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Disturbances in Pro-Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance after Passive Body Overheating and after Exercise in Elevated Ambient Temperatures in Athletes and Untrained Men  [PDF]
Wanda Pilch, Zbigniew Szygula, Anna K. Tyka, Tomasz Palka, Aleksander Tyka, Tomasz Cison, Pawel Pilch, Aneta Teleglow
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085320
Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in two series of examinations with two types of stressors (exogenous heat and the combined exogenous and endogenous heat) in trained and untrained men. The exogenous stressor was provided by Finnish sauna session, whereas the combined stressor was represented by the exercise in elevated ambient temperature. The men from the two groups performed the physical exercise on a cycle ergometer with the load of 53±2% maximal oxygen uptake at the temperature of 33±1°C and relative humidity of 70% until their rectal temperature rose by 1.2°C. After a month from completion of the exercise test the subjects participated in a sauna bathing session with the temperature of 96±2°C, and relative humidity of 16±5%. 15-minutes heating and 2-minute cool-down in a shower with the temperature of 20°C was repeated until rectal temperature rose by 1.2°C compared to the initial value. During both series of tests rectal temperature was measured at 5-minute intervals. Before both series of tests and after them body mass was measured and blood samples were taken for biochemical tests. Serum total protein, serum concentration of lipid peroxidation products and serum antioxidants were determined. The athletes were characterized by higher level of antioxidant status and lower concentration of lipid peroxidation products. Physical exercise at elevated ambient temperature caused lower changes in oxidative stress indices compared to sauna bathing. Sauna induced a shift in pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance towards oxidation, which was observed less intensively in the athletes compared to the untrained men. This leads to the conclusion that physical exercise increases tolerance to elevated ambient temperature and oxidative stress.
Oxidant/antioxidant balance in patients with thyroid cancer
Akinci, Melih;Kosova, Funda;?etin, Bahadir;Sepici, Aylin;Altan, Nilgün;Aslan, Sebahattin;?etin, Abdullah;
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-86502008000600013
Abstract: purpose: to compare the antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (sod), glutathione peroxidase (gsh-px) and the levels of lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (mda) in blood samples of thyroid cancer patients compared to healthy controls. methods: 43 control subjects (mean age 44±13 years) and 43 patients (43±13 years) presented with multinodular goiter whose fine needle aspiration revealed malignant cytology were included into this study. the sod, mda and gsh-px activities were measured in control subjects, and before/20 days after thyroidectomy in thyroid cancer patients. results: sod activities of pre-thyroidectomy, post-thyroidectomy and control groups were not different (p>0.05). before thyroidectomy gsh-px activities were lower (p<0.05) and mda levels were higher (p<0.05) than the control group. in post- thyroidectomy, gsh-px activity (p<0.05) increased, and mda levels (p<0.05) decreased compared to prethyroidectomy levels. after thyroidectomy gsh-px activity was significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05). although post-thyroidectomy mda levels significantly decreased, they were still higher than the control group (p<0.05). conclusion: the superoxide dismutase does not seem to change with thyroid cancer and thyroidectomy but both antioxidant glutathione peroxidase and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde do. these preliminary findings may point out oxidant/antioxidant imbalance associated with thyroid cancer.
Pro-Oxidant Antioxidant Balance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  [PDF]
Abbas Esmaelzadeh, Hassan Vosooghinia, Mohammad Reza Sheikhian, Hadi Bagheri Hosseini, Daryoush Hamidi Alamdari, Fatemeh Ahmadi, Maryam Emadzadeh, Seyed Mahdi Pakdaman Shahri
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2016.75035
Abstract: Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with increased morbidity and incident of colon cancer; however its etiology is still unclear. Currently, one of the most probable pathogenesis patterns is increased permeability of bowel membrane and it seems that oxidative stress plays an important role in this pathway. This study was done to assess the pro-oxidant antioxidant balance (PAB) in these patients. Materials: This was a cross sectional study of 2 groups including 50 patients with diagnosed IBD and 50 healthy controls. Patients were selected purposively from those referring to adult gastroenterology clinic in 2013. SPSS (ver11.5) has been. A P value < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: Mean PAB in patients and controls group was 119.98 ± 38.98 HK unite and 52.67 ± 22.80 HK unite, respectively, (P value < 0.001). PAB mean in ulcerative colitis patients was 120.60 ± 33.90 HK unite and in CD patients was 118.20 ± 45.99 HK unite, and showed no significant difference (P value = 0.85). PAB and MDA could detect healthy subjects from IBD patients with sensitivity more that 90% and specificity more than 84%. Conclusion: PAB shifted to pro-oxidants in IBD patients; moreover this shift was unrelated to disease type. These tests could use as screening test.
