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Overweight and obesity in children of different socioeconomic levels
Edna Regina Netto-Oliveira,Amauri Aparecido Bassoli de Oliveira,Alika Terumi Aradaki Nakashima,Caroline Filla Rosaneli
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2010,
Abstract: Excess weight is associated with various factors, including socioeconomic level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between overweight and obesity and socioeconomic level in children aged 6.0-7.9 years from Maringá, Paraná. Body mass index (BMI) was used for the assessment of nutritional status. Family socioeconomic status was classified based on the proposal of the Brazilian Association of Research Companies (ABEP), and the originally proposed classes were regrouped into high (A1, A2, and B1), medium (B2, C1, and C2) and low (D and E) socioeconomic level. The data were analyzed statistically with the SPSS 13.0 program using nonparametric tests and odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 1,634 children from 24 public and private schools (mean age: 7.1 ± 0.5 years, 50.8% girls) were studied. No significant difference in BMI was observed between boys and girls with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of excess weight (overweight + obesity) was 22.3% and 21.9% among boys and girls, respectively. There was no significant association between excess weight and gender. However, children of high socioeconomic level had a 28% higher chance of excess weight than those of low level. In conclusion, in this study both boys and girls were equally affected by excess weight, with a higher prevalence among boys. Children from families of lower socioeconomic levels presented a lower chance of excess weight.
Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children
Muhammad Umair Mushtaq, Sibgha Gull, Hussain Muhammad Abdullah, Ubeera Shahid, Mushtaq Ahmad Shad, Javed Akram
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-724
Abstract: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged 5-12 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (> + 1SD) and obesity (> + 2SD) were defined using the World Health Organization child growth reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to BMI. Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors for overweight and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. All regression analyses were controlled for age and gender and statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05.Seventeen percent (95% CI 15.4-18.8) children were overweight and 7.5% (95% CI 6.5-8.7) were obese. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among boys than girls (P = 0.028), however, there was no gender disparity in overweight prevalence. Prevalence of overweight showed a significantly increasing trend with grade (P < 0.001). Children living in the urban area with high socioeconomic status (SES) were significantly at risk for being overweight and obese (both P < 0.001) as compared to children living in the urban area with lower SES and rural children. Being in higher grade (aOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.17-4.90) and living in the urban area with higher SES (aOR 18.10, 95% CI 10.24-32.00) independently predicted the risk of being overweight.Alarmingly rapid rise in overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children was observed, especially among the affluent urban population. The findings support the urgent need for National preventive strategy for childhood obesity and targeted interventions tailored to local circumstances with meaningful involvement of communities.Overweight and obesity are a global epidemic, with 1 billion overweight people, of whom 300 million are obese, and at least 2.6 million die each year as a result of being overweight or obese [1]. The 2004 W
Global and National Socioeconomic Disparities in Obesity, Overweight, and Underweight Status  [PDF]
Spencer Moore,Justin N. Hall,Sam Harper,John W. Lynch
Journal of Obesity , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/514674
Abstract: Objective. To examine the association between socioeconomic factors and weight status across 53 countries. Methods. Data are cross-sectional and from the long version of the World Health Survey (WHS). There were 172,625 WHS participants who provided self-reported height and weight measures and sociodemographic information. The International Classification of adult weight status was used to classify participants by body mass index (BMI): (1) underweight (<18.5), (2) normal weight (18.5–24.9), (3) overweight (25.0–29.9), and (4) obese (>30.0). Multinomial regression was used in the analyses. Results. Globally, 6.7% was underweight, 25.7% overweight, and 8.9% obese. Underweight status was least (5.8%) and obesity (9.3%) most prevalent in the richest quintile. There was variability between countries, with a tendency for lower-income quintiles to be at increased risk for underweight and reduced risk for obesity. Conclusion. International policies may require flexibility in addressing cross-national differences in the socio-economic covariates of BMI status. 