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Meta-analysis of the prevalence of physical inactivity among Brazilian adolescents
Barufaldi, Laura Augusta;Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo;Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire;Bloch, Katia Vergetti;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2012000600002
Abstract: a systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to investigate the prevalence of physical inactivity among adolescents in brazil. we identified articles that had been published up to august 2010 and the search was conducted using six electronic databases. we did not enforce any search limitations. forest plot-type graphs were generated using the prevalence of physical inactivity stratified by region and sex. meta-regression models were fitted to identify possible sources of heterogeneity in the prevalence estimates. of the 1,496 articles initially identified, 37 were deemed appropriate for the systematic review. prevalence rates ranged from 2% to 80% for male and from 14% to 91% for female subgroups. the lowest prevalence rates of physical inactivity were found to be for the southern region, whereas the highest rates were observed in the north-northeast. the methods employed to evaluate physical inactivity in brazilian adolescents also differed among the studies. this variation demonstrates the need for standardised and validated methods of measuring physical activity in epidemiological investigation.
Prevalence and correlates of physical activity among adolescents from Southern Brazil
Dumith,Samuel C; Domingues,Marlos R; Gigante,Denise P; Hallal,Pedro C; Menezes,Ana M B; Kohl,Harold W;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102010000300009
Abstract: objective: to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of physical activity among adolescents. methods: cross-sectional study nested within a cohort of 4,325 subjects from the city of pelotas, southern brazil, aged 14-15 years in 2008. physical activity was analyzed using three different approaches: (1) prevalence of any leisure-time physical activity; (2) prevalence of any active commuting to school; and (3) prevalence of engaging in at least 300 minutes per week of both (1) and (2) combined. independent variables included sociodemographic, behavioral, social, and biological characteristics, and number of different leisure-time physical activites practiced. statistical analyses were carried out using poisson regression. results: the proportion of adolescents involved in any type of leisure-time physical activity was 75.6%, while 73.4% displayed some form of active commuting to school. prevalence of total physical activity score (> 300 min/week) was 48.2%, being greater among boys (62.6%) than among girls (34.5%). furthermore, prevalence increased along with the number of physical activity modalities practiced (p<0.001). factors associated with greater physical activity (leisure + commuting) at the recommended levels were: nonwhite skin color, having failed at school, and playing videogames. lower socioeconomic status, more time spent on the computer, and parental physical activity were associated with the outcome only among girls. conclusions: less than half the adolescents reached recommended levels of physical activity, and this proportion tended to decrease among subjects with higher socioeconomic level. associated factors were different for leisure-time and commuting. engaging in a wide variety of physical activities should be encouraged already during childhood.
High Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Insufficient Case Detection in Two Communities in the Western Cape, South Africa  [PDF]
Mareli Claassens, Cari van Schalkwyk, Leonie den Haan, Sian Floyd, Rory Dunbar, Paul van Helden, Peter Godfrey-Faussett, Helen Ayles, Martien Borgdorff, Donald Enarson, Nulda Beyers
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058689
Abstract: Background In South Africa the estimated incidence of all forms of tuberculosis (TB) for 2008 was 960/100000. It was reported that all South Africans lived in districts with Directly Observed Therapy, Short-course. However, the 2011 WHO report indicated South Africa as the only country in the world where the TB incidence is still rising. Aims To report the results of a TB prevalence survey and to determine the speed of TB case detection in the study communities. Methods In 2005 a TB prevalence survey was done to inform the sample size calculation for the ZAMSTAR (Zambia South Africa TB and AIDS Reduction) trial. It was a cluster survey with clustering by enumeration area; all households were visited within enumeration areas and informed consent obtained from eligible adults. A questionnaire was completed and a sputum sample collected from each adult. Samples were inoculated on both liquid mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT) and L?wenstein-Jensen media. A follow-up HIV prevalence survey was done in 2007. Results In Community A, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 32/1000 (95%CI 25–41/1000) and of smear positive TB 8/1000 (95%CI 5–13/1000). In Community B, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 24/1000 (95%CI 17–32/1000) and of smear positive TB 9/1000 (95%CI 6–15/1000). In Community A the patient diagnostic rate was 0.38/person-year while in community B it was 0.30/person-year. In both communities the adjusted HIV prevalence was 25% (19–30%). Discussion In both communities a higher TB prevalence than national estimates and a low patient diagnostic rate was calculated, suggesting that cases are not detected at a sufficient rate to interrupt transmission. These findings may contribute to the rising TB incidence in South Africa. The TB epidemic should therefore be addressed rapidly and effectively, especially in the presence of the concurrently high HIV prevalence.
