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Age of Joint Venture, Inter-Firm Technology Transfer and Local Firms’ Performance  [cached]
Sazali Abdul Wahab,Haslinda Abdullah,Jegak Uli,Raduan Che Rose
Asian Social Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v6n2p28
Abstract: The inter-firm technology transfers (TT) through international joint ventures (IJVs), among others, have significantly contributed to a higher degree of local innovation performance/capabilities, technological capabilities, competitive advantage, organizational learning effectiveness, productivity, technological development of local industry, and the economic growth of the host country. Since the focus of inter-firm TT in developing countries has shifted to degree of technology transfer, organizations in developing countries are attempting to assess not only the significant role of technology transfer in strengthening their corporate and human resource performance but also the influence of other critical variables such as MNCs’ size, age of JVs (JVAGE), country of origin, and MNC’s type of industries that could significantly moderate the relationship. The main objective of this paper is to empirically examine the moderating effect of age of JV (old vs. young JVs) on the relationships between degree of inter-firm technology transfer and two dimensions of local firms’ performance: corporate and human resource performances. Using the moderated multiple regression (MMR) analysis, the theoretical models and hypotheses in this study were tested based on empirical data gathered from 128 joint venture companies registered with the Registrar of Companies of Malaysia (ROC). The results revealed that age of JV has significantly affected the relationships between degrees of technology transfer and both dimensions of local firms’ performance; where the relationships were found stronger for old JVs as compared to young JVs. The study has bridged the literature gaps in such that it offers empirical evidence and new insights on the significant moderating effects of age of JVs in the relationships between degree of inter-firm technology transfer and local firms’ performance using the Malaysian sample.
Age of Joint Venture, Inter-Firm Technology Transfer and Local Firms’Performance  [cached]
Wahab Abdul Sazali,Abdullah Haslinda,Rose Che Raduan,Uli Jegak
International Journal of Business and Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v5n3p89
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to empirically examine the effects of two distinct degrees of technology transfer: degree of tacit and explicit knowledge on two dimensions of performance: corporate and human resource performances. Using the quantitative analytical approach, the theoretical model and hypotheses in this study were tested based on empirical data gathered from 128 joint venture companies registered with the Registrar of Companies of Malaysia (ROC). Data obtained from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using the correlation coefficients and multiple linear regressions. The results revealed that degree of tacit knowledge, as a distinct dimension of degree of technology transfer, has a significant effect on both corporate and human resource performances; where its effect was much stronger on corporate performance. Similarly, degree of explicit knowledge has shown consistent strong significant effects on both corporate and human resource performance; where its effect on human resource performance was found much stronger than corporate performance. The study has bridged the literature gaps in such that it offers empirical evidence on the effects of two distinct degrees of technology transfer: degrees of tacit and explicit knowledge on two dimensions of performance: corporate and human resource performances in IJVs.
Measuring the Effects of Relationship Quality and Mutual Trust on Degree of Inter-Firm Technology Transfer in International Joint Venture
Sazali Abdul Wahab,Raduan Che Rose,Suzana Idayu Wati Osman
International Business Research , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ibr.v4n3p116
Abstract: The success of technology transfer (TT) within international joint ventures (IJVs) in the developing countries has frequently been measured by the degree of technology that is transferred to local partners. As compared to other formal technology transfer agents such as foreign direct investments (FDIs) and licensing, technology transfer through IJVs have been acknowledged by many studies as the most efficient mechanism to internalize the foreign partner’s technologies, knowledge and skills which are organizationally embedded. However, the transfer process has always involved a complex relationship between IJV partners which may cause direct impact on degree of technology transfer. The success of inter-firm TT requires a strong existence of a close and intense communications between the technology supplier and recipient. The main objective of this paper is to empirically examine the effects of two critical elements of relationship characteristics: relationship quality and mutual trust on two dimensions of degree of technology transfer: degree of tacit and explicit knowledge. Using the quantitative analytical approach, the theoretical model and hypotheses in this study were tested based on empirical data gathered from 128 joint venture companies registered with the Registrar of Companies of Malaysia (ROC). Data obtained from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using the correlation coefficients and multiple linear regressions. The results revealed that relationship quality, as the critical element of relationship characteristics, has a significant effect on both degrees of tacit and explicit knowledge; where the effect was slightly stronger on degree of explicit knowledge. Similarly, mutual trust between partners has shown consistent strong significant effects on both degrees of tacit and explicit knowledge; where its effect on degree of tacit knowledge was found slightly stronger than degree of explicit knowledge. The study has bridged the literature gaps in such that it offers empirical evidence on the effects of two generic relationship attributes: relationship quality and mutual trust on two dimensions of degree of inter-firm technology transfer: degree of tacit and explicit knowledge in IJVs.
