causing less overhead than GPS (8 times less than GPS). In addition, in Mobile WiMAX, the quality of service (QoS) offered by service providers is associated with the price paid. This is similar to a cellular phone system; the users may be required to pay air-time charges. Hence, we have also formalized a Generalized Weighted Fairness (GWF) criterion which equalizes a weighted sum of service time units or slots, called temporal fairness, and transmitted bytes, called throughput fairness, for customers who are located in a poor channel condition or at a further distance versus for those who are near the base stations, or have a good channel condition. We use DRRF to demonstrate the application of GWF. These fairness criteria are used to satisfy basic requirements for resource allocation, especially for non real-time traffic. Therefore, we also extend DRRF to support other QoS requirements, such as minimum reserved traffic rate, maximum sustained traffic rate, and traffic priority. For real-time traffic, i.e., video traffic, we compare the performance of DRRF with deadline enforcement to that of Earliest Deadline First (EDF). The results show that DRRF outperforms EDF (higher achievable throughput under the promised delay latency) and maintains fairness under an overload scenario.
Fairness Expectations and Altruistic Sharing in 15-Month-Old Human Infants  [PDF]
Marco F. H. Schmidt, Jessica A. Sommerville
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023223
Abstract: Human cooperation is a key driving force behind the evolutionary success of our hominin lineage. At the proximate level, biologists and social scientists have identified other-regarding preferences – such as fairness based on egalitarian motives, and altruism – as likely candidates for fostering large-scale cooperation. A critical question concerns the ontogenetic origins of these constituents of cooperative behavior, as well as whether they emerge independently or in an interrelated fashion. The answer to this question will shed light on the interdisciplinary debate regarding the significance of such preferences for explaining how humans become such cooperative beings. We investigated 15-month-old infants' sensitivity to fairness, and their altruistic behavior, assessed via infants' reactions to a third-party resource distribution task, and via a sharing task. Our results challenge current models of the development of fairness and altruism in two ways. First, in contrast to past work suggesting that fairness and altruism may not emerge until early to mid-childhood, 15-month-old infants are sensitive to fairness and can engage in altruistic sharing. Second, infants' degree of sensitivity to fairness as a third-party observer was related to whether they shared toys altruistically or selfishly, indicating that moral evaluations and prosocial behavior are heavily interconnected from early in development. Our results present the first evidence that the roots of a basic sense of fairness and altruism can be found in infancy, and that these other-regarding preferences develop in a parallel and interwoven fashion. These findings support arguments for an evolutionary basis – most likely in dialectical manner including both biological and cultural mechanisms – of human egalitarianism given the rapidly developing nature of other-regarding preferences and their role in the evolution of human-specific forms of cooperation. Future work of this kind will help determine to what extent uniquely human sociality and morality depend on other-regarding preferences emerging early in life.
Multi-resource fairness: Objectives, algorithms and performance  [PDF]
Thomas Bonald,James Roberts
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Designing efficient and fair algorithms for sharing multiple resources between heterogeneous demands is becoming increasingly important. Applications include compute clusters shared by multi-task jobs and routers equipped with middleboxes shared by flows of different types. We show that the currently preferred objective of Dominant Resource Fairness has a significantly less favorable efficiency-fairness tradeoff than alternatives like Proportional Fairness and our proposal, Bottleneck Max Fairness. In addition to other desirable properties, these objectives are equally strategyproof in any realistic scenario with dynamic demand.
A Quantitative Measure Of Fairness And Discrimination For Resource Allocation In Shared Computer Systems  [PDF]
R. Jain,D. Chiu,W. Hawe
Computer Science , 1998,
Abstract: Fairness is an important performance criterion in all resource allocation schemes, including those in distributed computer systems. However, it is often specified only qualitatively. The quantitative measures proposed in the literature are either too specific to a particular application, or suffer from some undesirable characteristics. In this paper, we have introduced a quantitative measure called Indiex of FRairness. The index is applicable to any resource sharing or allocation problem. It is independent of the amount of the resource. The fairness index always lies between 0 and 1. This boundedness aids intuitive understanding of the fairness index. For example, a distribution algorithm with a fairness of 0.10 means that it is unfair to 90% of the users. Also, the discrimination index can be defined as 1 - fairness index.