Prevalence and Predictors of Depression among Adolescents in Ido Ekiti, South West Nigeria  [PDF]
K. O. Oderinde, M. U. Dada, O. C. Ogun, N. S. Awunor, N. S. Awunor, H. K. Ahmed, A. B. Tsuung, S. T. Tanko, A. A. Yusuff
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2018.93017
Abstract: Background: Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a public health problem all over the world. In Nigeria, as in most developing countries, there is a need for more research on the epidemiology of adolescent depression as this will guide prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Objectives: The study sought to determine the one month prevalence and predictors of depression among a sample of in-school adolescents in a rural region in South West Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional descriptive survey among 540 secondary school students randomly selected from the six secondary schools in the study area using a Socio demographic Questionnaire and the Patient Health Questionnaire modified for Adolescents. Subsequently, a proportion of them were interviewed with the Kiddies Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Results: Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 17. Respondents were aged 10 - 19 years (mean age was 14.07 ± 1.84). The one month prevalence of depression among the study population was 16.3% (using weighting method). Logistic regression analysis showed that death of a mother (OR = 11.786, 95% CI, 1.990 - 23.184), being from a polygamous family (OR = 5.781, 95% CI, 3.253 - 24.371), low socioeconomic class (OR = 6.222, 95% CI, 4.705 - 23.379), having a single parent (OR = 2.236, 95% CI, 0.869 - 11.786), having witnessed frequent violence (OR = 12.411, 95% CI, 0.516 - 29.851) and positive history of sexual abuse (OR = 0.203, 95% CI, 0.003 - 0.529) were significantly and independently associated with depression in this sample of adolescents. Conclusion: The one month prevalence of adolescent depression within the study population is slightly higher than what has been reported in other parts of the world. Therefore, there is a need for government to design and implement policies which can help to prevent, detect early, and treat depression among youths especially in rural areas.
Prevalence of exercise and non-exercise physical activity in Chinese adolescents
Kwok-Kei Mak, Sai-Yin Ho, Wing-Sze Lo, Alison M McManus, Tai-Hing Lam
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-3
Abstract: Adolescent obesity is prevalent and physical inactivity is a major risk factor [1]. Current recommendation is for adolescents to perform at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily [2]. However, time constraints [3] and lack of sports facilities [4] are known barriers for meeting this recommendation. Among UK secondary school students, MVPA took place mainly out of school rather than in school [5]. In Hong Kong, mainstream secondary schools have fairly uniform lesson schedules with physical education offered in two 40-minute lessons per week. Previous work in mainstream primary schools in Hong Kong has shown MVPA within the school day is negligible [6]. We therefore could assume that similar to the UK, after-school recreation activities would be the main contributor of the daily inter- and intra-individual variance in exercise levels in Hong Kong adolescents. Unlike exercise, non-exercise physical activities (NEPA) are mainly low intensity non-volitional activities such as walking, which are embedded into much of daily life abrogating the need for extra time or special facility [7].Epidemiological studies have shown that low-intensity physical activity plays an important role in metabolic and cardiovascular health [8,9]. Indeed low-intensity exercise has been found to improve glucose profile [10] and is the most appropriate intensity for maximizing fat oxidation [11]. Evidence is also available to show that it is the low-intensity incidental activity, rather than the planned moderate- or vigorous-intensity activity, that distinguishes the lean from the obese [12]. Since little is known about NEPA among adolescents, we investigated the prevalence of exercise and NEPA among Chinese adolescents.The Hong Kong Student Obesity Surveillance (HKSOS) project was conducted in 2006-2007 among 32,005 adolescents (44.6% boys) aged 13-18 (mean = 14.9) years from 42 schools, representing mainstream secondary schools in district, funding source, mixed
The Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking and Knowledge of Its Health Implications among Adolescents in Owerri, South-Eastern Nigeria  [PDF]
Chikere Ifeanyi Casmir Ebirim, Agwu Nkwa Amadi, Okwuoma Chi Abanobi, Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.612188
Abstract: Despite the growing problem of global cigarette use, accurate information on the prevalence and pattern in Nigerian adolescents’ remains sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking among in-school male adolescents in Nigerian population and to assess their level of knowledge on the health effects of cigarette smoking. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 944 randomly selected in-school male adolescents in Owerri, south-east Nigeria, between September and November 2013. Information was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. The findings indicated a prevalence of 15.3% for ever smoked adolescents and 11.2% for current smokers. The mean age at cigarette smoking initiation was 14 years. Sixty-three percent had good knowledge of health problems associated with cigarette smoking. Lung cancer was the most reported associated health problem. Fifty-two (36.1%) indicated that they were initiated by their friends who offered them their first stick of cigarette. The major reason for smoking cigarette the first time was to be like their friends/role model and out of curiosity. Poor knowledge of health effects of smoking was statistically associated with cigarette smoking (X2 = 26.82, p-value < 0.001). Knowledge of health problems associated with smoking proved to be the major reason for not smoking by never smoked adolescents, which means that awareness creation on health problems associated with cigarette smoking through health education in schools coupled with stiff legislative ban on sale of cigarette to adolescents will, to a reasonable extent, reduce the high prevalence of adolescent cigarette smoking in our society.
Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Prevalence of Overweight/Obesity among Adolescents in a Creative, Problem-Solving Program  [PDF]
Jill M. Maples, Eugene C. Fitzhugh, Carol A. Costello, Naima Moustaid-Moussa, David R. Basset, Marsha L. Spence, Betty P. Greer
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.34079
Abstract: Certain dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors have been studied extensively and consistently have been found to be associated with childhood overweight and obesity Productive sedentary-to-light activity pursuits may enhance the relationship among positive health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a population of adolescents participating in a creative, problem-solving afterschool program and to identify the physical activity, sedentary, and dietary behaviors related to overweight and obesity in this group. This study describes health behaviors thought to be related to weight status for 1679 adolescents in grades 6 12 participating in a competitive, creative, team-oriented, problem-solving afterschool program. Self-reported dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behavior data were collected in this convenience sample based on the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Measured height and weight data were collected to calculate BMI percentile. Using multinomial regression, models were constructed to predict the likelihood of being classified as overweight/obese. The prevalence of overweight in the study population was 15.6%, obese was 11.4%. Fruit/vegetable intake, milk consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, television time, and total screen time were all independently associated with weight status. After controlling for all covariates, male gender, minority racial/ethnic status, and high screen time while not meeting the physical activity recommendation significantly increased the likelihood of overweight/obesity. The participants in the current study are leaner and engage in healthier behaviors compared to national data for adolescents. The interactive variable combining both sedentary and PA measures is a relatively new technique used to provide a better understanding of the relationship between sedentary and physical activity behaviors as they relate to weight status. Even among healthy eating, physically active, low-risk adolescents, the interactive variable of physical activity and screen time strongly was associated with weight status.
Prevalence and correlates of physical fighting among school-going adolescents in Santiago, Chile
Rudatsikira, Emmanuel;Muula, Adamson S;Siziya, Seter;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462008000300004
Abstract: objective: there is a growing interest in injury as a public health issue across the world. there is paucity of data on the prevalence and social correlates of non-fatal interpersonal violence in low- and middle-income income nations. the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of, and associated factors for physical fighting among school-going adolescents in santiago, chile. method: we conducted a secondary analysis of the chilean global school-based health survey conducted in 2004 in santiago. we aimed to assess the prevalence and social correlates of having been involved in a physical fight in the prior 12 months. results: of the 2111 respondents, 40.7% (54.3% males and 26.6% females) reported having been in a physical fight in the prior 12 months. males were more likely to have been in a physical fight than females [or = 3.89, 95% ci (3.11, 4.85)]. substance use (cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, and using drugs) and bullying victimization were positively associated with fighting [or = 3.05, 95% ci (2.40, 3.87) for substance use, and or = 1.65, 95% ci (1.32, 2.05) for bullying]. parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting [or = 0.62, 95% ci (0.50, 0.78)]. conclusion: we have estimated the prevalence of having engaged in a physical fight among in-school adolescents in santiago, chile. we have found that the prevalence is similar to what has been reported in diverse settings in africa, europe and north america.
