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Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais submetidas às dietas com diferentes óleos vegetais Performance and quality of eggs of commercial laying hens submitted to the diets with different vegetal oils  [cached]
Maria do Socorro Vieira dos Santos,Gast?o Barreto Espíndola,Raimundo Nonato Braga Lobo,Maria de Fátima Freire Fuentes
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produ??o Animal , 2009,
Abstract: Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adi o de diferentes óleos vegetais em ra es para poedeiras comerciais sobre o desempenho e a qualidade interna e externa dos ovos. Foram utilizadas 224 poedeiras da linhagem Hy Line W-36, distribuídas em um delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos de quatro repeti es. Os tratamentos consistiram em sete ra es com 2850 kcal EM/kg e 18% de proteína bruta: T1- controle; T2 - 2% óleo de soja; T3- 4% óleo de soja; T4- 2% óleo de linha a; T5- 4% óleo de linha a; T6- 2% óleo de algod o; T7- 4% óleo de algod o. As variáveis estudadas foram: produ o de ovos (ave/dia), consumo de ra o (g/ave/dia), peso dos ovos (g), convers o alimentar (kg/kg), percentagem de gema, clara e casca, colora o da gema e teor de colesterol dos ovos (mg/g). A adi o do óleo vegetal n o alterou as características de desempenho, a qualidade e o teor de colesterol nos ovos, em rela o à dieta sem óleo. A adi o de 4% de óleo vegetal melhorou a colora o da gema, entretanto, a linha a ocasionou uma redu o na percentagem da gema. A suplementa o de óleo vegetal nas dietas de poedeiras n o alterou o teor de colesterol dos ovos. It was evaluated the influence of the addition of different vegetal oils in diets for commercial laying hens on performance and internal and external egg quality. We used 224 laying hens Hy Line W-36, distributed in a randomized block design with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of seven diets with 2850 kcal ME/kg and 18% crude protein: T1 - control diet; T2 - 2% soybean oil; T3 - 4% soybean oil; T4 - 2% linseed oil; T5 - 4% linseed oil; T6 - 2% cottonseed oil; T7 - 4% cottonseed oil. The variables studied were: eggs production (hen/day), feed intake (g/hen/day), egg weight (g), feed:egg mass ratio (kg/kg), shell and albumen, yolk percentages, yolk coloration and cholesterol eggs (mg/g). The addition of vegetal oil did not alter the performance characteristics, quality and content of cholesterol in eggs, in relation to the control diet. The addition of 4% vegetal oil improved the yolk coloration, however, the linseed caused a reduction in yolk percentage. The supply of vegetal oil in the diets of the laying hens did not alter eggs cholesterol.
Performance and Egg Weight of Laying Hens Fed on the Diets with Various By-Product Oils from the Oilseed Extraction Refinery  [PDF]
Nizamettin Senkoylu,Hasan Akyurek,H. Ersin Samli,Nuri Yurdakurban
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2004,
Abstract: To test the changes in laying performance and egg weight, four diets were added with 30 g/kg of soya oil (control), sunflower acid oil, stearin and Bergafat (acid oil). Totally hundred and ninety two brown layer hens at the age of 31 weeks were randomly allocated to 48 cage replicates. Egg production, egg weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of the hens receiving the diets of acid oil, stearin and Bergafat was not significantly (P>0.05) different from that of the hens receiving the diet of soya oil. The diet with Bergafat insignificantly (P>0.05) leads to reduced egg weight being 59.3 g compared to the other diets with 61.2, 61.2 and 61.9 g values, respectively. The reduced egg weight with Bergafat might be associated with the low level of unsaturated fatty acid which resulted in less lipid deposition in the egg yolk. The linoleic acid contents of studied oils ranged from 23.9, 23.0, 21.4 and 11.6 g/kg for soya oil, sunflower acid oil, stearin and Bergafat, respectively. The results indicated that the diet linoleic acid content over 12 g/kg is not critical for egg weight.
