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MAC Centered Cooperation - Synergistic Design of Network Coding, Multi-Packet Reception, and Improved Fairness to Increase Network Throughput  [PDF]
Jason Cloud,Linda Zeger,Muriel Médard
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: We design a cross-layer approach to aid in develop- ing a cooperative solution using multi-packet reception (MPR), network coding (NC), and medium access (MAC). We construct a model for the behavior of the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol and apply it to key small canonical topology components and their larger counterparts. The results obtained from this model match the available experimental results with fidelity. Using this model, we show that fairness allocation by the IEEE 802.11 MAC can significantly impede performance; hence, we devise a new MAC that not only substantially improves throughput, but provides fairness to flows of information rather than to nodes. We show that cooperation between NC, MPR, and our new MAC achieves super-additive gains of up to 6.3 times that of routing with the standard IEEE 802.11 MAC. Furthermore, we extend the model to analyze our MAC's asymptotic and throughput behaviors as the number of nodes increases or the MPR capability is limited to only a single node. Finally, we show that although network performance is reduced under substantial asymmetry or limited implementation of MPR to a central node, there are some important practical cases, even under these conditions, where MPR, NC, and their combination provide significant gains.
Transport Protocol Throughput Fairness  [cached]
Saleem Bhatti,Martin Bateman
Journal of Networks , 2009, DOI: 10.4304/jnw.4.9.881-894
Abstract: Interest continues to grow in alternative transport protocols to the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). These alternatives include protocols designed to give greater efficiency in high-speed, high-delay environments (so-called high-speed TCP variants), and protocols that provide congestion control without reliability. For the former category, along with the deployed base of ‘vanilla’ TCP – TCP NewReno – the TCP variants BIC and CUBIC are widely used within Linux: for the latter category, the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) is currently on the IETF Standards Track. It is clear that future traffic patterns will consist of a mix of flows from these protocols (and others). So, it is important for users and network operators to be aware of the impact that these protocols may have on users. We show the measurement of fairness in throughput performance of DCCP Congestion Control ID 2 (CCID2) relative to TCP NewReno, and variants Binary Increase Congestion control (BIC), CUBIC and Compound, all in “out-of-the box” configurations. We use a testbed and endto- end measurements to assess overall throughput, and also to assess fairness – how well these protocols might respond to each other when operating over the same end-to-end network path. We find that, in our testbed, DCCP CCID2 shows good fairness with NewReno, while BIC, CUBIC and Compound show unfairness above round-trip times of 25ms.
Provisioning Fairness for Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks
Hamid Abdul
IETE Technical Review , 2010,
Abstract: The well-known many-to-one data routing paradigm in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) demands nonuniform medium access and forwarding strategy to achieve the ultimate node level fairness. Since nodes closer to the sink have more traffic than that of far-away nodes, close-by nodes need to employ different frequencies of medium access and forwarding probability such that the sink receives almost equal number of packets from all the nodes in the network. In this paper, we design a distributed fair data collection protocol where the nodes can decide their medium access and packet forwarding strategies within the WSN such that a fair throughput can be enjoyed by each node irrespective of the node′s distance from the sink. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our solution through simulations and results show that the proposed protocol ensures the fair delivery of packets, improves throughput, and reduces the end-to-end delay for the different WSN scenarios under study.
Cross-Layer TCP Throughput Fairness Optimization for Downlink in Mobile WiMAX
移动WiMAX网络下行链路TCP吞吐量公平性的跨层优化

Song Jian-feng,Li Jian-dong,
宋建锋
,李建东

电子与信息学报 , 2010,
Abstract: A cross-layer TCP fairness optimization model in mobile WiMAX is proposed, under which a TCP protocol, cross-layer TCP, is designed. The rate information from link layer of the mobile nodes and the strategy of preallocation bandwidth for ACK packet at the base station are both used to improve the quality of service of the downlink nodes, which gives throughput fairness to the downlink nodes and the uplink nodes. Experiments show that cross-layer TCP protocol can improve the fairness of the downlink nodes under the same system throughtput.
A Novel Proportional Fairness Criterion for Throughput Allocation in Multirate IEEE 802.11  [PDF]
M. Laddomada,F. Mesiti,M. Mondin,F. Daneshgaran
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: This paper focuses on multirate IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN employing the mandatory Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) option. Its aim is threefold. Upon starting from the multi-dimensional Markovian state transition model proposed by Malone \textit{et.al.} for characterizing the behavior of the IEEE 802.11 protocol at the Medium Access Control layer, it presents an extension accounting for packet transmission failures due to channel errors. Second, it establishes the conditions under which a network constituted by $N$ stations, each station transmitting with its own bit rate, $R^{(s)}_d$, and packet rate, $\lambda_s$, can be assumed loaded. Finally, it proposes a modified Proportional Fairness (PF) criterion, suitable for mitigating the \textit{rate anomaly} problem of multirate loaded IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs, employing the mandatory DCF option. Compared to the widely adopted assumption of saturated network, the proposed fairness criterion can be applied to general loaded networks. The throughput allocation resulting from the proposed algorithm is able to greatly increase the aggregate throughput of the DCF, while ensuring fairness levels among the stations of the same order as the ones guaranteed by the classical PF criterion. Simulation results are presented for some sample scenarios, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed criterion for optimized throughput allocation.