Protection by ozone preconditioning is mediated by the antioxidant system in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats  [PDF]
Aluet Borrego,Zullyt B. Zamora,Ricardo González,Cheyla Romay,Silvia Menéndez,Frank Hernández,Teresita Montero,Enys Rojas
Mediators of Inflammation , 2004, DOI: 10.1080/09629350410001664806
Abstract: Background: Acute renal failure is a dose-limiting factor of cisplatin chemotherapy. Here, we show the protective effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning against cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction in rats. Ozone oxidative preconditioning is a prophylactic approach, which favors the antioxidant–pro-oxidant balance for preservation of the cell redox state by increasing antioxidant endogenous systems in various in vivo and in vitro experimental models.
Influence of the Administration of a TNF-α Inhibitor on the Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance in Chronic Venous Insufficiency  [cached]
Cristina Maria VAIDA VOEVOD,Remus MOLDOVAN,Nicoleta DECEA,Adriana MURE?AN
Applied Medical Informatics , 2012,
Abstract: Purpose: many studies in experimental models have evidenced the presence of inflammation in venous vascular dysfunction and the implication of TNF-α in vascular pathology, through its prooxidant and proinflammatory effect. Starting from these studies, we experimentally investigated the effect of treatment with a TNF-α inhibitor, etanercept, on the oxidant/antioxidant balance in rats, with the partial obstruction of the common femoral vein. Methods: the researches were carried out in 7 groups of animals (n=10 rats/group), 6 groups undergoing surgery and a control group. In 3 groups, the ligation of the common femoral vein was performed (groups 1, 2, 3), 3 groups underwent the ligation of the common femoral vein and received etanercept (groups 4, 5, 6), in a dose of 1 mg/kg, one dose per week, according to data found in literature. The serum indicators of the O/AO balance were determined: indicators for oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC)), indicators for non-enzymatic AO defense (thiol groups (SH), hydrogen donors (HD ), glutathione (GSH)) at weeks 1, 2 and three. Results and Conclusions: chronic venous insufficiency with and without anti-TNF-α treatment induced changes in the oxidant/antioxidant balance compared to the control group; after the administration of the anti-TNF-α preparation, oxidative stress was maintained on account of MDA that increased significantly, and decreased significantly on account of PC compared to the untreated groups; after the administration of the anti-TNF-α preparation, at two and three weeks there was an insignificant increase in antioxidant defense on account of HD and GSH compared to the untreated groups; the administered anti-TNF-α preparation had late and insignificant effects in chronic venous insufficiency.
