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Gender and Diversity Management: Explicit Cultural Values Help to Attract Target Group Members  [PDF]
Mierke, K.,Rosier, J.,Schoeller, J.
Journal of Business and Media Psychology , 2012,
Abstract: The present research aimed to examine the effects of explicit cultural values on employer attractiveness. In Exp.1, male and female participants saw a recruitment brochure promoting either a predominantly feminine or a predominantly masculine corporate culture (Cameron & Freeman, 1991; Hofstede, 1980). Adjective ratings indicate that company image was perceived as intended. As expected, female participants showed higher general attractiveness ratings as well as application intentions for the prototypical feminine as compared to the masculine culture, male participants exhibited the opposite pattern. Participants’ career-status (student vs. employee) did not affect perceptions of employer attractiveness. In Exp.2, participants either belonging to a minority group (physical disability, migrant family, or other than heterosexual orientation), or not, were presented a vacancy notice promoting a diversity-oriented vs. an achievement-oriented corporate culture. Again, image ratings indicate that the announcements were perceived as intended. Although general attractiveness ratings remained unaffected here, participants belonging to a minority group showed higher application intentions for the diversity-oriented than for the achievement-oriented company,and vice versa for participants not belonging to a minority group. Beyond manipulation check, image ratings show a significantly morepositive pattern for the diversity-oriented company regardless of participants’ group membership. Implications for value establishment and communication in times of organisational and societal change are discussed.
Gender Inequality in the Division of Household Labour in Tanzania
S Feinstein, R Feinstein, S Sabrow
African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie , 2010,
Abstract: This study examined the gender norms and the language used for rationalising gender inequality regarding the division of household labour in Tanzania. Tanzanian university students and secondary students participated in interviews, focus groups, and surveys for this study. Findings suggest that Tanzanian men have very traditional expectations regarding gender roles while Tanzanian women have more progressive expectations. Some gender norms, including the expectation that women should be responsible for the children and should do more work than men overall, were demonstrated. Naturalisation, the attempt to justify an inequality such as sexism by claiming that the disparity is simply natural, was used to explain inequalities; as was minimisation, the attempt to justify an inequality by reducing the significance of the problem. Lastly, cultural sexism attempted to justify gender inequality by explaining the differences between genders as a result of cultural practices rather than sexism.
Gender inequality and domestic violence: implications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention
Dan K Kaye
African Health Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Domestic violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are problems of great public health worldwide, especially sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing countries. This is due to their far reaching social, economic and public health consequences. The two problems have gender inequality and gender power imbalances as the driving force behind the “epidemics”. HIV infection is mainly acquired through heterosexual relations, which themselves are greatly influenced by socio-cultural factors, underlying which are gender power imbalances. Unfortunately gender relations, and gender issues in general, have not been given much emphasis in the medical perspective, especially in efforts for prevention and control of HIV infection. There is thus a need to mainstream gender relations in reproductive health. This article aims at emphasizing the intersection between domestic violence, gender inequality and HIV infection. African Health Sciences Vol.4(1) 2004: 67-70
Gender inequality: The challenge of contemporary demography  [PDF]
?obot Ankica
Sociologija , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/soc1001041s
Abstract: Gender perspective is a heuristic device in researching social phenomena, and gender inequality is a social fact which requires an adequate answer. Also, social differences between women and men are examined as relevant factors of demographic phenomena. The contemporary demography is opening up space not only for the gender aspect, but also for gender inequality as a relevant research topic. This paper discusses the possibilities of demographic approach to studying social inequality between women and men. By analyzing socio-demographic structures and their dynamics insight is obtained into the generality, tendencies and particular features of the phenomenon. This is the specifically demographic contribution to understanding gender inequality.
Researching gender: the challenge of global diversity today  [PDF]
Longman, Chia
Afrika Focus , 2010,
Abstract: The text of this paper is based on a lecture given at the symposium of the Ghent African Platform “Researching Gender in/on Africa” at Ghent University in December 2009. It addresses some general challenges faced by ‘gender studies’ as an autonomous field versus ‘gender research’ as an integrated topic within mainstream disciplines in academia. Gender studies have sometimes superseded ‘women’s studies’ and expanded to cover the terrain of study of various forms of diversity including men’s and transgender studies. We will show that the ‘mainstreaming’ of gender in public policy at local, national and transnational levels is a development which may potentially lead to the loss of a – feminist – political edge. Secondly, while gender studies with their emphasis on socially constructed gender as opposed to biological essentialist understandings of ‘sex’ appear to face the challenge of a popular ‘new biological determinism’, it is shown that the binary model of sex/gender in fact has been criticised for some time now from within feminist theory and gender research. This is (selectively) illustrated with research from four disciplines, including the work of African gender studies scholars, i.e. feminist philosophy, social sciences (in particularsocio-cultural anthropology), history and biology itself. This then shows how the accusation that gender studies would be ‘socially deterministic’ without attending to bodily matters or materiality is unfounded. Finally, it is argued that there is still a need for gender studies to become more culturally diverse, more global and transnational in its outlook, by becoming more deeply attuned to the way gender intersects with other forms of difference and taking into account postcolonial critiques of western feminist paternalism, without falling into the trap of cultural relativism.