1. Introduction Overweight and obesity have been defined as abnormal or excessive accumulations of fat in the body that may impair health [1]. Overweight and obesity results from an energy imbalance in the amount of calories consumed and the amount of calories expended [1]. The rise of overweight and obesity globally has been attributed primarily to a twofold process: (1) a global shift toward a diet richer in caloric sweeteners, animal source foods, and fats, and (2) decreased physical activity patterns due to changes in the nature of work, modes of transportation, and urbanization [2, 3]. Overweight and obesity have been found to be major risk factors for chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders, and some forms of cancer [1]. Although higher levels of overweight and obesity and, by extension, chronic diseases have generally characterized developed countries such as the United States, the rates of overweight and obesity are increasing much faster in the developing world [4, 5]. Undernutrition is due to food intake that is continuously insufficient or poorly absorbed and retained in the body to meet and maintain energy requirements [6]. Undernutrition is epidemic in parts of the developing world with its occurrence generally associated with high rates of infectious diseases [2] and has been estimated to contribute to the deaths of 5-6 million children under 5 each year [7]. Undernutrition affects all age groups and is especially common among the poor and
Global and National Socioeconomic Disparities in Obesity, Overweight, and Underweight Status  [PDF]
Spencer Moore,Justin N. Hall,Sam Harper,John W. Lynch
Journal of Obesity , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/514674
Abstract: Objective. To examine the association between socioeconomic factors and weight status across 53 countries. Methods. Data are cross-sectional and from the long version of the World Health Survey (WHS). There were 172,625 WHS participants who provided self-reported height and weight measures and sociodemographic information. The International Classification of adult weight status was used to classify participants by body mass index (BMI): (1) underweight (<18.5), (2) normal weight (18.5–24.9), (3) overweight (25.0–29.9), and (4) obese (>30.0). Multinomial regression was used in the analyses. Results. Globally, 6.7% was underweight, 25.7% overweight, and 8.9% obese. Underweight status was least (5.8%) and obesity (9.3%) most prevalent in the richest quintile. There was variability between countries, with a tendency for lower-income quintiles to be at increased risk for underweight and reduced risk for obesity. Conclusion. International policies may require flexibility in addressing cross-national differences in the socio-economic covariates of BMI status.
Association of socioeconomic status with overall overweight and central obesity in men and women: the French Nutrition and Health Survey 2006
Michel Vernay, Aurelie Malon, Amivi Oleko, Benoit Salanave, Candice Roudier, Emmanuelle Szego, Valerie Deschamps, Serge Hercberg, Katia Castetbon
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-215
Abstract: Analyses were based on a multistage stratified random sample of non-institutionalized adults aged 18–74-years-old from the French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS), a cross-sectional national survey carried out in 2006/2007. Collected data included measured anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference (WC)), demographic and SES data (occupation, education and frequency of holiday trips as a marker of family income). SES factors associated with overweight (BMI ≥ 25) and central obesity (WC above gender-specific references) were identified using multiple logistic regression.Almost half (49.3%) of French adults were overweight or obese and 16.9% were obese. In men, the risk of overall overweight or obesity was associated with occupation (p < 0.05), whereas the risk of central obesity was independently associated with occupation (p < 0.05) and frequency of holiday trips (p < 0.01). In women, both overall and central overweight and obesity were independently associated with educational level (respectively p < 10-3 and p < 10-3) and frequency of holiday trips (respectively p < 0.05 and p < 10-3).The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be similar to that of several neighbouring western European countries, and lower than the UK and eastern Europe. Risk of being overweight or obese varied across SES groups both in men and women, but associations were different between men and women, indicating differing determinants.In France, as in neighbouring western Europe countries, the prevalence of obesity among adults is considered to be lower than that reported in the USA, Canada, the UK and eastern Europe [1,2]. However, since the end of the 1980s, France, like many developed countries, has had to face a rapid increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity [3]. Several studies have highlighted the inverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and risk of overweight and obesity in North American and northern European countries [4,5], where obes
Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Children and Adolescents in Urban India
Shabana TharkarVijay Viswanathan
