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The Diet of Diabetic Patients in Spain in 2008–2010: Accordance with the Main Dietary Recommendations—A Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
Maritza Mu?oz-Pareja, Luz M. León-Mu?oz, Pilar Guallar-Castillón, Auxiliadora Graciani, Esther López-García, José R. Banegas, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039454
Abstract: Background No previous study has assessed the diet of the diabetic patients in the general population of an entire country in Europe. This study evaluates accordance of the diet of diabetic adults in Spain with nutritional recommendations of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), American Diabetes Association (ADA), and the Mediterranean diet (MD). Methods and Findings Cross-sectional study conducted in 2008–2010 among 12,948 persons representative of the population aged ≥18 years in Spain. Usual food consumption was assessed with a dietary history. EASD accordance was defined as ≥6 points on a score of 12 nutritional goals, ADA accordance as ≥3 points on a score of 6 goals, and MD accordance as ≥7 points on the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener. In the 609 diagnosed diabetic individuals, the diet was rich in saturated fat (11.2% of total energy), but trans fat intake was relatively low (1.1% energy) and monounsaturated fat intake was high (16.1% energy). Carbohydrate intake was relatively low (41.1% energy), but sugar intake was high (16.9% energy). Intake of cholesterol (322 mg/day) and sodium (3.1 g/day) was also high, while fiber intake was insufficient (23.8 g/day). EASD accordance was observed in 48.7% diabetic patients, ADA accordance in 46.3%, and MD accordance in 57.4%. The frequency of EASD, ADA and MD accordance was not statistically different between diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetic individuals. Conclusions Only about half of diabetic patients in Spain have a diet that is consistent with the major dietary recommendations. The lack of dietary differences between diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetic individuals reflects deficiencies in diabetes management.
企业资源控制(ERC)管理模式机理研究  [PDF]
姚磊,蔡希贤等
科技进步与对策 , 2001,
Abstract: 通过对企业资源优化哲理发展经历的3个阶段分析,提出企业资源控制(EnterpriseResourceControl,ERC)管理模式。企业资源控制(ERC)是一种开放的、具有耗散结构的、自学习、自组织的管理模式。作为管理工具,ERC是基于价值链管理和控制的,对企业进行知识管理和信息流管理的计算机管理系统。探讨了ERC的概念,主要功能模块和结构模型,研究了ERC在海南航空股份有限公司的应用案例,实践证明,海航ERC系统是有效和成功的。最后,阐述了ERC的特点。管理模式价值链管理知识管理信息管理企业资源控制计算机管理系统
Qualitative Study among African American Parents to Inform an Intervention to Promote Adoption of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Food and Physical Activity Recommendations  [PDF]
Bernestine B. McGee, Valerie Richardson, Glenda S. Johnson, Crystal Johnson
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.59093
Abstract:

This qualitative study was conducted to enable the research team to culturally tailor an intervention to increase adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) in African American parents and their children living in Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) communities. Focus group results guided the planning of an obesity prevention intervention utilizing the We Can! (Ways to Enhance Children’s Activity and Nutrition) obesity prevention program. Main outcome measure was perceptions of approaches to use in culturally tailoring a nutrition and physical activity intervention. Six focus group sessions were conducted with 86 African American adults to identify cultural concerns, intervention strategies in two Louisiana parishes in the LMD. Focus groups discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed to identify recurring trends and patterns among focus groups. Major themes that emerged included cultural influences on food habits and physical activity, challenges of meeting the DGA and the CDC physical activity guidelines, facilitators and barriers to adhering to healthy food and physical activity guidelines and program development. Wider acceptance and use of the DGA recommendations are needed by LMD populations, leading to reduced prevalence of overweight and obesity and parallel reductions in the prevalence of chronic diseases. Interventions are needed that will enhance adherence to the DGA particularly for diverse subpopulations in the U.S. This study provides important insights for culturally tailoring an intervention to promote adoption of the DGA in two low-income African American Delta communities.

When Adaptation is NOT the Option: Does the ERC Attenuate When Firms Are Less Likely to Use the Adaptation Option?
Mitchell Oler
Accounting and Finance Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/afr.v1n2p200
Abstract: This paper considers whether the earnings response coefficient (ERC) changes when firms are unlikely to adapt resources to other uses. Hayn (1995) hypothesizes and provides evidence consistent with losses having less information content than gains. Since losses are not expected to be persistent – a key determinate in the relationship between accounting earnings and returns – market participants discount those losses when formulating the expected value of the firm and instead value it based on the adaptation option, resulting in an attenuated ERC. However, when the likelihood of the adaptation option being used is low, I predict that the ERC will not attenuate since the market will still value the firm on earnings, even though they are negative. Using a book to market (BTM) ratio above one as my proxy for a reduced likelihood of adaptation, I am able to provide evidence consistent with my hypothesis. This research combines the prior literature on the adaptation option, the ERC attenuation, and the BTM ratio.
Adjacent Instability after Instrumented Lumbar Fusion.  [PDF]
Wen-Jer Chen,Po-Liang Lai,Lih-Huei Chen
Chang Gung Medical Journal , 2003,
Abstract: The invention of pedicle screw instrumentation has greatly improved outcomes ofspinal fusion, which has become the treatment of choice for lumbar spondylolisthesis. Asresearchers accumulate experience, both theoretical and clinical advances are continuallybeing reported. A review of the literature and the experience of the authors show that thedevelopment of adjacent instability, as in the breakdown of a neighboring unfixed motionsegment, is a common consequence of an instrumented lumbar spine. This article reviewsthe risk factors and surgical treatment of adjacent instability. The authors believe that properpreoperative planning and complete surgical procedures are imperative to prevent adjacentinstability. For those who need revision surgery, meticulous surgical techniques can achievesatisfactory results.