Investigating the Moderating Effects of Age of Joint Venture in the Relationship between Relationship Characteristics and Degree of Inter-Firm Technology Transfer  [cached]
Sazali Abdul Wahab,Raduan Che Rose,Suzana Idayu Wati Osman
International Journal of Business and Management , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v6n10p59
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to empirically examine the moderating effect of age of joint venture in the relationships between relationship characteristics: relationship quality and mutual trust and two distinct dimensions of degrees of technology transfer: degrees of tacit and explicit knowledge within IJVs. Using the moderated multiple regression (MMR), the theoretical models and hypotheses in this study were tested based on empirical data gathered from 128 joint venture companies registered with the Registrar of Companies of Malaysia (ROC). The results revealed that age of JVs has significantly affected the relationship between relationship characteristics (relationship quality and mutual trust) and degree of tacit knowledge; where the relationship was found stronger for young JVs than old JVs. However, age of JVs did not significantly moderate the relationship between relationship characteristics and degree of explicit knowledge. The study has bridged the literature gaps in such that it offers empirical evidence and new insights on the moderating effect of age of joint ventures in the relationships between relationship characteristics and two distinct degrees of technology transfer: degrees of tacit and explicit knowledge using the Malaysian sample.
Examining the Moderating Effects of MNCs’ Country of Origin in the Relationship between Degree of Inter-Firm Technology Transfer and Local Firms’ Performance  [cached]
SAZALI ABDUL WAHAB,Raduan Che Rose,Suzana Idayu Wati Osman
Asian Social Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v7n12p79
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to empirically examine the moderating effect of MNCs’ country of origin (Western vs. Asian MNCs) in the relationships between degree of inter-firm technology transfer and two dimensions of local firms’ performance: corporate and human resource performances. Using the moderated multiple regression (MMR) analysis, the theoretical models and hypotheses in this study were tested based on empirical data gathered from 128 joint venture companies registered with the Registrar of Companies of Malaysia (ROC). The results revealed that MNCs’ country of origin has significantly affected the relationships between degrees of technology transfer and local firms’ corporate performance; where the relationship was found stronger for Asian MNCs as compared to Western MNCs. However, MNCs’ country of origin did not significantly moderate the relationship between degree of technology transfer and local firms’ human resource performance. The study has bridged the literature gaps in such that it offers empirical evidence and new insights on the significant moderating effects of MNCs’ country of origin in the relationships between degree of inter-firm technology transfer and local firms’ performance technology using the Malaysian sample.
Moderating Effect of MNCs’ Equity Ownership in the Relationship between Degree of Inter-Firm Technology Transfer and Local Firms’ Performance  [cached]
Sazali Abdul Wahab,Raduan Che Rose,Suzana Idayu Wati Osman
International Journal of Business and Management , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v6n11p76
Abstract: The inter-firm technology transfers (TT) through international joint ventures (IJVs), among others, have significantly contributed to a higher degree of local innovation performance/capabilities, technological capabilities, competitive advantage, organizational learning effectiveness, productivity, technological development of local industry, and the economic growth of the host country. Since the focus of inter-firm TT in developing countries has shifted to degree of technology transfer, organizations in developing countries are attempting to assess not only the significant role of technology transfer in strengthening their corporate and human resource performance but also the influence of other critical variables such as MNCs’ size, age of JVs, country of origin, MNCs’ equity ownership (MNCEQTY) and MNC’s type of industries that could significantly moderate the relationship. Based on the underlying knowledge-based view (KBV) and organizational learning (OL) perspectives, the main objective of this paper is to empirically examine the moderating effect of equity ownership of MNCs (50/50 equal ownership between MNCs and local JV partners vs. minor/majority ownership by MNCs) in the relationships between degree of inter-firm technology transfer and two dimensions of local firms’ performance: corporate (CPERF) and human resource (HEPERF) performances. Using the moderated multiple regression (MMR) analysis, the theoretical models and hypotheses in this study were tested based on empirical data gathered from 128 joint venture companies registered with the Registrar of Companies of Malaysia (ROC). The results revealed that equity ownership of MNCs has been established to provide a significant moderating effects in 1) TTDEG-CPERF relationship; where the relationship was found stronger for minor/majority ownership by MNCs as compared to 50/50 equal ownership between JV partners, and 2) TTDEG-HRPERF relationship; where the relationship was found stronger for 50/50 equal ownership between JV partners as compared to minor/majority ownership by MNCs. The study has bridged the literature gaps in such that it offers empirical evidence and new insights on the significant moderating effects of equity ownership of MNCs in the relationships between degree of inter-firm technology transfer and local firms’ performance technology using the Malaysian sample.
