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The public health context of violence in Colombia
Garfield,Richard; Llanten Morales,Claudia Patricia;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892004001000006
Abstract: objective: among the countries of the americas, colombia has the highest level of deaths due to homicides and armed conflict. the objective of this research was to combine and contrast information from various sources on deaths due to violence in colombia in order to identify major trends in violence in the country and to compare those trends with those in other nations of the americas. methods: we drew together information from a wide array of sources, including the government of colombia, colombian forensic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, and international research centers. we considered the impact of the violence on mortality as well as in such areas as nonfatal injuries, displacement of persons, and kidnappings. results: while there have been many deaths in colombia directly related to military conflict, there have been many more deaths and injuries as an indirect result of war. the highest levels of deaths directly related to violence occurred during the 1990-1995 period. although deaths due directly to armed conflict declined in the late 1990s, the related events of kidnappings and displacement did not. conclusions: efforts to reduce the violence-related suffering in colombia must consider both direct and indirect causes of mortality as well as nonfatal outcomes such as kidnappings and displacement.
Violencia de pareja y salud de las mujeres que consultan a las comisarías de familia, Cali, Colombia Partner violence and women's health reported to the family commissaries in Cali, Colombia  [cached]
Gladys E Canaval,Martha Cecilia González,Janice Humphreys,Nileth De León
Investigación y Educación en Enfermería , 2009,
Abstract: La violencia de pareja es un problema de salud pública y el modelo para manejo de síntomas fue el marco conceptual que guía este estudio. Objetivo: medir el efecto de la violencia de pareja sobre la salud mental de las mujeres que consultan a las comisarías de familia de Cali. Metodología: dise o analítico, transversal, con mujeres que denuncian violencia de pareja en las comisarías de familia de Cali, Colombia. Se aplican la Lista de Chequeo de Síntomas de Distres SCL-90R y las Escalas de Tácticas de Resolución de Conflictos y de Resiliencia. Resultados: la muestra de 100 mujeres adultas que denuncian violencia de pareja presentó un índice Global de Severidad de Síntomas de 1,36; un índice de Distrés de Síntomas Positivos de 2,27, y puntajes altos en las nueve dimensiones de síntomas psicológicos. En la comparación con muestras normativas de pacientes siquiátricas ambulatorias no se aprecian diferencias significativas para la mayoría de los índices. El 60% de las mujeres presentan síndrome de estrés postraumático. Discusión: los hallazgos son preocupantes por la similitud con las muestras normativas de pacientes siquiátricas ambulatorias; las mujeres de nuestro estudio presentan una necesidad de cuidado que les permita adquirir o desarrollar sus recursos personales y externos para salir adelante. Partner's violence is a public health problem. Symptom management is the theoretical framework guiding this study. The research question is: what is the effect of partner`s violence on women's mental health reporting it to the Cali, Colombia Family Commssaries? Objective: to measure the effect of partner' s violence on women's mental health asking help to the Family Commissaries of Cali, Colombia. Methodology: cross-sectional design with a sample of women that denounce their situation to the Family Commissaries of Cali. The Check List of Symptom -SCL-90R, the Conflict Resolution Tactics and the Resilience scales are applied. Results: the sample comprises 100 women. The Global Distress Index is 1.36; the Distress Index for Positive Symptom is 2.27; nine dimensions of symptoms obtain high scores. Comparison with normative samples of psychiatric out-patients do not show statistical significant differences for most of the indexes; 60% of women present post-traumatic stress disorder. Discussion: the findings are similar to normative samples from psychiatric out - patients. The partner's violence effect on mental health is considerable and calls for action. Women have needs related with care. They need help to gain or develop personal skills and external resources t
Impacto de la violencia sexual en la salud mental de las víctimas en Bucaramanga, Colombia Impact of Sexual Violence on the Victims’ Mental Health in Bucaramanga, Colombia
Marta Isabel Dallos Arenales,Alexánder Pinzón-Amado,Carlos A Barrera González,Johanna A Mujica Rojas
Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría , 2008,
