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Effect of Tree Prunings on Soil Fertility and Crop Yield in Alley Cropping System
M. A. Haque,M. I. Ali,M. K. Khan
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: The study was conducted to find the impact of incorporation of green prunings from Samanea saman and Dalbergia sissoo in alley cropping system on soil fertility and subsequently yields of rice and wheat. Three treatments used were, 100 kg N ha -1 from 15N ammonium sulphate, 80 kg N ha -1 provided through prunings either from D. sissoo or S. saman plus 20 kg N ha -1 from 15N ammonium sulphate. Grain and straw yields of rice were increased by 23.8 and 32.1%. %15N atom excess (a. e.) and percent nitrogen derived from fertilizer were higher in treatment receiving 100% chemical fertilizer compared to those with tree prunings. Nitrogen contribution of tree prunings to rice yield was 51.3% in D. sissoo and 54.1% in S. saman. The positive effect of pruning was observed in P and K uptake by rice grain and straw. Residual effect of added prunings in succeeding wheat crop was also noticed for both in D. sissoo prunings (11.7%) and S. saman prunings (11.3%). In wheat crop , %15N (a. e.) and %Ndff were higher in 100% chemical fertilizer treatment compared to the residues of those with tree prunings. Nitrogen availability from the residues of tree prunings for wheat crop was 17.72 to 22.54%. P and K uptake in wheat were also more in previously tree pruning treated plots, as compared to the untreated ones. Improvement of soil fertility were observed due to application of tree prunings. Total N, available P, K and organic C were increased, resulting in good soil health, due to prunings.
Effects of land quality, management and cropping systems on cassava production in southern western Nigeria
OT Ande, JA Adediran, OT Ayoola, TA Akinlosotu
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: The study was carried out to assess the effects of land quality, management and cropping system on cassava production in the derived savanna and rain forest of southwestern Nigeria. Soil quality was studied from farmers’ fields which had been under cassava cultivation for at least ten (10) years. The yield data obtained from different crop mixtures and management practices were compared with the performance of cassava. The results showed great diversity of soils suitable for cassava production but good management and cropping system determined the yield. Maximum yield (78.5 t.ha-1) of cassava was recorded on fertile, sandy clay loam soil (Apomu series, Eutric Luvisol) intercropped with maize, followed with cowpea in relay cropping. Lowest yield (3.3 t.ha-1) was obtained on degraded low fertility compacted sandy soil of shante series (Albic Luvisol) under maize/cassava/crop mixture, with cashew. The results indicated that the more the use of appropriate agricultural input, management level and land requirement, the more the yield of cassava across the ecological zones studied.
Efficacy of Plant Extracts on Major Insect Pests of Selected Leaf Vegetables in Southwestern Nigeria
A.I. Okunlola,T.I. Ofuya,R.D. Aladesanwa
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Insect pest infestations are perhaps the most important constraint to production of vegetables in Nigeria and one of the primary causes of low quality and yields. Field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Akure, in the rainforest zone of Southwestern Nigeria, during the late and early seasons of 2005 and 2006. To evaluate the efficacy of aqueous plant extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) bark and WestAfrican black pepper (Piper guineese)seeds as a pest control strategy of the selected leaf vegetables viz Amaranthus hybridus L., Celosia argentea L. and Corchorus olitorius L. The selected vegetables were planted as sole and mixed crops. The plots were infested naturally and spraying with aqueous extracts of A. indica, P. guineese and synthetic insecticide, Cymbush commenced at 4 weeks after planting (WAP). Spraying the three selected vegetables under sole and mixed cropping with the aqueous plant extracts at 200 g L 1 significantly reduced the population of the insect pests and their associated damage compared to the control. A. indica extract was more efficacious in protecting the vegetables from insect pest infestation than P. guineense extract. However, the efficacy of A. indica extract was comparable to that of cymbushR.
