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Neuromuscular adaptations to strength and concurrent training in elderly men. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p483
Eduardo Lusa Cadore,Ronei Silveira Pinto,Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2012,
Abstract: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p483This paper aimed to review the results of studies on neuromuscular adaptations to strength training (ST) and concurrent training (CT) in elderly men. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, and SciELO. The search was limited to studies published from 1980 to 2012. A total of 3,390 articles were retrieved. After reading their titles, 127 studies were further evaluated by reading their abstracts. This resulted in 92 papers that were read in full; 25 of these were selected and their results were described in the present review. Several studies showed that, in elderly subjects, ST can produce increases in muscle strength, power, activation and mass. ST-induced strength gain may be explained by neural and morphological adaptations. The main neural adaptations to ST included increased recruitment of motor units and increased motor unit firing rate. Morphological adaptations included increases in the physiological cross-sectional area (CSA) of the muscle, in muscle thickness, in muscle fiber pennation angle, and changes in muscle myosin heavy-chain isoforms, resulting in the conversion of muscle fiber from subtype IIx to IIa. The inclusion of moderate-to-high inten- sity (60-85% of maximum strength) ST in the routine of this population is recommended to improve neuromuscular function. CT can promote significant neuromuscular adaptations, but these gains may be of a lower magnitude than those obtained with ST. Although CT has an interference effect on neuromuscular adaptations, it also promotes improvement in cardiovascular function and is therefore the most frequently recommended intervention for health promotion in the elderly.
Prevalence of low physical activity level among preschool children. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p390
Simone Storino Honda Barros,Adair Silva Lopes,Mauro Virgilio Gomes Barros
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2012,
Abstract: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p390Physical activity (PA) in children has a decisive role in motor development and prevention of childhood obesity. The available evidence suggests that there is high preva-lence of low levels of PA in children, but little is known about the level of PA in preschool children. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and the factors associated with low levels of PA in preschool children. This was a cross-sectional study performed in private schools in the municipality of Olinda (state of Pernambuco), with data collection through parent’s face-to-face interviews. The study included 265 children (54.3% girls) with mean age of 4.9 years (SD=0.8). Children who did not perform at least 60 minutes/day of outdoors physical activities were considered exposed to low levels of PA. Data analysis was performed by logistic regression considering low level of PA as the outcome. The results showed that 65.3% (95%CI: 9.4-70.8) of children were classified as exposed to ‘low level of PA’. Analysis showed that higher parental education (OR=2.41; 95%CI: 1.13-5.10), lack of space for playing at home (OR=2.36; 95%CI: 1.17- 4.78), and attending school in the afternoon (OR=2.92, 95%CI 1.55-5.49) or full-time (OR=57.1, 95%CI 6.57-496.2) were associated with low levels of PA. Preschoolers from families with higher number of children had lower likelihood of low level of PA (OR=0.49; 95%CI 0.26-0.93). It can be concluded that the proportion of children exposed to low levels of PA is high compared to the results of similar studies and that parental and environmental factors are associated with physical activity level in preschool-aged children.
Judging criteria in international professional surfing championships. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p439
Rosemeri Peir?o,Saray Giovana dos Santos
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2012,
Abstract: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p439This study investigated the association between judges’ scores and the varia-bles that represent judging criteria of surfing events. A total of 164 waves ridden by 21 international surfers were recorded and analyzed in two stages of the Brazilian ASP World Tour (2007 and 2010). The following tests were used for descriptive analysis of data: the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the Student t test, one-way ANOVA, the Tukey post-hoc test and Pearson correlation analysis (p≤0.05). Significant differences were found between the scores of waves with bad, average and exceptional take-offs (p≤0.05) and with controlled exit, fall in the main section of the wave (MSW) and after the MSW (p≤0.001). There was a significant correlation (p≤0.05) between wave scores and the following variables: frequency of imbalance in the maneuvers (r=-0.30), percentage of maneuvers in the critical section of the wave (r=0.68), variety of maneuvers (r=0.62), frequency of carving (r=0.51), re-entry (r=0.43), floater (r=0.23) and cut-back (r=0.27) maneuvers, length of ride (r=0.76) and total frequency of maneuvers (r=0.79) for the ASP World Tour 2007; percentage of maneuvers in the critical section of the wave (r=0.34), variety of maneuvers (r=0.70), frequency of carving (r=0.46), re-entry (r=0.51), cut-back (r=0.30) and aerial maneuvers (r=0.30), length of ride (r=0.71) and total frequency of maneuvers (r=0.75) for the ASP World Tour 2010. The results showed that all surfing criteria used by judges in this study correlated significantly with scores in the ASP World Tour 2007 and 2010, except for frequency of imbalances in the second competition.