Welfare Levels in Heritage Breed vs. Commercial Laying Hens in the Litter System
Ewa Sosnówka-Czajka , Eugeniusz Herbut , Iwona Skomorucha , Renata Muchacka
Annals of Animal Science , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10220-011-0010-2
Abstract: The objective of the study was to determine differences in welfare levels between heritage breed hens (Yellowleg Partridge, Sussex, Leghorn) and commercial crosses (ISA Brown, Lohmann Brown, Hy-Line) kept in the litter system with no outdoor access. The experiment was carried out with 180 hens of three heritage breeds (Yellowleg Partridge, Sussex, Leghorn) and 180 commercial crosses of laying hens (Hy-Line, ISA Brown, Lohmann). Layers were reared in the litter system with no outdoor access. During the experiment, production data were collected until 38 days of age and birds' behaviour was monitored for 24 h at 18, 20, 32 and 38 weeks of age. O f the three commercial lines of laying hens kept in the litter system with no outdoor access, the lowest welfare levels were characteristic of ISA Brown birds. Hy-Line and Lohmann layers were characterized by comparable welfare levels that were higher in relation to ISA Brown layers. The results also showed that Sussex hens reared in the litter system had higher welfare levels than Yellowleg Partridge and Leghorn hens. When comparing the results of heritage breed and commercial hens, it can be said that mortality and increased levels of aggression in heritage breed hens kept in the litter system suggest that their welfare levels were lower than in commercial layers.
INFLUENCE OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS ON SELECTED PARAMETERS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS
Henrieta ARPá?OVá,PETER HA??íK,Jozef BUJKO
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2010,
Abstract: The experiment was designed to investigate the effects of feed supplementation with essential oils on egg weight and body mass of laying hens. Hens of the laying breed Isa Brown were randomly divided at the day of hatching into 3 groups (n=26) and fed for 45 weeks on diets which differed in kind of essential oil supplemented. Hens were fed from day 1 by the standard feed mixture. Laying hens accepted fodder ad libitum. In the control group hens took feed mixture without additions, in the first experimental group the feed mixture was supplemented with 0.25 ml/kg thyme essential oil and in the second one hens got hyssop essential oil in the same dose of 0.25 ml/kg. The housing system satisfied enriched cage requirements specified by the Directive 1999/74 EC. The useful area provided for one laying hen presented 943.2 cm2. The equipment of cage consisted of roosts, place for rooting in ashes – synthetic grass, nest and equipment for shortening of clutches. The results showed that the average body weight for a rearing period was in order groups: 736.15±523.49; 747.20±541.6 and 721.95±522.57 (g±SD). Differences between groups were not significant (P>0.05). The average body weight during the laying period was 1763.85±171.46; 1786.08±192.09 and 1729.73±129.12 g for control, thyme oil and hyssop oil supplementation respectively. During the laying period there were significant differences in body weight between control and experimental group with hyssop essential oil supplementation (P<0.05) and between both experimental groups (P<0.01). No significant differences were found out between control group and experimental groups (P>0.05) in egg weight (58.36±4.91; 58.82±4.95 and 58.26±5.33 g respectively).
Productive Performance and Immunocompetence of Commercial Laying Hens Given Diets Supplemented with Eucalyptus  [PDF]
A.M. Abd El - Motaal,A.M.H. Ahmed,A.S.A. Bahakaim,M.M. Fathi
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2008,
Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of Eucalyptus leaf powder supplementation on productive performance and immune response of brown Hy-line laying hens. Sixty brown Hy-line layers were equally divided into four groups. They were fed diet containing 0, 1, 2 and 3g Eucalyptus leaf powder/kg diet form 46 to 54 weeks of age. Egg production (weight and number) was recorded daily. Body weight and feed consumption were recorded every 4 weeks. Cell mediated immunity was determined at 54 weeks of age. At the end of the experiment, internal and external egg quality measurements were determined. The present results revealed that supplementation of Eucalyptus at the rate of 3g/kg diet significantly increased egg number compared to the other groups. Likewise, the hens fed a diet containing 3g Eucalyptus produced significantly higher egg mass compared to remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference among treated groups for egg weight. There was no significant difference among treated groups for all egg quality traits, except for breaking strength. Whereas the eggs produced from hen fed a diet containing 3g Eucalyptus had a significantly higher breaking strength compared to other treated groups. With respect to immune response, it could be noticed that the hens fed diets supplemented with 2 or 3g Eucalyptus were significantly hyper responder to PHA-P injection compared to other groups. Moreover, the Eucalyptus supplementation at the rate of 2 and 3g/kg diet significantly decreased the H/L ratio of laying hens. In summary, the current experiment has shown that the inclusion of Eucalyptus at the level of 3g/kg diet is useful for improving the productive performance and immunity of commercial laying hens.