The Open Obesity Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.2174/1876823700901010009]
Abstract: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of overweight and obesity among the school children aged 8-15 years. A cross sectional design was adopted and 3 schools (2 private and 1 corporation schools) were selected by stratified cluster-sampling technique. Data was collected by interviewer administered method by trained research officers using a pre- tested and validated questionnaire to a total sample of 1193 school children from grades IV to X (i.e.) aged 8 to15 years. Prevalence rates were calculated using WHO-BMI for age percentile chart 2007. Regression analysis was done to determine the risk factors associated with overweight. The overall prevalence of overweight was 12.1% among the children and 15.5 % among the adolescents. Both overweight (22%) and obesity (13.7%) were highest among girls from affluent families. The mean anthropometric measurements, prevalence of overweight and obesity were higher among the urban affluent children. Factors associated with overweight were upper socioeconomic status (OR-3.4, CI-1.8 to 6.7, P<0.0001) and greater than 2hours television watching (OR -2.5, CI- 1.1 to 5.4, P < 0.0001). The children had grossly inadequate knowledge about healthy lifestyle habits. Overweight and obesity are predisposing factors for many diseases. These findings suggest the need for early intervention programs, targeting the children from affluent society.
Prevalence of self-reported overweight-obesity and its association with socioeconomic and health factors among older Mexican adults
Ruiz-Arregui,Liliana; Castillo-Martínez,Lilia; Orea-Tejeda,Arturo; Mejía-Arango,Silvia; Miguel-Jaimes,Alejandro;
Salud Pública de México , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342007001000007
Abstract: objective: to investigate the prevalence of obesity and its association with socioeconomic factors and comorbidities in a population-based study. material and methods: data were examined from 4 605 persons ages 60 and older that participated in the 2001 mexican health and aging study, conducted in rural and urban communities in mexico. the prevalence of obesity (according to self-reported weight and height) was obtained, stratified by age, and logistic regression was used to study cross-sectional associations between obesity and socioeconomic factors. results: of the population studied, 20.9% were classified as obese and the prevalence diminishes with age. overall, women were more likely than mentobe obese. lower educational level was associated with lower risk of overweight. in both men and women, obesity was more common between subjects with hypertension (or 1.38 and 1.71, respectively) and long-distance walk limitation (or 2.08 and 2.21, respectively). concluison: in older mexican adults, hypertension and long-distance walk limitation were independent associated factors for higher prevalence of obesity.
Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Their Associations with Socioeconomic Status in a Rural Han Chinese Adult Population  [PDF]
Ming-Juan Jin, Bing-Bing Chen, Ying-Ying Mao, Yi-Min Zhu, Yun-Xian Yu, Yin-Yin Wu, Ming-Wu Zhang, Shan-Kuan Zhu, Kun Chen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079946
Abstract: Background The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity and examine their associations with socioeconomic status in a rural Chinese adult population. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 15,236 participants ≥ 35 years of age (6,313 men [41.4%] and 8,923 women [58.6%]). Each participant’s weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and hipline circumference (HC) were measured, and demographic and socioeconomic data were collected using questionnaires. Results The mean body mass index (BMI) values were 23.31 ± 2.96 and 23.89 ± 3.23 kg m-2 and the mean WC values were 79.13 ± 8.43 and 79.54 ± 8.27 cm for men and women, respectively. The age-standardized prevalence rates of overweight (BMI ≥ 24.0 kg m-2), general obesity (BMI ≥?28.0 kg m-2), and abdominal obesity (WC ≥ 85 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women) were 32.0%, 6.7%, and 27.0% for men and 35.1%, 9.7%, and 48.3% for women, respectively. All gender differences were statistically significant (p < 0.001). In addition, the age-specific prevalence rates of general and abdominal obesity slowly decreased among men but sharply increased among women as age increased (p?< 0.001). In subsequent logistic regression analysis, educational level was negatively associated with both general obesity and abdominal obesity among women but positively associated with abdominal obesity among men. No significant correlation was found between obesity and income. Conclusions These results suggest a high prevalence of obesity which might differ by gender and age, and an inverse association among women and a mixed association among men noted between education and obesity in our locality. Preventive and therapeutic programs are warranted to control this serious public health problem. The gender-specific characteristics of populations at high-risk of developing obesity should be taken into consideration when designing interventional programs.