Abstract: Introducción: La violencia sexual en Colombia se ha constituido en un verdadero problema de salud pública. Este tipo de violencia se ha asociado con múltiples factores de riesgo individuales, familiares y sociales y se ha relacionado con secuelas físicas y psicosociales a corto, mediano y largo plazo. Método: En este estudio de tipo descriptivo se evaluaron los factores relacionados con la presentación de trastornos mentales en 55 víctimas de violencia sexual que asistieron al Instituto de Salud de Bucaramanga. Resultados: Un 43,6% habían sido violentados en varias ocasiones, y el 66,7% de los perpetradores eran conocidos por la víctima. Como factores asociados se encontró que el 21,6% de las víctimas tenía antecedentes psiquiátricos y que en el 41% de ellos existían antecedentes psiquiátricos en algún miembro de la familia. El 60% de los casos tenía antecedentes de maltrato intrafamiliar, el 25% consideraba que las relaciones internas de sus familias eran conflictivas y el 60% pensaba que el barrio donde vivía era violento. El 87% presentaba algún tipo de alteración en el examen mental al ingreso y se pudo establecer un diagnóstico en el Eje I en el 72,7% de los casos. Conclusión: Los antecedentes de violencia familiar y enfermedad mental en la familia de las víctimas, así como vivir en comunidades violentas, son factores de riesgo asociados con la presentación de la violencia sexual en nuestra población; además, los trastornos ansiosos, depresivos y comportamentales son las secuelas mentales más frecuentes en esta población. Introduction: Sexual violence in Colombia has become a serious public health problem; this type of violence has been associated with multiple individual, familial and social risk factors and it has been related to physical and psychosocial sequelae in the short, medium and long term. Method: In this descriptive study, factors associated with mental disorders were evaluated in 55 sexual violence victims seen at the Institute of Health in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Results: 43.6% had been abused in several occasions and 66.7% of the victims knew the aggressor. As associated factors, 21.6% of the victims had a psychiatric history and in 41% some member of the family had a psychiatric history. 60% had a history of family abuse, 25% considered family relations to be conflictive and 60% stated that the neighborhood where they lived was violent. At the beginning of this study, 87% presented with some type of finding in the mental examination and it was possible to establish an Axis I diagnosis in 72.7% of the cases. Conclusions: A history of
Colombia: violencia y salud mental La opinión de la psiquiatría Colombia: violence and mental health. The opinion in psychiatry  [cached]
Cecilia de Santacruz,Wadeth Chams,Paola Fernández de Soto
Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría , 2006,
Abstract: Antecedentes: en la década de los noventa se incrementaron las expresiones de la violencia, así como el se alamiento de su asociación con la salud mental, lo que subrayó el papel de la psiquiatría. Objetivo: explorar la contribución, entre 1993 y 2003, de la psiquiatría colombiana al entendimiento del problema nacional de violencia "pública". Materiales y métodos: esta investigación con dise o cualitativo, mediante una búsqueda exhaustiva, recogió el conocimiento circulante, traducido en 75 documentos producidos por psiquiatras (autoría única o compartida) en el país. Resultados: el 43% artículos de revistas (incluidos editoriales); 25% capítulos de libros; 25% libros y manuales; 7% artículos en periódicos y otros, y 55% producido después de 1998. En su gran mayoría (81%) son teóricos (revisiones temáticas, ensayos y material pedagógico). Se contaron 53 autores, de los cuales 6 escribieron el 36% del total de los documentos y 7 son mujeres (13%), dos de ellas dentro de los autores con mayor producción. En el 63% de los casos figuraba un solo autor. La violencia generó el mayor número de trabajos, a veces adjetivada (terrorista, en los ni os, homicida). Este material se agrupa en torno a las dos dimensiones: violencia y salud mental (causas, caracterizaciones, implicaciones y consecuencias) y en el papel de la psiquiatría. Conclusiones: se trata de un conjunto plural que permite inferir los diversos grados de elaboración del conocimiento construido, también su riqueza y vacíos, oportunidades para ampliarlo ante un problema cuya complejidad reclama a diario una mayor presencia y el efecto de las comprensiones. Antecedents: In the 1990’s an increase in the number of references about violence was noted, as well as its association with mental health and the role Psychiatry should play. Objetive: to explore the contributing literature from Colombian Psychiatry to the understanding of public violence as a national problem between 1993 and 2003. Materials and Methods: This research has a qualitative design. The search collected existing knowledge, among 75 documents written by psychiatrists (as main or collaborative authors). Results: 43% journal papers (including editorials), 25% textbook chapters, 25 % books and brochures, 7% newspaper articles and others. 55% were produced after 1998. The vast majority (81%) were theoretical (major reviews, essays and educational material). There were 53 different authors, 6 of them wrote 36% of the documents. Seven were female (13%), two of them among those of more productions. In 63% of the documents there was only one aut
Is There a Culture of Violence in Colombia?