Prevalence and associated factors of physical fighting among school-going adolescents in Namibia
Emmanuel Rudatsikira, Seter Siziya, Lawrence N Kazembe, Adamson S Muula
Annals of General Psychiatry , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1744-859x-6-18
Abstract: We analysed cross-sectional data from the Namibia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in 2004. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of physical fighting within the last 12 months. We obtained frequencies of socio-demographic attributes. We also assessed the association between self-reported history of having engaging in a physical fight and a selected list of independent variables using logistic regression analysis.Of the 6283 respondents, 50.6% (55.2% males and 46.2% females) reported having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months. Males were more likely to have been in a physical fight than females (OR = 1.71, 95% CI (1.44, 2.05)). Smoking, drinking alcohol, using drugs and bullying victimization were positively associated with fighting (OR = 1.91, 95% CI (1.49, 2.45); OR = 1.48, 95% CI (1.21, 1.81); OR = 1.55, 95% CI (1.22, 1.81); and OR = 3.12, 95% CI (2.62, 3.72), respectively). Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting (OR = 0.82, 95% CI (0.69, 0.98)). Both male and female substance users (cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug use) were more likely to engage in physical fighting than non-substance users (OR = 3.53, 95% CI (2.60, 4.81) for males and OR = 11.01, 95% CI (7.25, 16.73) for females). Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting (OR = 0.85, 95% CI (0.72, 0.99)).Prevalence of physical fighting within the last 12 months was comparable to estimates obtained in European countries. We also found clustering of problem behaviours or experiences among adolescents who reported having engaged in physical violence in the past 12 months. There is a need to bring adolescent violent behaviour to the fore of the public health agenda in Namibia.Interpersonal violence is an important global health problem. Physical fighting is one manifestation of interpersonal violence among adolescents [1]. In some countries, it is estimated that the economic burden of interpers
Wi-Young So,Dong-Jun Sung,Brenda Swearingin,Seong-Ik Baek
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the prevalence of obesity among Korean adolescents and to determine the relationship of obesity prevalence with weekly frequency of physical education (PE) classes. In 2009, 72,399 students from grades 7 to 12 participated in the fifth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) project. Body mass index (BMI) and the frequency of PE classes attended were assessed by the KYRBWS- V. BMI was computed to classify the participants as underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. The association between the frequency of PE classes and BMI were examined using one-way ANOVA and logistic regression analysis. The differences in the weekly frequency of PE classes and the BMI values among both the boys and girls were significant (p < 0.001). A post-hoc test showed that underweight boys and girls attended the PE classes more frequently (p < 0.001), and overweight girls attended these classes less frequently (p < 0.01) than the other groups did; moreover, obese boys and girls, compared to boys and girls in the other groups, attended less number of PE classes per week while at school (p < 0.05). Besides, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval, CI) for normal-weight vs. underweight boys attending 1 PE class, 2 PE classes, and > 3 PE classes per week were 1.168 (1.011-1.349, p = 0.035), 1.621 (1.450-1.812, p < 0.001), and 3.023 (2.704-3.381, p < 0.001), respectively, compared with those for boys who did not attend PE classes. The OR (95% CI) of normal-weight vs. obese boys attending > 3 PE classes attended across normal vs. obese boys was 0.862 (0.762-0.974, p = 0.017), compared with those of boys who did not attend PE classes. The OR (95% CI) for normal-weight vs. underweight girls who attended 2 PE classes and > 3 PE classes per week were 1.235 (1.131-1.349, p < 0.001) and 2.238 (2.048-2.446, p < 0.001), respectively, compared with those of girls who did not attend PE classes. The OR (95% CI) of for normal-weight vs. overweight girls who attended > 3 PE classes per week were 0.886 (0.787- 0.997, p = 0.045) and 0.772 (0.679-0.878, p < 0.001), respectively, compared with those of girls who did not attend PE classes. The OR (95% CI) for normal-weight vs. obese girls who attended 2 PE classes and > 3 PE classes per week were 0.788 (0.675-0.919, p = 0.002) and 0.709 (0.599-0.838, p < 0.001), respectively, compared with those of girls who did not attend the PE class. Increase in the frequency of PE classes should be considered in any attempt for curbing weight-related problems in Korean adolescents
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