TRANSFER OF MARKETING KNOWLEDGE IN THAI INTERNATIONAL JOINT VENTURE FIRMS
Osman Mohamad,T. Ramayah,Nit Hathaivaseawong
Asian Academy of Management Journal , 2010,
Abstract: The focus of this study is the transfer of marketing knowledge within Thai joint venture firms. The perspectives of Thai managers were surveyed using a structured instrument. The analysis identifies seven dimensions of marketing management knowledge: promotion management, price management, logistics management, product innovation management, strategic marketing management, cross-cultural management, and target marketing management. The incidence of transfer is highest for activities in strategic marketing management, followed by price management. Transfer in product innovation management and target marketing management tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. Joint venture firms with foreign partners originating from Western, advanced, industrialised nations recorded the highest incidence of knowledge transfer occurring within product innovation management. This trend also holds true for the management of promotion activities. The incidence of transfer in target marketing management is lowest among firms with foreign partners from neighbouring nations. The incidence of knowledge transfer within product innovation and target marketing also tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. An analysis based on industry classification revealed that the transfer of knowledge regarding logistics management occurs most for firms in the manufacturing sector. In the service sector, the highest incidence of knowledge transfer within the areas of promotion management and target marketing management occurred in the agricultural sector.
Examining the Antecedents to Inter-partner Credible Threat in the International Joint Ventures  [cached]
Lan-Ying Huang,Ying-Jiun Hsieh,Pei-Ling Hsiao
International Business Research , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ibr.v5n1p49
Abstract: Since the 1980s, international joint venture (IJV) becomes a strategic tool enabling firms to escape from operational risk and cost. However, the IJV represents a voluntary cooperative relationship between partners; it is prone to risk of opportunistic behavior by one or both partners in this relationship. Therefore, some characteristics of the IJV are unstable and difficult to manage. Essentially, the inter-partner credible threat entails the certainty of a firm’s retaliation given its partner’s earlier cheating. This study explores the antecedents to inter-partner credible threat. The study develops an integrative framework to explain how economic mechanisms, business expertise, and relationship mechanisms affect the partner’s relative credible threat. The authors use 40 Taiwanese companies which engage in IJV activities as the sample and the returns-ratio is 12.41%. Evidence explores that the more in the investment size, technological capabilities and low dependency of the partner, this partner exerts more credible threat to the other partner.
Limited growth opportunities amidst opportunities for growth: an empirical study of the inter-firm linkages of small software firms in India
Vigneswara P Ilavarasan and Balaji Parthasarathy
Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2192-5372-1-4
Abstract: Small firms are important to all economies. This is especially true with the rise of the information and communication technologies (ICTs), as the technical characteristics of information goods lower entry barriers for small firms seeking to take advantage of the growing global demand for ICTs. However, for accessing global markets, or for technological learning, the literature points to the potentially important role of intermediary institutions. This paper examines inter-firm linkages in India, the world’s largest exporter of software services, to explore the extent to which large software firms, both foreign multinational corporations (MNCs) and domestic firms, play an intermediary role for the growing number of small firms. Drawing on 172 in-depth, semi-structured interviews, the paper finds that linkages between the large and small firms are few and weak. MNCs prefer working with large domestic firms as they seek the scale to cut costs for labor-intensive services. Large domestic firms too tend not to outsource work to small firms. They prefer independent execution, viewing small firms as potential competition. Any inter-firm links are typically limited to labor contracting and rarely provide access to markets or opportunities for technological learning. Thus, lacking the operational scale, technological or domain diversity, small firms end up dependent on personal networks to access global market opportunities, i.e., despite the growth in opportunities provided by ICTs, the growth opportunities for small software firms in India remain circumscribed.
Shared Equity Policy in Joint Ventures for Host Countries  [PDF]
Mei-Fang Chung
Economic Analysis and Policy , 2011,
Abstract: This paper provides a game model for examining the host overseas investment policy and MNEs equity strategy in international joint ventures. This paper refines previous Chen & Chung’s (2008) results and considers the host policy about MNEs’ joint-venture. This paper shows foreign firms increase their technology transfer incentive because less competition from the joint-venture partner when a foreign firm holds lower shares. And the holding shares of foreign firms must be not smaller than 50 percent. The host welfare increases with foreign firms’ minority equity. The equity conflict exists in the higher technology spillover and transfer cost cases. Hence, the host governments always impose investment restrictions on MNEs in the Developing countries. Otherwise, it has more loose policy in the Developed countries.
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