Enhanced Cluster Computing Performance Through Proportional Fairness  [PDF]
Thomas Bonald,James Roberts
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: The performance of cluster computing depends on how concurrent jobs share multiple data center resource types like CPU, RAM and disk storage. Recent research has discussed efficiency and fairness requirements and identified a number of desirable scheduling objectives including so-called dominant resource fairness (DRF). We argue here that proportional fairness (PF), long recognized as a desirable objective in sharing network bandwidth between ongoing flows, is preferable to DRF. The superiority of PF is manifest under the realistic modelling assumption that the population of jobs in progress is a stochastic process. In random traffic the strategy-proof property of DRF proves unimportant while PF is shown by analysis and simulation to offer a significantly better efficiency-fairness tradeoff.
A Consensus-Based Protocol for Spectrum Sharing Fairness in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Peng Hu,Mohamed Ibnkahla
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/370251
Abstract: Spectrum sharing fairness is an important topic in cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs) and cognitive radio sensor networks (CRSNs). Consensus-based protocols can provide light-weight and efficient solutions for CRAHNs and CRSNs but the theoretical ground needs to be investigated for spectrum sharing fairness. In this paper, we investigate the convergence condition when applying a consensus-based protocol to spectrum sharing while ensuring spectrum sharing fairness. Based on the local observation and local control scheme using spectrum-related information, an individual cognitive node can effectively perform the spectrum sharing. Then we propose a consensus-based protocol for spectrum sharing. Supported with computer simulation results, we show the effectiveness of using the proposed consensus-based protocol to solve the spectrum sharing problems in CRAHNs and CRSNs. 1. Introduction As a result of the development of cognitive radio (CR) technology, the concept of cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs) has been proposed in 2009 [1]. A CRAHN is essentially an ad hoc network composed by CR nodes (or CRs) and primary users (PUs) applying the cognitive radio technology in CR transceivers. As such, the CRs in CRAHNs do not favor central coordination when performing spectrum sharing processes. Instead, CRs have to perform local observation most of the time. With the same concept, the cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) [2] was coined out in 2009, where each sensor node in a CRSN can be considered as a CR with limited hardware and capability to obtain surrounding information. As an important research topic in CRAHNs and CRSNs, spectrum sharing schemes have to perform spectrum allocation based on local observations, while ensuring fairness in these schemes. Without keeping fairness, the network may suffer from uneven spectrum allocation to the CRs, subject to the frequent link disconnections during data communications. As such, an important problem in spectrum sharing is how to ensure the fairness of spectrum allocation using local observation and local decision. In this paper, we explore how to use the consensus protocol to address spectrum sharing fairness in CRAHNs and CRSNs. We will first introduce the concept of local control schemes, by which a CR can locally perform spectrum sharing process with sensing inputs and decision outputs. Then we define and analyze the spectrum sharing fairness issue in CRAHNs. Based on this analysis, we propose a consensus-based protocol to perform the spectrum sharing process, which can address the defined fairness
Fast fairness packet scheduling algorithm for real-time service
面向实时业务的快速公平性分组调度算法

WU Dapeng,YAN Haisheng,LUO Renze,etc,
吴大鹏
,严海升,罗仁泽,

重庆邮电大学学报(自然科学版) , 2013,
Abstract: In LTE system, the QoS should be satisfied by packet scheduling algorithm. To improve the fairness between users in the algorithm of modified large weighted delay first (M-LWDF), two novel packet scheduling algorithms are proposed in this paper, linear and non linear priority adjusting scheme respectively. Results show that the performance of user fairness and packet loss ratio can be improved effectively; moreover, only very little network resources will be consumed.
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