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L-citrulline supplementation reverses the impaired airway relaxation in neonatal rats exposed to hyperoxia  [cached]
Sopi Ramadan B,Zaidi Syed IA,Mladenov Mitko,Sahiti Hazbije
Respiratory Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-13-68
Abstract: Background Hyperoxia is shown to impair airway relaxation via limiting L-arginine bioavailability to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and reducing NO production as a consequence. L-arginine can also be synthesized by L-citrulline recycling. The role of L-citrulline supplementation was investigated in the reversing of hyperoxia-induced impaired relaxation of rat tracheal smooth muscle (TSM). Methods Electrical field stimulation (EFS, 2–20 V)-induced relaxation was measured under in vitro conditions in preconstricted tracheal preparations obtained from 12 day old rat pups exposed to room air or hyperoxia (>95% oxygen) for 7 days supplemented with L-citrulline or saline (in vitro or in vivo). The role of the L-citrulline/L-arginine cycle under basal conditions was studied by incubation of preparations in the presence of argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) inhibitor [α-methyl-D, L-aspartate, 1 mM] or argininosuccinate lyase inhibitor (ASL) succinate (1 mM) and/or NOS inhibitor [Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; 100 μM] with respect to the presence or absence of L-citrulline (2 mM). Results Hyperoxia impaired the EFS-induced relaxation of TSM as compared to room air control (p < 0.001; 0.5 ± 0.1% at 2 V to 50.6 ± 5.7% at 20 V in hyperoxic group: 0.7 ± 0.2 at 2 V to 80.0 ± 5.6% at 20 V in room air group). Inhibition of ASS or ASL, and L-citrulline supplementation did not affect relaxation responses under basal conditions. However, inhibition of NOS significantly reduced relaxation responses (p < 0.001), which were restored to control level by L-citrulline. L-citrulline supplementation in vivo and in vitro also reversed the hyperoxia-impaired relaxation. The differences were significant (p <0.001; 0.8 ± 0.3% at 2 V to 47.1 ± 4.1% at 20 V without L-citrulline; 0.9 ± 0.3% at 2 V to 68.2 ± 4.8% at 20 V with L-citrulline). Inhibition of ASS or ASL prevented this effect of L-citrulline. Conclusion The results indicate the presence of an L-citrulline/L-arginine cycle in the airways of rat pups. L-citrulline recycling does not play a major role under basal conditions in airways, but it has an important role under conditions of substrate limitations to NOS as a source of L-arginine, and L-citrulline supplementation reverses the impaired relaxation of airways under hyperoxic conditions.
Dietary vitamin E supplementation on cholesterol and cholesterol oxides of pig meat and cooked ham
Souza, Vera Lúcia Ferreira de;Silva, Rui Sérgio S. Ferreira da;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132006000300003
Abstract: objective of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin e on the cooked ham. ninety-six pigs (lw x l x p), forty-eight barrows and forty-eight gilts were divided in four randomized blocks. each block received four treatments: a control diet, diets formulated with 100 mg, with 200 mg and with 400 mg of vitamin e/kg diet. the average cholesterol values in cooked ham were 46.53 ± 0.47 mg/100g. however, a reduction of 30% was observed in samples of supplemented diets with 400 mg of vitamin e/kg. during shelf-life of the cooked ham was observed a reduction in the cholesterol levels, with the associated production of cholesterol oxides. the cholesterol oxides observed were: cholesta-4,6-dien-3-one; 20a-hydroxycolesterol; 24-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hidroxycholesterol. supplementation of 200 mg of vitamin e/kg or more maintained the cholesterol oxides values below 10 μg/g during the 116 days before slaughter.
Dietary vitamin E supplementation on cholesterol and cholesterol oxides of pig meat and cooked ham  [cached]
Souza Vera Lúcia Ferreira de,Silva Rui Sérgio S. Ferreira da
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2006,
Abstract: Objective of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin E on the cooked ham. Ninety-six pigs (LW X L X P), forty-eight barrows and forty-eight gilts were divided in four randomized blocks. Each block received four treatments: a control diet, diets formulated with 100 mg, with 200 mg and with 400 mg of vitamin E/kg diet. The average cholesterol values in cooked ham were 46.53 ? 0.47 mg/100g. However, a reduction of 30% was observed in samples of supplemented diets with 400 mg of vitamin E/kg. During shelf-life of the cooked ham was observed a reduction in the cholesterol levels, with the associated production of cholesterol oxides. The cholesterol oxides observed were: cholesta-4,6-dien-3-one; 20alpha-hydroxycolesterol; 24-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hidroxycholesterol. Supplementation of 200 mg of vitamin E/kg or more maintained the cholesterol oxides values below 10 mg/g during the 116 days before slaughter.
The Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum L) Supplementation on Production and Egg Cholesterol Level of Hysex Brown Laying Hens  [cached]
INS Sutama,SA Lindawati
Journal of Animal Production , 2008,
Abstract: This aims of this study was to evaluate the effect of garlic supplementation on production and egg cholesterol level of Hysex Brown laying hens. This study was conducted based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatment of garlic containing 0; 2; 4 and 6% and five replicate. In each replicate, there were four hens aged 38 weeks. The formulation diet of 2.900,01 ME kcal/kg, 16.5% of protein and drinking water were prepared in ad libitum during 4 weeks observation. The result showed that the effect of garlic supplementation 0, 2 and 6% respectively did not show any significant effect toward feed intake, egg production, egg cholesterol, egg weight, egg yolk and drinking water during 4 weeks of observation. It was found that 4% garlic supplementation significantly (P<0.05) reduced on egg cholesterol by 14.23% and did not affect the eggs production. It was concluded that garlic supplementation did not affect egg production, but garlic supplementation 4% decreased egg cholesterol of Hysex Brown laying hens. (Animal Production 10(3): 168-173 (2008)Key Words: Garlic, egg production, egg cholesterol, laying hens
Dietary Forage Legume (Onobrychis altissima grossh.) Supplementation on Serum/Yolk Cholesterol, Triglycerides and Egg Shell Characteristics in Laying Hens  [PDF]
G. Rahimi
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2005,
Abstract: In recent years, the consumer`s desire for healthier foods has increased the demand for animal products containing low cholesterol and enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. In response to the perceived need, poultry researchers have focused on reducing egg yolk cholesterol to satisfy the health conscious of consumers. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary forage legume supplementation on plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, egg yolk cholesterol contents and egg shell characteristics in indigenous laying hens at Mazandaran Native Fowls Breeding Station in north of Iran. A total of 60 laying hens were kept under commercial conditions from 35-45 weeks of age and were fed a commercial isocaloric and isonitrogenous corn-soybean meal diet. Birds were divided randomly into six treatment groups of ten birds each, and fed diets containing 0, 0.75, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% added forage legume for 10 weeks. Ten eggs from each treatment groups were pooled in the last four-day of each period for the egg yolk cholesterol contents and egg shell breaking strength. The blood samples were taken from the wing-vein at the end of each period from all birds of each treatment groups for serum triglyceride and cholesterol contents. The results showed that there were no significant differences in final body weight, egg weight and yolk weight due to different forage legume treatments. Forage legume supplementation to the diet did not significantly affect plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentration, while it has significantly (p<0.05) reduced egg yolk cholesterol concentrations. Egg yolk cholesterol content was reduced from 16.41mg/g yolk in control group to 13.01mg/g yolk in 10% forage legume supplemented diet. Feeding the basal diet supplemented with any of 0, 0.75, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% levels of forage legume had no significant effect on egg breaking strength. The results demonstrate that there is no co-linearity response on plasma cholesterol level and egg yolk cholesterol content to the dietary forage legume supplementation. It can be concluded that the incorporation of forage legume supplementation in layer diets could improve egg quality with no any negative effects on laying hen`s performance.