Measurement of gender inequality in neighbourhoods of Québec, Canada
Lum Tamambang, Nathalie Auger, Ernest Lo, Marie-France Raynault
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-10-52
Abstract: Aggregate 2001 census data for 11,564 neighbourhoods were obtained for men and women. Twelve indicators of gender inequality representing demographic/household characteristics, education, income, work/leisure, and political participation were selected. Neighbourhood-level gender inequality scores were computed for each indicator, and examined across parts of Québec (metropolitan areas, mid-sized cities, rural areas). Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the ability of indicators to capture heterogeneity in gender inequality across neighbourhoods.Male-dominant neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to be present for average employment income, labour force participation, employment rate, and employment in managerial positions. Female-dominant gender inequality tended to be present for divorce, single-headed households, and participation in unpaid housework, child and elderly care. Neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to vary across metropolitan areas, mid-sized cities, and rural areas. Gender inequality scores also varied within these geographic areas. For example, there was greater income-related gender inequality in high than low income neighbourhoods. Monte Carlo simulations suggested that the variation in gender inequality across neighbourhoods was greater than expected with chance alone.Neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to be present in Québec, and varied across parts of the province. Greater awareness of and research on neighbourhood-level gender inequality may be warranted to inform gender policies in Québec and other nations.Achieving gender equality is a leading millennium development health goal [1,2]. In Canada, efforts to promote gender equality in education and employment have been numerous [3], but few studies have investigated the influence of such policies in populations. Canada ranked sixteenth worldwide on the United Nations' gender inequality index in 2008 [4], and several Canadian studies have shown important gender
Class and gender beyond the "cultural turn"
Crompton,Rosemary;
Sociologia, Problemas e Práticas , 2003,
Abstract: this paper addresses recent debates in order to facilitate a constructive return to discussions of gender and class. it is argued that "class" is primarily an economic concept, whereas "gender" inequalities primarily reflect normative/cultural constructions. nevertheless, cultural degradations have economic consequences. it is suggested that a major strand of debate in relation to "gender and class" - that is, the feminist critique of quantitative class analysis (as exemplified by goldthorpe, erikson and wright) - was flawed from the beginning. however, the "cultural turn" in feminism overlaid gender with sexuality and removed class altogether. thus, debates in relation to gender, class, and the division of labour were not worked out to a satisfactory conclusion. nevertheless, a class perspective remains essential if we are to understand and analyse the consequences of changes in the gender division of labour.
Gender inequality in the Serbian labour market
Bo?kovi? Olgica,Njegovan Nikola
Economic Annals , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/eka1292113b
Abstract: Many positive changes have been implemented in Serbia since the beginning of the transition period, and while these improve the position of women in the labour market the main indicators still show significant gender differences. Women are the majority of the unemployed and there are significant differences between regions and districts, in fields of work, experience, and the length of time taken to find work. An analysis of trends in the labour market over the past decade shows a worsening of the position of women, with a lower participation in economic activity and employment, rising unemployment rates, and an increase in the average time to find work and the proportion of women in traditionally female occupations. Problems of gender inequality demand more attention in order to improve existing legislation and the implementation of economic policies in the labour market which will ensure higher participation of women with lower education, with special emphasis on increasing the motivation of these women to undergo continuing education and training.
Cultural Diversity and Bioethics
K Aramesh
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2008,
Abstract: "nMy main question in this article is as follows: "to which extent cultural diversity should be permitted to influence bio-ethical judgments?" There are cultural heritages, values and traditions which are acceptable and respectable and there are ones which are not so. In this article I concluded that our reasoning based on common ethical sense can guide us through such differentiations. Human dignity as a common notion among most alive cultures and religions thorough the world, can be relied for sketching a plan for further dialogues in this regard.
The Intersections of Biological Diversity and Cultural Diversity: Towards Integration  [cached]
Pretty Jules,Adams Bill,Berkes Fikret,de Athayde Simone Ferreira
Conservation & Society , 2009,
Abstract: There is an emerging recognition that the diversity of life comprises both biological and cultural diversity. In the past, however, it has been common to make divisions between nature and culture, arising partly out of a desire to control nature. The range of interconnections between biological and cultural diversity are reflected in the growing variety of environmental sub-disciplines that have emerged. In this article, we present ideas from a number of these sub-disciplines. We investigate four bridges linking both types of diversity (beliefs and worldviews, livelihoods and practices, knowledge bases and languages, and norms and institutions), seek to determine the common drivers of loss that exist, and suggest a novel and integrative path forwards. We recommend that future policy responses should target both biological and cultural diversity in a combined approach to conservation. The degree to which biological diversity is linked to cultural diversity is only beginning to be understood. But it is precisely as our knowledge is advancing that these complex systems are under threat. While conserving nature alongside human cultures presents unique challenges, we suggest that any hope for saving biological diversity is predicated on a concomitant effort to appreciate and protect cultural diversity.
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