Peter Waldmann
International Journal of Conflict and Violence , 2007,
Abstract: During the past decade, economic factors have been given a prominent role in explaining political violence. The example of Colombia shows that economic factors can explain the ubiquitous nature of violence in that country only in the context of a socio-culturally rooted propensity to use violence. The study draws on relevant published research to identify evidence of a culture of violence in Colombia and discusses the structural conditions that allow or cause such a culture to arise. It is shown that violence in Colombia cannot be explained without taking into account cultural factors that are in turn dependent on other explanatory factors, including economic ones.
The association between armed conflict, violence and mental health: a cross sectional study comparing Two populations in Cundinamarca department, Colombia
Londo?o Alicia, Romero Perla, Casas German
Conflict and Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1505-6-12
Abstract: This is a cross sectional study comparing two communities from different villages in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. One, Guasca, was directly impacted by armed conflict. The other one; Guatavita has never been affected by armed conflict. We applied two different instruments: the PHQ scale and a short standardized interview in order to estimate the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders and their link to violent events. Forty-two volunteers from each village were evaluated through a personal interview using these two instruments.Findings: Of the population surveyed in Guatavita, 2.4% reported direct exposure to violence compared to 23.8% from Guasca. In the population exposed directly to violent events, the prevalence of all disorders was greater than in the non-exposed population with an OR of 1.46 (95% CI 0.3809 - 5.5989) for anxiety; 4.54 (95% CI 1.1098 - 18.5984) for depression; 6.0 (95% CI 1.2298 - 30.2263) for somatization disorder; and 4.4 (95% CI 1.2037 - 16.0842) for alcohol abuse.Interpretation: There is a statistically significant association between the history of armed conflict, violence and the presence of mental illnesses, particularly depression, somatization disorder and alcohol abuse. Special attention should be paid to the detection, prevention and treatment of these disorders when dealing with populations exposed to violence and to armed conflict in particular.
Las invisibles: una lectura desde la salud pública sobre la violencia sexual contra ni as y mujeres Colombianas en la actualidad The invisible ones: a perspective from public health on sexual violence currently perpetrated against girls and women in Colombia  [cached]
Zulma Urrego-Mendoza
Revista Colombiana de Obstetricia y Ginecología , 2007,
Abstract: Objetivo: este artículo pretende exponer la situación actual de la violencia sexual en Colombia, desde la perspectiva de una salud pública con enfoque de género. Metodología: identificación, recopilación y análisis documental de un conjunto de estudios y otras fuentes sobre violencia sexual y salud pública en Colombia correspondientes al período 1993 -2006, seleccionadas mediante revisión de bases de datos electrónicas y catálogos de bibliotecas. Resultados: se presentan algunos conceptos sobre la violencia sexual y los derechos humanos de las mujeres; se caracteriza la magnitud del problema entre las ni as y mujeres de nuestro país; se discuten algunas políticas públicas desplegadas en Colombia ante el tema; y se se alan áreas críticas para la acción futura. Conclusiones: lo encontrado conduce a considerar que es necesario estimular la reflexión, la investigación, el análisis y las acciones interdisciplinarias efectivas y sensibles a los asuntos de género en torno a este tema, que no obstante su importancia ha permanecido relegado en medio del complejo panorama de la salud pública nacional. Objective: this article is intended to expose the present situation of sexual violence in Colombia from the perspective of a gender-based public health approach. Methods: identifying, compiling and t he documentary analysis of a set of studies carried out in Colombia 1993-2006 and other sources concerning sexual violence and public health in this country. The studies were selected through reviewing electronic databases and library catalogues. Results: this article displays some concepts about sexual violence and women’s rights; it characterises the problem amongst Colombian children and women. It discusses current public policy in Colombia regarding this issue and targets some critical areas for future action. Conclusions: the above is aimed at encouraging ref lection, investigation, analysis and inter- disciplinary, effective and sensitive action regarding related gender matters. Although this issue is of the utmost importance, it has lagged behind in the midst of the complex panorama of public health in Colombia.