Effects of dietary dihydropyridine on laying performance and lipid metabolism of broiler breeder hens
ZY Niu, YN Min, HY Wang, J Zhang, WC Li, L Li, FZ Liu
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2011,
Abstract: The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dihydropyridine supplementation on the laying performance and lipid metabolism of broiler breeder hens. A total of 720 forty-five week old broiler breeder hens were randomly divided into four experimental groups, each group consisting of six replicates of 30 birds. For 10 weeks the birds were fed a maize-soybean meal diet containing 0, 100, 200, 300 mg dihydropyridine/kg, in the respective treatment groups. The daily egg weight and daily feed intake were not affected by dihydropyridine supplementation, but the laying rate and feed efficiency were significantly increased. The percentage of abdominal fat and percentage of liver fat were significantly decreased by dietary dihydropyridine. A level of 100 mg dihydropyridine/kg had no effect on the hormone-sensitive triglyceride lipase (HSL) activity in the liver or abdominal fat, though higher levels of dietary dihydropyridine (200 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg) increased HSL activity in the liver and abdominal fat. The concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly increased by dihydropyridine, but the malondialdehyde content decreased. The apolipoprotein B concentration was increased at levels of 100 and 200 mg dihydropyridine/kg, but the 300 mg level had no effect on apolipoprotein B, compared with the control group. The triiodothyronine concentration was significantly increased by dietary dihydropyridine. It is concluded that supplementing dihydropyridine in the diet has a beneficial effect on the laying performance and regulates the fat metabolism of broiler breeder hens. The results suggest that the supplementation of 200 mg dihydropyridine/kg diet is the optimal dose for broiler breeder hens.
Effect of different metabolizable energy and soybean oil levels in the diet of laying hens on the egg chemical composition and lipid profile
Quirino, Bárbara Josefina de Sousa;Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo;Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto;Pereira, Walter Esfrain;Lima Neto, Raul da Cunha;Souza, Janete Gouveia de;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982009000400014
Abstract: this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of increasing metabolizable energy and soybean oil levels on the egg chemical composition, total lipids and cholesterol contents and fatty acids profile in the egg yolk. three hundred and sixty 29 week-old bovans goldline semi-heavy commercial layers were used during three periods of 28 days. a completely randomized design were used in a 3 × 3 double factorial arrangement with three soybean oil levels (1, 2 and 3%) and three metabolizable energy levels in the diet (2,600, 2,750 and 2,900 kcal/kg), totalizing nine diets with five replicates of eight birds. no interaction soybean oil × metabolizable energy levels was observed. the metabolizable energy levels did not affect any of the determined characteristics. the moisture, ash and protein contents in the egg yolk and albumen and the lipid and cholesterol contents in the yolk were not affected by the soybean oil levels in the diet, while linoleic acid (c18:3) and linolenic acid (c18:2) levels responded linearly. the use of 2,600 kcal me/kg and 3% of soybean oil in the diet of laying hens with consumption of 120 g/bird/day is justifiable, since this feeding strategy improves the fatty acids profile of the egg.