Characterizing flows with an instrumented particle measuring Lagrangian accelerations  [PDF]
Robert Zimmermann,Lionel Fiabane,Yoann Gasteuil,Romain Volk,Jean-Fran?ois Pinton
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/15/1/015018
Abstract: We present in this article a novel Lagrangian measurement technique: an instrumented particle which continuously transmits the force/acceleration acting on it as it is advected in a flow. We develop signal processing methods to extract information on the flow from the acceleration signal transmitted by the particle. Notably, we are able to characterize the force acting on the particle and to identify the presence of a permanent large-scale vortex structure. Our technique provides a fast, robust and efficient tool to characterize flows, and it is particularly suited to obtain Lagrangian statistics along long trajectories or in cases where optical measurement techniques are not or hardly applicable.
Measuring Lagrangian accelerations using an instrumented particle  [PDF]
Robert Zimmermann,Lionel Fiabane,Yoann Gasteuil,Romain Volk,Jean-Fran?ois Pinton
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Accessing and characterizing a flow impose a number of constraints on the employed measurement techniques; in particular optical methods require transparent fluids and windows in the vessel. Whereas one can adapt apparatus, fluid and methods in the lab to these constraints, this is hardly possible for industrial mixers. We present in this article a novel measurement technique which is suitable for opaque or granular flows: an instrumented particle, which continuously transmits the force/acceleration acting on it as it is advected in a flow. Its density is adjustable for a wide range of fluids and because of its small size and its wireless data transmission, the system can be used both in industrial and scientific mixers allowing a better understanding of the flow within. We demonstrate the capabilities and precision of the particle by comparing its transmitted acceleration to alternative measurements, in particular in the case of a turbulent von K\'arm\'an flow. Our technique shows to be an efficient and fast tool to characterize flows.
The new 2010 ERC resuscitation guidelines – Relevance for cardiac surgery patients
Jan Runte,Julika?Sch?n,Armin Frank,Frank Hackmann
Applied Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiology , 2012,
Abstract: Postoperative cardiac arrest has been reported to occur in 0.7 to 2.9% after cardiac surgical procedures and may be related to ventricular fibrillation, major bleeding, cardiac tamponade, (tension) pneumothorax, failure of epicardial pacemaker leads, and surgery specific complications. Recent experimental data show improved resuscitation efficiency (improved coronary blood flow, more effective defibrillation, lower complication and higher survival rates) during open chest conditions and that patients after cardiac surgery benefit from early rethoracotomy if the circulation cannot be restored immediately after a cardiac arrest.Based on these findings, the latest guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation published by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) in 2010 included a detailed chapter on resuscitation of patients with cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery procedures and suggest that, if conventional basic and advanced cardiopulmonary life support fail to achieve hemodynamic stabilization within 5 minutes after arrest, a rethoracotomy shall be performed immediately by any intensive care specialist and that this shall not necessarily be performed in the operation theatre but may also be accomplished bedside on the intensive care unit. The guidelines recommend a dedicated set of surgical instruments for rethoracotomy and that personal treating patients after cardiac surgery needs to be instructed and trained to fulfil rethoracotomy successfully. Intensive care units (ICU) that have adopted these guidelines as standard operating procedures are mostly lead by cardiac surgeons. It is presently unknown whether ICUs driven by anaesthesiologists perform comparably when facing a cardiac arrest.
Comparison of the quality of basic life support provided by rescuers trained using the 2005 or 2010 ERC guidelines  [cached]
Jones Christopher M,Owen Andrew,Thorne Christopher J,Hulme Jonathan
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1757-7241-20-53
Abstract: Introduction Effective delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and prompt defibrillation following sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is vital. Updated guidelines for adult basic life support (BLS) were published in 2010 by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) in an effort to improve survival following SCA. There has been little assessment of the ability of rescuers to meet the standards outlined within these new guidelines. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the performance of first year healthcare students trained and assessed using either the new 2010 ERC guidelines or their 2005 predecessor, within the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom. All students were trained as lay rescuers during a standardised eight hour ERC-accredited adult BLS course. Results We analysed the examination records of 1091 students. Of these, 561 were trained and assessed using the old 2005 ERC guidelines and 530 using the new 2010 guidelines. A significantly greater proportion of candidates failed in the new guideline group (16.04% vs. 11.05%; p < 0.05), reflecting a significantly greater proportion of lay-rescuers performing chest compressions at too fast a rate when trained and assessed with the 2010 rather than 2005 guidelines (6.04% vs. 2.67%; p < 0.05). Error rates for other skills did not differ between guideline groups. Conclusions The new ERC guidelines lead to a greater proportion of lay rescuers performing chest compressions at an erroneously fast rate and may therefore worsen BLS efficacy. Additional study is required in order to define the clinical impact of compressions performed to a greater depth and at too fast a rate.
On the distribution of energy and number of earthquakes in accordance with the focal depth
p. HEDERVARI
Annals of Geophysics , 1964, DOI: 10.4401/ag-5215
Abstract: An investigation is presented here concerning the distribution of earthquake energy and number of shocks in accordance with the focal depth. The global distribution of these quantities according to the depth of hypocentres can be approached by an exponential curve between 0 and about 500 km under the Earth's surface.
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