The Antioxidant Effects of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape Pomace Extract In Vitro Do Not Correspond In Vivo Using Exercise as an Oxidant Stimulus
Aristidis S. Veskoukis,Antonios Kyparos,Michalis G. Nikolaidis,Dimitrios Stagos,Nektarios Aligiannis,Maria Halabalaki,Konstantinos Chronis,Nikolaos Goutzourelas,Leandros Skaltsounis,Dimitrios Kouretas
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/185867
Abstract: Fruits, such as grapes, are essential food of the Mediterranean diet. Grape extracts have potent antioxidant and chemopreventive properties in vitro. Numerous studies have examined the effects of plant extract administration on redox status at rest in animals and humans but their results are controversial. However, there are no studies comparing the in vitro and in vivo effects of plant extracts on oxidative stress using exercise as an oxidant stimulus. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether a polyphenol-rich grape pomace extract of the Vitis vinifera species possesses in vitro antioxidant properties and to examine whether these properties apply in an in vivo model at rest and during exercise. Our findings indicate that the tested extract exhibits potent in vitro antioxidant properties because it scavenges the DPPH• and ABTS•
Effects of Ozone Oxidative Preconditioning on TNF- Release and Antioxidant-Prooxidant Intracellular Balance in Mice During Endotoxic Shock  [PDF]
Zullyt B. Zamora,Aluet Borrego,Orlay Y. López,René Delgado,Ricardo González,Silvia Menéndez,Frank Hernández,Siegfried Schulz
Mediators of Inflammation , 2005, DOI: 10.1155/mi.2005.16
Abstract: Ozone oxidative preconditioning is a prophylactic approach, which favors the antioxidant-prooxidant balance for preservation of cell redox state by the increase of antioxidant endogenous systems in both in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Our aim is to analyze the effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning on serum TNF-α levels and as a modulator of oxidative stress on hepatic tissue in entodoxic shock model (mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). Ozone/oxygen gaseous mixture which was administered intraperitoneally (0.2, 0.4, and 1.2 mg/kg) once daily for five days before LPS (0.1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). TNF-α was measured by cytotoxicity on L-929 cells. Biochemical parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), enzymatic activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S transferase were measured in hepatic tissue. One hour after LPS injection there was a significant increase in TNF-α levels in mouse serum. Ozone/oxygen gaseous mixture reduced serum TNF-α levels in a dose-dependent manner. Statistically significant decreases in TNF-α levels after LPS injection were observed in mice pretreated with ozone intraperitoneal applications at 0.2 (78%), 0.4 (98%), and 1.2 (99%). Also a significant increase in TBARS content was observed in the hepatic tissue of LPS-treated mice, whereas enzymatic activity of glutathion-S transferase and glutathione peroxidase was decreased. However in ozone-treated animals a significant decrease in TBARS content was appreciated as well as an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. These results indicate that ozone oxidative preconditioning exerts inhibitory effects on TNF-α production and on the other hand it exerts influence on the antioxidant-prooxidant balance for preservation of cell redox state by the increase of endogenous antioxidant systems.
Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance in the Blood of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease After Smoking Cessation  [PDF]
Alina Wo?niak,Dariusz Górecki,Micha? Szpinda,Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska,Bartosz Wo?niak
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/897075
Abstract: The effect of smoking cessation on the oxidative stress in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was assessed. We recruited 73 smokers with COPD (study group), whose blood was analysed before smoking cessation, after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd months of abstinence, 35 healthy nonsmokers (Control I), and 35 smokers with COPD (Control II). Blood was taken once in Control I and 4 times (every month) in Control II. In the study group conjugated dienes (CDs) level in plasma and erythrocytes before smoking cessation was 3 and 6.5 times higher than in Control I, respectively ( ), while thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level was 89% ( ) and 51% higher ( ), respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was 40% higher ( ) while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was 41% lower ( ) than in Control I. In Control II, the similar differences as compared to Control I were observed throughout the study. Smoking cessation resulted in decrease of CDs, TBARS, and SOD and GPx increase, with no changes in catalase and vitamins A and E. COPD is accompanied by oxidative stress. A three-month tobacco abstinence facilitated restoring the oxidant-antioxidant balance systemically, but it did not affect spirometric parameters. 1. Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most frequent chronic respiratory disease. It is currently the 4th most common cause of death in the USA and Europe, after cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and road traffic injuries. In light of the increasing number of smokers in the developing countries, particularly in China, COPD is prognosticated to become the 3rd most common cause of death globally by the year 2020 [1]. The main characteristic of COPD is a progressive, irreversible narrowing (obturation) of the bronchi that obstructs the air passage through the bronchi to the lungs. As a result, the lungs lose their elasticity. The disease has an inflammatory background, which is caused by the inhalation of harmful dust and gases [2]. Apart from inflammatory reactions, the domination of proteinases over antiproteinases [3] and oxidative stress [4] are also important factors in the pathogenesis of COPD. It has been proven that the incidence of COPD is strictly correlated with the addiction to smoking tobacco [1, 5, 6]. Toxic derivatives of the metabolism of oxygen present in tobacco smoke, the so-called reactive oxygen species (ROS), may be the cause of oxidative stress, which may be the background of the development of COPD, as hypothesized by some researchers [7]. Oxidative stress in cells and tissues is
Effect of Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease and Renal Replacement Therapies on Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Uremic Patients  [PDF]
Hadja Fatima Tbahriti,Abbou Kaddous,Malika Bouchenak,Khedidja Mekki
Biochemistry Research International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/358985
Abstract: Oxidative stress seems to be involved in the path physiology of cardiovascular complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we determined the effect of different stages of CKD and substitutive therapies on oxidative stress. One hundred sixty-seven patients (age: years; male/female: 76/91) with CKD were divided into 6 groups according to the National Kidney Foundation classification. Prooxidant status was assessed by assaying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, and protein carbonyls. Antioxidant defence was performed by analysis of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, vitamin E, Iron, and bilirubin. TBARS and LPO were higher in HD patients compared to other groups ( ), while protein carbonyls were more increased in PD patients. The antioxidant enzymes were declined already at severe stage of CKD and they were declined notably in HD patients ( ). Similar observation was found for vitamin E, Fe, and bilirubin where we observed a significant decrease in the majority of study groups, especially in HD patients ( ). The evolution of CKD was associated with elevated OS. HD accentuates lipid, while PD aggravates protein oxidation. However, the activity of antioxidant enzymes was altered by impaired renal function and by both dialysis treatments. 1. Introduction Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) constitute the major risk of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients [1, 2]. Uremic patients have both traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (i.e., old age, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, dyslipidemia, heart failure, and physical inactivity) and nontraditional CV risk factors, including malnutrition, anemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, neuropathy, hyperparathyroidism, and chronic inflammation [3–5]. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT), either hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD), may face a partial loss of some low-molecular-weight plasma factors (i.e., vitamins A, C, and E) [6, 7] that normally contrast inflammation by neutralizing reactive oxygen species (ROS) [8]. Indeed, the latter are increased during the two therapies [9]. The imbalance in antioxidant and pro-oxidant factors generates an oxidative stress (OS) that increases the inflammatory state already present in these patients. In recent years, OS has been postulated to be an important risk factor for CVD [10]. OS results from an imbalance between prooxidant and antioxidant defence and mechanisms with increased levels of prooxidants leading to tissue
Serum Oxidant and Antioxidant Status in Adolescents Undergoing Professional Endurance Sports Training
Tom K. Tong,Hua Lin,Giuseppe Lippi,Jinlei Nie,Ye Tian
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/741239
Abstract: This study evaluated the impact of professional training on serum oxidant and antioxidant status in adolescent endurance athletes and compared it with that of untrained individuals. Firstly, serum thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARSs), xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were measured in 67 male runners, cyclists, and untrained adolescents. Seven-day dietary intakes were also assessed. Secondly, for age- and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 36 out of the 67 subjects (12 for each group) were then selected and investigated. In cyclists, XO, GSH, and CAT were higher as compared with runners and controls. The CAT in runners, but not GSH and XO, was also higher than in controls. TBARS, T-AOC, and SOD did not differ among the study populations. Regarding the inter-individual relationships among serum redox statuses and dietary nutrient intakes, significant correlations were noted in CAT versus carbohydrates, protein, magnesium, and manganese; GSH versus carbohydrates, protein, fat, selenium, zinc, iron, and magnesium; XO versus cholesterol; CAT versus GSH. These findings suggest that the resting blood redox balance in the professional adolescent athletes was well maintained partly by the increase of individual antioxidant in adaptation to chronic exercise.
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