Infection of commercial laying hens with Salmonella Gallinarum: clinical, anatomopathological and haematological studies
Freitas Neto, OC;Arroyave, W;Alessi, AC;Fagliari, JJ;Berchieri, A;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2007000200010
Abstract: this study aimed at evaluating the susceptibility of commercial laying hens to salmonella gallinarum (sg). two experiments were carried using a mutant strain of salmonella gallinarum resistant to nalidix acid (sgnalr). in the first trial, the resistance of birds was evaluated based on clinical signs, faecal shedding, and mortality. it was carried out with six lines of commercial layers being three light white layers, considered to be resistant to sg (w1, w2, w3), and three semi-heavy brown varieties (b1, b2, b3), considered susceptible to sg. each group contained 15 one-day-old birds. hens were inoculated in the crop at 5 days of age with 0.2 ml of sgnalr neat culture. in addition, to each brown variety, a new group of 15 birds was challenged with 0.2ml of the same sgnalr culture diluted at 10-3. at the end of the first experiment, the surviving birds were sacrificed, and microbiological culture of liver and spleen was performed. in the second experiment, white and brown birds were inoculated with neat culture at five days of age. samples were collected for evaluation of blood parameters and histopathology assessment at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, and 14 days post-infection. the results of the first experiment showed higher resistance of white birds (p<0.05), although there was no uniformity in the responses against fowl typhoid among the birds within these groups. in the second experiment, there were differences between white and brown birds both in blood parameters and in organ lesion intensity.
Effect of using organic microminerals on performance and external quality of eggs of commercial laying hens at the end of laying
Maciel, M?nica Patrícia;Saraiva, Edilson Paes;Aguiar, édina de Fátima;Ribeiro, Pedro Assun??o Pimenta;Passos, Débora Pereira;Silva, Jussara Barros;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982010000200017
Abstract: the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of using microminerals in organic form on the performance and quality of eggs from commercial laying hens at the end of laying. four hundred and eighty hisex strain hens, 72 to 80 weeks of age, were used. a randomized complete design was used, with six replications and 16 birds for each experimental unit. five diets were evaluated: basal feed supplemented with all microminerals in inorganic form (control); basal feed supplemented with 50% microminerals zinc (zn) + manganese (mn) + copper (cu) in organic form and 50% in inorganic form; basal feed supplemented with 50% zinc in organic form and 50% in inorganic form; basal feed supplemented with 50% manganese in organic form and 50% in inorganic form; and basal feed supplemented with 50% copper in organic form and 50% in inorganic form. there was no effect of diets on egg production, feed intake, food conversion and egg shell percentage and thickness. birds fed basal feed supplemented only with zinc or manganese in organic form produced eggs with lower specific weight. the use of basal feed supplemented with copper in organic form has minimized egg loss. however, the best results (lower egg loss, higher specific weight and higher weight of eggs) were obtained with the basal feed supplemented with microminerals zn + mn + cu in organic form and, therefore, it is recommended for feeding of commercial laying at the end of laying.
Effect of Supplemental Oregano Essential Oils in Diets on Production Performance and Relatively Intestinal Parameters of Laying Hens  [PDF]
Xianjing He, Dandan Hao, Chunhai Liu, Xu Zhang, Dandan Xu, Xiaonan Xu, Jianfa Wang, Rui Wu
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2017.71006
Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary oregano essential oils on 150 30-week-old Hy-Line Layers’ productive performance, egg quality characteristics, cecal microbiota, digestive enzyme activities, mucosa structure of the duodenum and jejunum and glucose and small peptides transporters expression in the duodenum and jejunum. All hens were allocated into one of five different groups: negative control (NC; basal diet only), antibiotics control (CS; basal diet plus 100 mg/kg of 10% colistin sulfate) and treatments I, II, and III (basal diet supplemented with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg oregano essential oils, respectively). The results showed that the laying rate, average egg weight, feed conversion ratio and the activities of amylase and trypsin were significantly improved by a diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg oregano essential oils (P < 0.01). The addition of oregano essential oils increased the number of intestinal Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus significantly (P < 0.01), whereas the number of intestinal Escherichia coli and Salmonella was significantly (P < 0.01) decreased. The addition of 100 mg/kg oregano essential oils increased duodenum villus height (P > 0.05), significantly increased duodenum villus-height-to-crypt-depth ratios (P < 0.01) and decreased crypt depth in the duodenum (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) and sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) gene expression levels in the duodenum and jejunum were significantly increased in laying hens on a diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg oregano essential oils (P < 0.01). However, egg weight, relative eggshell weight, yolk index and Haugh unit value were not significantly affected by the addition of oregano essential oils (P > 0.05).
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