Changes in cholesterol kinetics following sugar cane policosanol supplementation: a randomized control trial
Amira N Kassis, Peter JH Jones
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-7-17
Abstract: There was no significant change in LDL cholesterol levels as compared to control. In addition, the area under the curve for red cell cholesterol 13C enrichment across 96 hours was not significantly different in the SCP group as compared to control. Similarly, no difference was observed in the fractional rate of cholesterol synthesis over the period of 24 hours between the two treatment groups.The findings of the present study fail to support previous research concerning efficacy and mechanism of action for policosanols.The most commonly used cholesterol-lowering agents contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease through their action on cholesterol metabolism, namely absorption and synthesis [1-3]. Until recently, sugar cane policosanols (SCP) have been extensively researched within a single jurisdiction in Cuba, purporting efficacy in suppressing cholesterol biosynthesis, resulting in up to 30% reductions in plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). SCP supplementation studies have established that its cholesterol-lowering effect, mainly mediated by a decrease in serum LDL-C levels, is due to the inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulation of receptor-mediated LDL uptake by the liver [4-7]. Cholesterol synthesis was assessed in vitro by measuring the enrichment of tritiated water into human fibroblasts [7] and animals in vivo [6]. In these studies, synthesis was seen to decrease as a result of SCP treatment.Unlike statins which inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis by directly affecting the rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, SCP seems to have a different, more complex mechanism of action [5]. In human cultured fibroblasts [5,7] using 14C acetate and 14C mevalonate as tracers, SCP interfered with the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway at a step between acetate and mevalonate production. Since decreased cholesterol biosynthesis is associated with increased LDL-receptor expression in hepatocytes [8,9], SCP effects on serum LDL-C can b
The Hypocholesterolemic and Antioxidative Effect of Dietary Diosgenin and Chromium Chloride Supplementation on High-Cholesterol Fed Japanese Quails  [PDF]
Hisham Y. Al-Matubsi,Nagham A. Nasrat,Ghaleb A. Oriquat,Mahmoud Abu-Samak
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The current study investigated the effect of natural diosgenin extracted from fenugreek seeds, in comparison with the pure standard diosgenin, plus chromium chloride (CrCl3) supplementation on high-cholesterol fed Japanese quails. Quails were randomly divided into four groups. Group one (n = 25) fed experimental diet only (control; contained basal diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol), group 2 (n = 20) fed experimental diet supplemented with CrCl3 only (400 g kg-1 of body weight), groups 3 and 4 (n = 30 per group) were fed experimental diet supplemented with either 0.5% (w/w) of extracted diosgenin plus CrCl3 or pure standard diosgenin (0.5%) plus CrCl3 respectively, for 12 days. Blood samples were collected at days 0 and 12 for measuring levels of lipid profile. The work was carried out at Applied Science University and Amman University, Amman, Jordan during the period from October 2009 through October 2010. The mean levels of total cholesterol (TC) in control quails at d12 was significantly (p<0.01) increased compare to those at d0. Supplementation of diet with CrCl3 alone or CrCl3 with diosgenin either extracted or pure standard for 12 days showed a significant (p<0.01) decrease in TC and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels as compared to those in the control quails. While, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased significantly (p<0.01) in quails supplemented with diosgenin and CrCl3. At d12, the mean Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activities in erythrocytes of quails in all supplemented groups was significantly (p<0.01) increased as compared to those in control group and was more pronounced in erythrocytes of quails supplemented with pure standard diosgenin plus CrCl3. These results indicated that the combined diosgenin and CrCl3 supplementation to high-cholesterol fed quails might induce a protective effect by both regulating lipid and antioxidative damage.