Domestic violence and its consequences on health
Mirela-Simona POPA
Management in Health , 2009,
Abstract: Family violence is at the origin of many physical and mental illnesses, of frequentconsultations, hospitalizations and disabilities of temporary work, as well as of a highconsumption of medicines and other health services.In other words, the consequences of domestic violence can persist for a long time afterthe actual act of violence and the long time the repercussions of various types and ofthe multiple episodes of violence are cumulative.
Victims and health - health consequences of violence against women
?ikanovi? Bosiljka
Temida , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/tem0603015d
Abstract: In this paper, an overview of violence against women prevalence in Serbia and worldwide, as well as its influences on health, is given. Apart from causing physical injuries, violence against women is a risk factor for developing different health problems. Violence effects on health are cumulative, and its consequences remain even after quitting violence. Most frequent health disorders related to violence are expressed as so called "functional" disorders, such as: diverse chronicle pain syndromes, gastrointestinal disorders, irritable bowel syndrome etc. Also, violence consequences could be sexual transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancy followed by complication and low birth weight, as well as various psychological disorders - depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress syndrome, etc. Substance and alcohol abuse, and suicidal tendencies, are also related to violence. Risk for illness is increasing when woman is exposed to both physical and sexual violence at the same time. In certain number of cases, violence against women is causing death of victim. While working with women, health professionals should approach in an appropriate way and ask questions regarding violence. .
Prevalencia de violencia y discriminación contra la mujer en la Facultad de Ciencias para la Salud, Universidad de Caldas, Colombia, 2010-2011 Prevalence of violence and discrimination against women at the Universidad de Caldas, Colombia, Health Sciences School, 2010-2011  [cached]
Carmen Leonor Moreno-Cubillos,Luz Elena Sepúlveda-Gallego,Luisa Fernanda Restrepo-Rendón
Revista Colombiana de Obstetricia y Ginecología , 2013,
Abstract: Objetivo: caracterizar y describir la prevalencia de actos de violencia y discriminación durante la vida universitaria en los tres estamentos de mujeres de la Facultad de Ciencias para la Salud de la Universidad de Caldas. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal; la población de estudio fueron las mujeres docentes (115), estudiantes (823) y administrativas (23) de la Facultad de Ciencias para la Salud de la Universidad de Caldas matriculadas o que laboraban allí entre el segundo semestre de 2010 y el primer semestre de 2011. De una población de 961 mujeres se obtuvo una muestra aleatoria de 196 individuos. La información se recolectó mediante encuesta autodiligenciada previa firma del consentimiento informado y entrega de glosario. Se y entrega de glosario. Se incluyeron variables demográficas y variables relacionadas con actos discriminatorios o violentos, y las relacionadas con el tipo de agresor. Resultados: 196 mujeres respondieron la encuesta: 13 administrativas, 40 docentes y 143 estudiantes de los programas de medicina, enfermería, educación física, regencia de farmacia y posgrados clínicoquirúrgicos. De estas, el 53,8% de las empleadas, el 53,7% de las docentes y el 67,7% de las estudiantes refirió antecedentes de al menos un evento de discriminación o violencia durante su vida universitaria. Los eventos más frecuentemente reportados fueron: abuso de autoridad, burlas, piropos o gestos obscenos, agresión psicológica, agresión verbal y discriminación por aspecto físico. El estamento estudiantil fue el más afectado y el agresor más frecuente fue un docente. Conclusión: se confirma la presencia de actos de discriminación y violencia de género en la comunidad universitaria objeto del estudio. Objective: To characterize and describe the prevalence of acts of violence and discrimination against three groups of women of the School of Health Sciences at Universidad de Caldas. Materials and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study; the study population included female teachers (115), students (823) and administrative staff (23) who were enrolled or working at the School of Health Sciences between the second half of 2010 and the first half of 2011. Out of a population of 961 women, a random sample of 196 individuals was obtained. The information was collected by means of a survey filled by the respondents themselves after signing the informed consent and receiving a glossary. The variables included demographics, acts of discrimination or violence, and the type of offender. Results: 196 women responded the survey: 13 administrative
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