Evaluation of Yield and Quality Performance of Grain Amaranth Varieties in the Southwestern Nigeria
J.O. Olaniyi
Research Journal of Agronomy , 2012,
Abstract: The production and use of amaranth as leaf vegetable and grain production and consumption, calls for more efforts in selecting varieties with high chemical composition and nutritive values. Four varieties of grain amaranth were evaluated for growth, yield, chemical composition and nutritive values in southern guinea savanna of southwestern Nigeria in 2003 and 2004. The varieties tested were NH84/451, NH84/452, NH84/494 and NH84/493-1. These were assigned randomly into three blocks and fitted into a randomized complete block design. Growth, yield and quality data were collected and subjected to analysis of variance and significant means compared using Duncan Multiple range test. Results revealed that the plant height and number of leaves of grain amaranth varieties increased as the plant aged. There were significant (p< 0.05) differences among the varieties from one sampling occasion to another in the 2 years. The highest growth, shoot and grain yields parameters were recorded from NH84/493-1 closely followed by NH84/451 while NH84/452 gave the lowest values in both cropping season. In the two growing seasons, there were significant (p< 0.05) different between the fresh and dry matter yields of different plant parts among the varieties with the stem recorded the highest values. The chemical compositions and the nutritional values in the leaves, stems and roots varied significantly among grain amaranth varieties with the leaves recorded the highest values. The distribution of protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre and minerals in the plant parts of the grain amaranth were similar irrespective of the varieties. Although, all the four grain amaranth varieties are good sources of quality and mineral elements, the consistent better performance in term of higher yield and nutritive values in both planting seasons of NH84/493-1 variety confirmed its ability to thrive well in the southern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria and its related ecological zones.
Relationship between Export Finance and Cocoa Export Performance in Intermediate Cocoa Processing Firms in Southwestern Zone of Nigeria
Onaolapo, A. R.,Odeyemi, J. T.
International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment , 2011,
Abstract: This study ascertained the relationship between export finance and cocoa export performance in intermediate cocoa processing firms in Southwestern zone of Nigeria. The two main constructs employed in this study are export performance and finance. While export intensity was used to measure the former, the latter was proxy after Ebong, 2008 and Ahmed 2008's forms of export finance thus; Self-financing (profit ploughed back), Money market financing (commercial bank loans) and Development Bank financing (NEXIM bank loans) variables. Data for this study were sourced through the administration of copies of questionnaire to six (6) out of eleven (11) intermediate cocoa processing firms in Southwestern zone of Nigeria that are registered with the Nigerian Export Promotion Council. The six (6) intermediate cocoa processing firms were purposively selected because they were those discovered to be functioning firms as at the time of field survey exercise. It was discovered that fund sourced from Commercial banks and Ploughed back profit had significant impact on Nigeria cocoa export performance while the impact of fund sourced from Development bank was insignificant. Thus, policy makers are strongly advised to henceforth route their intervention funds/assistance to any sector through the commercial banks for effectiveness but that interest rates charged by these banks should be closely monitored.
Enhancement of Fault Anomalies by Application of Steerable Filters: Application to Aeromagnetic Map of Part of Ifewara Fault Zone, Southwestern Nigeria  [PDF]
G.C. Onyedim
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Subtle potential-field signatures of brittle faults and fractures necessitate detailed data processing, using a wide variety of anomaly-enhancement techniques and display parameters. As a class of oriented linear filters, steerable filters are used in many vision and image processing tasks such as edge detection, textural analysis, motion analysis and pattern recognition. In this study, steerable filters were applied in six different azimuth directions to enhance magnetic anomalies due to faults in part of the basement complex of southwestern Nigeria. Unlike the original unfiltered image, the filtered images facilitated easy delineation of linear features which were interpreted as fractures in the area. The major fracture directions identified were NNE-SSW, NE-SW, NW-SE and ENE-WSW. The NNE-SSW trending Ifewara fault shows clearly as a fault zone.
Comparative Study of Taungya System and Alley Cropping in Ibadan Agricultural Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria
I.O. Adesiyan,F.I.Olagunju,B.A. Salako
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The study compares the yield of food crops of both Taunya and Alley farmers in Ibadan Agricultural Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria. A set of questionnaires was administered to 50 respondents each of both systems in the agricultural zone respectively. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive, inferential statistics, cost and return analysis to determine the level of their productivity. The result of descriptive statistics shows that there were fewer female than male farmers in the study area (98%). About 40 and 48% of the respondents were within the age range of 40-49 years. It was also discovered that 58 and 78% of them went to tertiary institution, 56 and 88%, respectively have farm sizes below 5hectare through inheritance. About 3% of the respondents have less than 5 years period of processing the land while the major constraints faced by the respondents was insufficient credit facilities with about 46% for the taungya system and 36% for the (alley cropping). The result of regression analysis shows that for production, pesticides and fertilizer cost were statistically significant at 0.05% level for both systems. The cost and return analysis shows that profit margin for both systems were N 128, 673 = and N 803, 845 = for Taungya system and Alley farming, respectively.