Dietary correlates of an at-risk BMI among Inuit adults in the Canadian high arctic: cross-sectional international polar year Inuit health survey, 2007-2008  [cached]
Zienczuk Natalia,Young T,Cao Zhirong R,Egeland Grace M
Nutrition Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-73
Abstract: Background The study’s objective was to investigate the dietary correlates of an at-risk body mass index (BMI) among Inuit adults from thirty-six communities across the Canadian Arctic using data from the cross-sectional International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, conducted in 2007–2008. Methods The survey included assessments of 24-hr dietary recall, sociodemographics, physical activity, and anthropometry. Dietary characteristics of overweight and obesity were similar and therefore combined into one at- risk BMI category (≥25 kg/m2) for analyses. The relationship between an at-risk BMI and energy intake from macronutrients, high sugar drinks, high-fat foods, saturated fatty acids, and traditional foods were examined entering each dietary variable separately into a logistic regression model as an independent variable. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, region, kcalories, walking, smoking and alcohol consumption. Further multivariable models considered selected dietary variables together in one model. Results An at-risk BMI was present for 64% with a prevalence of overweight and obesity of 28% and 36%, respectively. Consumption of high-sugar drinks (>15.5% E) was significantly related with having an at-risk BMI (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2; 2.2), whereas the % E from total carbohydrate evaluated as a continuous variable and as quartiles was inversely related to an at-risk BMI (P -trend < 0.05) in multivariable analyses. While % E from high-fat foods was positively related to an at-risk BMI, the findings were not significant in a model controlling for high-sugar drinks and % E from carbohydrates. Conclusions The prevalence of overweight and obesity is of public health concern among Inuit. The current findings highlight the obesogenic potential of high-sugar drink consumption in an ethnically distinct population undergoing rapid cultural changes and raises concerns regarding carbohydrate restricted diets. Health promotion programs aimed at preventing the development of an unhealthy body weight should focus on physical activity and the promotion of healthy diets with reduced intake of sugar drinks.
Obesity, overweight and socioeconomic conditions. The Argentinian CASE Obesidad, sobrepeso y condiciones socioeconómicas. El caso argentino  [cached]
Karina Temporelli,Valentina Viego
Ecos de Economía , 2012,
Abstract: Obesity has been classified by the World Health Organization as a worldwide epidemic. This issue is a growing field in economics due to pathologies associated with overweight, the significant impact on healthcare costs and consequent deterioration of welfare. This paper shows the analysis of the results from the National Survey of Risk Factors in order to identify the role of socioeconomic conditions of obesity and overweight based on panel data models. The results indicate that the income level and sedentary lifestyle have positively influenced obesity and overweight, whereas the education and medical coverage are not relevant when explaining the differences between provinces in overweight prevalence, but become significant in the obesity rates variations La obesidad ha sido clasificada por la OMS como epidemia mundial. Su estudio ocupa un lugar destacado en la Economía de la Salud debido a su impacto sobre los costos sanitarios y deterioro de la calidad de vida. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo estableciendo la incidencia de las condiciones socioeconómicas sobre indicadores de obesidad y sobrepeso en las provincias argentinas. Se estimó un modelo con datos de panel donde el indicador testigo de la proporción de población con problemas de peso depende de variables socioeconómicas y de variables de conducta. Los resultados indican que el nivel de ingreso y el sedentarismo tienen una influencia positiva sobre la obesidad y el sobrepeso mientras que la educación y la cobertura médica no resultan relevantes en la explicación de las diferencias entre provincias en la proporción de población con sobrepeso, pero sí se vuelven significativas para explicar las variaciones en la tasa de obesidad
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