The levels of plasma low density lipoprotein are independent of cholesterol ester transfer protein in fish-oil fed F1B hamsters
Pujitha P de Silva, Alka Agarwal-Mawal, Phillip J Davis, Sukhinder Cheema
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-2-8
Abstract: We found that fish oil feeding in hamsters reduced CETP mass as well as CETP activity. Increasing the dietary fat level of fish-oil from 5% to 20% (w/w) led to a further decrease in CETP mass. Supplementation with dietary cholesterol increased both CETP mass and CETP activity in fish-oil and MIX-diet fed hamsters. However, there was no correlation between CETP mass as well as CETP activity and LDL-cholesterol concentrations.These findings suggest that cholesterol ester transfer between HDL and LDL is not likely to play a major role in determining fish-oil-induced changes in LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations in F1B hamsters. A possible role of reduced clearance of LDL-particles as well as dietary fat level and dietary cholesterol dependent changes in LDL-lipid composition have been discussed.Fish oil, rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), is considered beneficial in lowering the risk of coronary heart disease [1,2]. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA are mainly due to reduction in plasma triacylglycerol and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels [3,4]. However, the effect of fish oil on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentration is inconsistent [5]. High levels of LDL are strong predictors of coronary heart disease. Normolipidaemic subjects show reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations following intake of fish oil diet [6,7], however, fish oil supplementation to hyperlipidaemic subjects causes an increase in LDL-cholesterol concentrations [8,9]. The fish-oil-induced increase in LDL-cholesterol concentration is also observed in animal studies [10].One of the factors that determine LDL concentrations is reverse cholesterol transport pathway, which removes cholesterol from peripheral tissues and returns to the liver. Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) plays a major role in this pathway to transfer cholesterol esters from high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to VLDL and LDL, in exchange for triacylglycerols [11,12]. Thus, incr
Dietary red palm oil supplementation decreases infarct size in cholesterol fed rats
Gergo Szucs, Dirk J Bester, Krisztina Kupai, Tamas Csont, Csaba Csonka, Adriaan J Esterhuyse, Peter Ferdinandy, Jacques Van Rooyen
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-10-103
Abstract: Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard rat chow diet (Norm) or a 2% cholesterol-enriched diet (Chol) for nine weeks. Additionally, two more groups received the same treatment, however, at the week 4, diet was supplemented with RPO for the last five weeks (Norm+RPO and Chol+RPO), respectively. After the feeding period hearts were isolated, perfused according to Langendorff and subjected to 30 minutes of normothermic global ischaemia followed by two hours of reperfusion. Infarct size was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining at the end of reperfusion.Cholesterol-enriched diet increased myocardial infarct size from 23.5 ± 3.0% to 37.2 ± 3.6% (p < 0.05) when compared to normal diet. RPO supplementation significantly reduced infarct size either in Norm+RPO or in Chol+RPO (to 9.2 ± 1.0% and 26.9 ± 3.0%), respectively. Infarct size in Chol+RPO was comparable to the Norm group. MMP2 activity before ischaemia was significantly reduced in the Chol+RPO group when compared to the Chol group. However, the MMP2 activity of the hearts of the RPO fed rats was significantly increased when compared to the normal diet group after ischaemia.For the first time it was shown that dietary RPO supplementation attenuated the increased susceptibility of the hearts in cholesterol fed rats to ischaemia/reperfusion injury. This was shown by reduced infarct size. For the first time we also show that red palm oil supplementation altered pre-ischaemic levels of MMP-2, which may indicate that myocardial MMP2 may be implicated as a possible role player in RPO mediated protection against ischaemia/reperfusion injury in hearts of cholesterol supplemented rats.Many cardiovascular ischaemia/reperfusion injury studies use healthy rats for their research protocols. In clinical conditions, unhealthy diets and lifestyle are normally associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction [1]. Previous studies using healthy animals contributed to elucidating certain mechanisms of cardi
Effects of Isoflavones Supplementation on Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Levels of Muscle and Liver Tissues of Quail
Okkes Yilmaz,Mehmet Guvenc,Buket Cetintas,Mehmet Tuzcu,Alpaslan Dayangac,Kazim Sahin
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Dietary soy isoflavones reduce hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase and Delta six desaturase activities and isoflavone metabolites from diet may act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. Since, dietary intake of soy isoflavones has been associated with reduced lipid perxidation, we investigated the effects of soy isoflavone supplementation on the cholesterol and fatty acid levels of muscle and liver tissue in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). One hundred and twenty quail (5 month old) were assigned to three experimental groups consisting of 10 birds in each group. Birds were fed either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 200 or 800 mg of soy isoflavones/kg of diet. The animals were sacrificed after 10 month and the tissue samples werecollecetd and analyzed in HPLC and GC equipments. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition, palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1, n-9), oleic acid (18:1, n-9), linoleic (18:2, n-6) and linolenic acids (18:3, n-3) increased (p<0.001), whereas, stearic acid (18:0) (p<0.001) eicosatrienoic (20:3, n-6), arachidonic (20:4, n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acids (20:5, n-3) docosahexaenoic acid level (226, n-3) concentrations decreased with soy isoflavone supplementation. Liver and muscle cholesterol concentrations decreased decreased with soy isoflavone supplementation (p<0.001). As a result, administration of isoflavones was seen to elevate the amount of monounsaturated fatty acids in both muscle and liver tissues, while, reducing the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This suggests that isoflavones influence the liver enzymes taking part in the lipid metabolism.
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