Groundwater quality for irrigation of deep aquifer in southwestern zone of Bangladesh
Mirza A.T.M. Tanvir Rahman,Syed Hafizur Rahman,Ratan Kumar Majumder
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: In coastal regions of Bangladesh, sources of irrigation are rain, surface and groundwater. Due to rainfall anomaly andsaline contamination, it is important to identify deep groundwater that is eligible for irrigation. The main goal of the study wasto identify deep groundwater which is suitable for irrigation. Satkhira Sadar Upazila, at the southwestern coastal zone ofBangladesh, was the study area, which was divided into North, Center and South zones. Twenty samples of groundwaterwere analyzed for salinity (0.65-4.79 ppt), sodium absorption ratio (1.14-11.62), soluble sodium percentage (32.95-82.21), electricalconductivity (614-2082.11 μS/cm), magnesium adsorption ratio (21.96-26.97), Kelly’s ratio (0.48-4.62), total hardness(150.76-313.33 mg/l), permeability index (68.02-94.16) and residual sodium bi-carbonate (79.68-230.72 mg/l). Chemical constituentsand values were compared with national and international standards. Northern deep groundwater has the highest salinityand chemical concentrations. Salinity and other chemical concentrations show a decreasing trend towards the south. Lowchemical concentrations in the southern region indicate the best quality groundwater for irrigation.
Geoelectric Assessment of Groundwater Prospects in Supare Estate, Supare Akoko, Southwestern, Nigeria
Geosciences , 2013, DOI: 10.5923/j.geo.20130301.03
Abstract: The geoelectric assessment of the groundwater prospects in Supare Estate, Supare Akoko, Southwestern Nigeria, has been carried out in this study. The study area is underlain by Precambrian Basement Complex rocks of Southwestern Nigeria. These rocks are inherently characterized by low porosity and permeability. The interpretation of fourteen (14) vertical electrical sounding (VES) using the Schlumberger electrode array shows four geoelectric layers in the subsurface within the study area. These are the topsoil, weathered layer, partially weathered/ fractured basement and fresh basement. The overburden thickness varies from 2 to 18 m across the study area. This was used to prepare the groundwater potential map which assisted in the zoning of the area into low, medium and high groundwater potential zones. About 85% of the study area falls within the low/medium rated groundwater potential zone while the remaining 15% constituted the high groundwater potential zone. Hence, the groundwater potential rating of the area is considered generally low.
Soil Quality, Carbon Sequestration and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Maize/Legume Cropping System in Alfisols of a Savanna Zone, Nigeria  [PDF]
Azubuike Chidowe Odunze, Yusuf Destiny Musa, Aishatu Abdulkadir
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2017.64032
Abstract: The role of maize-legume cropping system on soil quality, carbon sequestration and yield of maize in a Northern Guinea Savanna Alfisol, Nigeria was assessed in 2014 and 2015 rain-fed cropping seasons. The experiment was a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), replicated three times and treatments were Sole (Mono crop) Maize (M), Desmodium (D) and Soybeans (S); Maize/soybeans intercrop (MS), Maize/Desmodium intercrop (MD), Maize Strip cropped with Soybean (MS 2:4) and Maize Strip cropped with Desmodium (M:D 2:4). Data obtained were evaluated for Organic carbon, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, soil pH, and CEC, Bulk density, Soil moisture, mean weight diameter and grain yield of Maize. Results show that mean soil acidity (pH water, 6.37; pH CaCl2, 5.78), mean organic carbon (5.23 to 5.69 g·kg-1) and mean total nitrogen improved (0.66 g·kg-1) in 2015 over values in 2014. Mean weight diameter (MWD) increased from 0.59 in 2014 to 1.05 in 2015; indicating a better aggregation across treatments. Treatment M resulted in significantly higher bulk density (Bd) than other treatments at 8 weeks after planting (WAP) and 16WAP, suggesting that soils under mono-crop maize were impaired for sustainable crop production. Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestered in macro aggregates under MS (1.38 g·kg-1) was significantly higher than the other treatments. Best maize grain yield (GY) was under sole maize (M) and maize strip cropped with Desmodium (MD2:4) (3.13 t·ha-1 and 2.90 t·ha-1 in 2015, respectively). Maize strip cropped with Desmodium and maize/soybean intercrop enhanced better soil chemical and physical properties than sole maize. Soil quality (SQ) under MD2:4 ranked best (SQ1) for sustainable maize grain production and environmental conservation. Therefore, land use strategies that focus protection of soil organic carbon against further depletion and erosion, contribute nitrogen and/or replenishment of depleted carbon stocks through management techniques that involve legume/cereal cropping systems are advocated for sustainable agricultural production in the Nigerian Savanna zone Alfisols.
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