Developmental assessment and performance analysis of vertical jump in schoolchildren. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p460
Pedro Paulo Depra,Dalker Roberto Walter
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2012,
Abstract: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p460The vertical jump involves different levels of skill complexity and offers the individual a wide range of motor experiences. This study aimed to determine which movements in the developmental sequence performed by schoolchildren are associated with age and vertical jump performance. The sample consisted of 137 elementary school children of both sexes, aged 7-10y, with height of 1.19-1.63 m, and weight of 20-60 kg. All children were selected from first- to fourth-grade classrooms of a public school of the city of Maringá, state of Pa- raná, Brazil. A Gallahue & Ozmun matrix and a jumping platform were used as research instruments. During the experiment, each child performed three jumps. Simultaneous and coordinated upward arm lift was observed in 7-year-old children. In 9-year-old children, inconsistent preparatory crouch and lack of coordination between limb movements and trunk were observed. A prevalence of upper limb motor acts was observed when considering the significant associations found between elements of the developmental sequence and vertical jump performance. In children aged 7-10y, age group and jumping performance are associated with elements of the developmental sequence of the human body as a whole, especially with regard to the upper limbs.
Reproducibility of auscultatory blood pressure measurement during resistance exercise. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p450
Danyele Moura de Andrade,Annelise Lins Meneses,Tarciso Rogério Medeiros de Almeida,Alessandra de Souza Miranda
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2012,
Abstract: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p450The auscultatory method has been suggested as a viable option for blood pressure (BP) measurement during resistance exercise. However, indicators of reproducibility of this method during resistance exercise have not been established. This study aimed to analyze intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility of auscultatory BP measurements obtained du-ring resistance exercise. Fourteen subjects (24 ± 5 years; 22.0 ± 2.4 kg/m2; systolic BP, 116 ± 7 mmHg; diastolic BP, 75 ± 4 mmHg) performed three sets of 15 repetitions of the knee extension exercise at 50% of their 1-repetition maximum at two different time points (T1 and T2). Before and during exercise, systolic and diastolic BP were measured simultaneously in both arms by two examiners. The intra-examiner intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for systolic BP was 0.75 (0.57-0.86) and 0.76 (0.59-0.87) for examiners 1 and 2, respectively. In addition, systolic BP values were similar at T1 and T2 both for examiner 1 (144 ± 9 vs. 146 ± 18, p = 0.08) and examiner 2 (152 ± 9 vs. 153 ± 12, p = 0.32). Inter-examiner ICC was 0.68 (0.46-0.82) for systolic BP and 0.21 (0.11-0.50) for diastolic BP. It can be conclu-ded that auscultatory systolic BP measurement during resistance exercise shows intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility ranging from 0.68 to 0.76, whereas diastolic BP measurement during resistance exercise shows low reproducibility.
Clinical procedures used for the analysis of body composition. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n1p113
Dartagnan Pinto Guedes
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2013,
Abstract: According to the requirement for precision, accuracy and validation of information to be treated, clinical procedures can be characterized as an acceptable and accessible option for the analysis of components associated with body composition. The techniques with clinical features more commonly used are bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry by skinfold thickness. However, despite the greater feasibility in the face of laboratory procedures, clinical procedures have limitations and specifications regarding the use of their protocols, which should necessarily be considered when they are used. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical analysis about the use of bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry and explain the importance of carrying out well defined application standards to ensure more appropriate body composition estimation.