Cross-Layer Design for End-to-End Throughput Maximization and Fairness in MIMO Multihop Wireless Networks  [cached]
Jain-Shing Liu,Chun-Hung Richard Lin,Kuang-Yuan Tung
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/515609
Abstract: MIMO links can significantly improve network throughput by supporting multiple concurrent data streams between a pair of nodes and suppressing wireless interference. In this paper, we study joint rate control, routing, and scheduling in MIMO-based multihop wireless networks, which are traditionally known as transport layer, network layer, and MAC layer issues, respectively. Our aim is to find a rate allocation along with a flow allocation and a transmission schedule for a set of end-to-end communication sessions so as to maximize the network throughput and also to achieve the proportional or weighted fairness among these sessions. To this end, we develop Transmission Mode Generating Algorithms (TMGAs), and Linear Programming- (LP-) and Convex Programming- (CP-) based optimization schemes for the MIMO networks. The performances of the proposed schemes are verified by simulation experiments, and the results show that the different schemes have different performance benefits when achieving a tradeoff between throughput and fairness.
Cross-Layer Design for End-to-End Throughput Maximization and Fairness in MIMO Multihop Wireless Networks  [cached]
Liu Jain-Shing,Richard Lin Chun-Hung,Tung Kuang-Yuan
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2010,
Abstract: MIMO links can significantly improve network throughput by supporting multiple concurrent data streams between a pair of nodes and suppressing wireless interference. In this paper, we study joint rate control, routing, and scheduling in MIMO-based multihop wireless networks, which are traditionally known as transport layer, network layer, and MAC layer issues, respectively. Our aim is to find a rate allocation along with a flow allocation and a transmission schedule for a set of end-to-end communication sessions so as to maximize the network throughput and also to achieve the proportional or weighted fairness among these sessions. To this end, we develop Transmission Mode Generating Algorithms (TMGAs), and Linear Programming- (LP-) and Convex Programming- (CP-) based optimization schemes for the MIMO networks. The performances of the proposed schemes are verified by simulation experiments, and the results show that the different schemes have different performance benefits when achieving a tradeoff between throughput and fairness.
Throughput versus Fairness: Channel-Aware Scheduling in Multiple Antenna Downlink  [cached]
Eduard A. Jorswieck,Aydin Sezgin,Xi Zhang
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/271540
Abstract: Channel aware and opportunistic scheduling algorithms exploit the channel knowledge and fading to increase the average throughput. Alternatively, each user could be served equally in order to maximize fairness. Obviously, there is a tradeoff between average throughput and fairness in the system. In this paper, we study four representative schedulers, namely the maximum throughput scheduler (MTS), the proportional fair scheduler (PFS), the (relative) opportunistic round robin scheduler (ORS), and the round robin scheduler (RRS) for a space-time coded multiple antenna downlink system. The system applies TDMA based scheduling and exploits the multiple antennas in terms of spatial diversity. We show that the average sum rate performance and the average worst-case delay depend strongly on the user distribution within the cell. MTS gains from asymmetrical distributed users whereas the other three schedulers suffer. On the other hand, the average fairness of MTS and PFS decreases with asymmetrical user distribution. The key contribution of this paper is to put these tradeoffs and observations on a solid theoretical basis. Both the PFS and the ORS provide a reasonable performance in terms of throughput and fairness. However, PFS outperforms ORS for symmetrical user distributions, whereas ORS outperforms PFS for asymmetrical user distribution.
Throughput versus Fairness: Channel-Aware Scheduling in Multiple Antenna Downlink  [cached]
Jorswieck EduardA,Sezgin Aydin,Zhang Xi
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2009,
Abstract: Channel aware and opportunistic scheduling algorithms exploit the channel knowledge and fading to increase the average throughput. Alternatively, each user could be served equally in order to maximize fairness. Obviously, there is a tradeoff between average throughput and fairness in the system. In this paper, we study four representative schedulers, namely the maximum throughput scheduler (MTS), the proportional fair scheduler (PFS), the (relative) opportunistic round robin scheduler (ORS), and the round robin scheduler (RRS) for a space-time coded multiple antenna downlink system. The system applies TDMA based scheduling and exploits the multiple antennas in terms of spatial diversity. We show that the average sum rate performance and the average worst-case delay depend strongly on the user distribution within the cell. MTS gains from asymmetrical distributed users whereas the other three schedulers suffer. On the other hand, the average fairness of MTS and PFS decreases with asymmetrical user distribution. The key contribution of this paper is to put these tradeoffs and observations on a solid theoretical basis. Both the PFS and the ORS provide a reasonable performance in terms of throughput and fairness. However, PFS outperforms ORS for symmetrical user distributions, whereas ORS outperforms PFS for asymmetrical user distribution.
Fairness analysis of throughput and delay in WLAN environments with channel diversities  [cached]
Wang Chiapin,Lo Hao-Kai,Fang Shih-Hau
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2011,
Abstract: The article investigates fairness in terms of throughput and packet delays among users with diverse channel conditions due to the mobility and fading effects in IEEE 802.11 WLAN (wireless local area networks) environments. From our analytical results, it is shown that 802.11 CSMA/CA can present fairness among hosts with identical link qualities regardless of equal or different data rates applied. Our analytical results further demonstrate that the presence of diverse channel conditions can pose significant unfairness on both throughput and packet delays even with a link adaptation mechanism since the MCSs (modulation and coding schemes) available are limited. The simulation results validate the accuracy of our analytical model.
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