Especific evaluation in judo: a review of methods. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n6p738
Daniele Detanico,Saray Giovana dos Santos
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the judo specific tests present in the lit-erature, including the variables obtained from these and their use as performance markers in judo matches. To develop of this study we considered original articles indexed from 1990 to 2011, using electronic data bases Scopus , SciELO , ScienceDirect (Elsevier) and PubMed . The keywords used for research were: judo, performance, aptitude tests and their combinations. After analyzing the articles deemed eligible, we elected four tests (studies) that considered all criteria: a) Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT), b) endurance test of Azevedo et al. (2007), c) Uchikomi Fitness Test - UFT and d) Santos Test. All tests have the judo motor skills for the identification of physiological variables, however, its use depends of the researcher’s purpose. The SJFT can be used for the identification of anaerobic and aerobic capacity as well as being able to induce glycolytic and aerobic demand similar in the judo match. The Azevedo et al. endurance test needs a validation process based in the gold-standard to maximal lactate steady state to be a reliable tool in the obtain the aerobic capacity. The UFT and the Santos Test reproduce some judo match characteristics, but still need more original studies to be considered as performance markers.
Individual and environmental factors associated with park and plaza use in adults from Curitiba, Brazil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p377
Rogério César Fermino,Rodrigo Siqueira Reis,Ana Carina Cassou
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2012,
Abstract: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p377The aim of this study was to identify individual and environmental factors associated with park and plaza use in adults from Curitiba, state of Paraná, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 with 749 participants (59.9% men) selected in areas for physical activity (PA) in four parks and four plazas. Poisson regression was used to examine the associations of sociodemographic (sex, age, education) and health (body mass index, perceived health) variables, company for park/plaza use, access (perception of distance, access and commuting to the places), and leisure time PA (walking and moderate/ vigorous PA - MVPA) with frequent use of parks and plazas (≥1 time/wk). The percentage of park and plaza use was 68%, and company (PR: 0.74; CI95%: 0.62-0.89) and higher levels of walking (PR: 1.30; CI95%: 1.03-1.64) and MVPA (PR: 1.39, CI95%: 1.07-1.80) were asso-ciated with the use of the places. These results can be used to guide interventions aimed at providing services and facilities for PA practice in parks and plazas.
Noncircular chainrings and pedal to crank interface in cycling: a literature review. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p470
Rodrigo Rico Bini,Frederico Dagnese
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2012,
Abstract: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p470Noncircular chainrings and novel pedal to crank interfaces have been designed to optimize variables related to cycling performance (e.g. peak crank torque and efficiency), with conflicting results in terms of performance. Therefore, the aim of the present article was to review the theoretical background of noncircular chainrings and novel pedal to crank interfaces and their effects on biomechanical, physiological and performance variables. Reducing internal work, crank peak torque, and time spent at the top and bottom dead centres (12 o’clock and 6 o’clock positions, respectively) were among the various targets of noncircular chainrings and novel pedal to crank interface design. Changes in joint kinematics without effects on muscle activation were observed when cyclists were assessed using noncircular chainrings and novel pedal to crank interfaces. Conflicting results for economy/efficiency explain the unclear effects of noncircular chainrings on cycling performance and the positive effects of some novel pedal to crank interfaces on cycling economy/efficiency.
Physical growth and nutritional status of schoolchildren from Valley of the Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Brazil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p363
Dartagnan Pinto Guedes,Ricardo Rodrigues Mendes
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2012,
Abstract: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p363The study analyzed physical growth and nutritional status in a representative sample of schoolchildren from the Jequitinhonha Valley region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 5100 subjects (2730 girls and 2370 boys) aged 6 to 18 years were included in the study. Nutritional status of the under-10 group was assessed by z < -2 for weight-for-height and height-for-age (undernutrition) and by z > +2 for weight-for-height (overweight). For children over 10, the 5th and 85th percentiles of weight for age were used to assess underweight and overweight respectively, according to World Health Organization recommendations. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria were also calculated. The data showed a prevalence of undernutrition below the expected level for the reference population (girls, 1.2%; boys, 3.9%). The prevalence of overweight was approximately 13% for girls and 6% for boys, and obesity was 2% for both sexes. In short, the results indicated a low prevalence of undernutrition and a high prevalence of overnutrition. This shows an urgent need for implementation of educational intervention programs geared to the improvement of physical activity and appropriate dietary habits in this population.
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