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Problems of Social and Economic Development Facing Third World Countries  [cached]
Patterson, P.J.
College Forum , 1984,
Abstract: The developed Western countries with their free market economy; the Socialist countries of Eastern Europe with their economies that are highly planned and subject to both public ownership and control; the developing countries of the Third World with oscillating differences in their political systems and economic structures yet linked through a common history of conquest and exploitation by colonial powers, are all bedevilled by the problems of organizing their own economies in a manner which would maximize the interest and social welfare of those they purport to serve.
The challenges facing Third World countries in banning tobacco  [cached]
Muula Adamson S.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001,
Obstacles Facing Developing Countries in Power System Planning  [PDF]
Abdullah M. Al-Shaalan
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2015.34002

The problem of power system planning, due to its complexity and dimensionality, is one of the most challenging problems facing the electric power industry in developing as well as developed countries. In planning phase, two of the most important decision-making parameters are the reliability and costs. The latter includes both system investment costs and outages costs. In this paper, these parameters are described and the interrelation between them is evaluated. Some previous approaches and developed techniques will he applied to a particular planning problem in a developing country and some aspects having a significant impact on the decision making process in the planning phase will be considered.

The role of pharmacists in developing countries: the current scenario in Pakistan
Saira Azhar, Mohamed Hassali, Mohamed Ibrahim, Maqsood Ahmad, Imran Masood, Asrul Shafie
Human Resources for Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4491-7-54
Abstract: The paper highlights the current scenario and portrays the pharmacy profession in Pakistan. It concludes that although the pharmacy profession in Pakistan is continuously evolving, the health care system of Pakistan has yet to recognize the pharmacist's role. This lack of recognition is due to the limited interaction of pharmacists with the public. Pharmacists in Pakistan are concerned about their present professional role in the health care system. The main problem they are facing is the shortage of pharmacists in pharmacies. Moreover, their services are focused towards management more than towards customers. For these reasons, the pharmacist's role as a health care professional is not familiar to the public.The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined health as the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity [1]. Within the context of this definition, health care providers play a major role in striving for health in a population. In terms of modern health care delivery, studies have shown that engaging multidisciplinary expertise is one of the goals for achieving ultimate population health [2]. Although the pharmacy profession is recognized for its importance as a health care provider in many developed countries, in most developing countries it is still underutilized [2].Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the basic sciences; it is committed to ensuring the safe and effective use of medication [3]. Pharmacists' professional roles and responsibilities have evolved historically from a focus on medication compounding and dispensing to extended pharmaceutical care services [4].An increase in health demands, with a complex range of chronic medicines and poor adherence to prescribed medicines, has forced pharmacists to take a patient-centered approach [5]. The paradigm shift for pharmacy practice took turn in 1990, when Hepler and Strand introduced the term "pharmaceutic
Plan to Restore the Vote: Ron Paul and the Third-Party Voting Dilemma  [cached]
Jonathan C. Anzur
Pitt Political Review , 2012, DOI: 10.5195/ppr.2012.24
Abstract: Texas Congressman and Republican presidential candidate Ron Paul has been a figure in American politics for more than 40 years. While Paul has commanded a dedicated support base composed of both liberals and conservatives, he remains well behind in the 2012 Republican primary race. This article examines the hypothetical case of a Ron Paul third-party presidential run, and the dilemma that voters face between voting conscientiously for Paul and voting strategically for the most electable and ideologically similar candidate.
A Static Analysis of Pakistan’s Trade Policy with Selected Asian Countries  [PDF]
Summaira MALIK,Amatual R. CHAUDHARY
Theoretical and Applied Economics , 2011,
Abstract: The paper critically analyzes Pakistan's trade policy during 1996-2006 and explores the determinants of bilateral export and import flows between Pakistan and selected Asian countries (SAC) in recent past. It contains the policy issues which may be helpful for policy makers of other developing countries facing same conditions. A gravity model of international trade is empirically tested with the help of generalized least square (GLS) method of estimation in panel data. Our results show that the income of trading countries is a determining factor of Pakistan's import flows but not for export flows. For exports, the openness of economies is playing central role instead the incomes of trading countries. The exchange rate is also found as a determining factor of Pakistan's export flows and import flows. There is convincing evidence that current import and export flows are highly correlated with previous year whereas infrastructural bottlenecks have negative impact on Pakistan's import and export flows.
Transportation Problems in Developing Countries Pakistan: A Case-in-Point
Muhammad Tahir Masood,Azhar Khan,Hasnain A. Naqvi
International Journal of Business and Management , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v6n11p256
Abstract: Identifying and solving transportation problems is one of the chief tasks confronting governments in developing countries like Pakistan. Despite large expenditures on urban transport systems, the current transportation problems in developing nations continue to worsen because of bad planning, lack of governance, and corruption. Therefore, developing countries like Pakistan, have a major crisis on their hands. Urban transport problems in Pakistan are mostly managed by building larger and better roads, but building roads is not the solution. Road projects need to be part of an over-all transportation plan that includes traffic management and bigger and better transit systems and public transport. The principles of sustainable transport encourage utilization of low cost public transport capable of performing well in mixed land use and densely–populated Pakistani cities. This article highlights the core problem of continuing failure by Pakistani government to develop and manage their public transport systems to provide a high level of mobility, equity, and environmental sustainability.
Globalisation of Pakistan: Lessons for Politically Unstable Countries
G Yoganandan
International Journal of Marketing Studies , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijms.v2n1p133
Abstract: Pakistan was one of the founder members of World Trade Organisation (WTO) and also a founder member in its erstwhile General Agreement on Trade and Tariff (GATT) but, people in Pakistan were not much exposed to globalization. The reasons for non-proliferation of awareness could be many particularly, political will, available communication infrastructure, implementation policies, literacy rate, form of government etc. The economic liberalization has been opted not as a policy generated indigenously but largely as an obligation under the conditionalities imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank through their Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP). The Structural Adjustment Programme has been a big failure in Pakistan. As part of this SAP, Pakistan received approximately US$ 31 billion in the form of external assistance and International Monetary Fund loans during 1985 to 2000 but, the amount spent for improving the infrastructure and poverty reduction was very minimal. Along with SAP Pakistan started its privatization process. But the results are not very encouraging since then; the privatization commission has completed privatizing 165 companies. The liberalization process is mainly carried out in Financial sector, Trade, Legal system, Administration, agriculture, education and Health care sector.This process actually aggravated job market. It has been a sour phenomenon for young people who are looking for a job as the unemployment rate is growing. The agriculture sector and trade did not show any significant performance after globalization. Higher poverty incidences were reported during post globalization. Health sector and Educational sector needs lot to be done to fine tune itself in coherence with the development going around. This article focuses on the globalization process in Pakistan and its consequences, to bring into limelight that globalization need to be managed prudently. The other countries with unstable political scenario should have to think and rethink why it went wrong in Pakistan. Key words: Globalization, Reform process, Privatization, Pakistan, Structural Adjustment Programme,
Prospects for Mobile Health in Pakistan and Other Developing Countries  [PDF]
Aqil Burney, Zain Abbas, Nadeem Mahmood, Qamar-ul Arifeen
Advances in Internet of Things (AIT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ait.2013.32A004

Pakistan is a developing country with more than half of its population located in rural areas. These areas neither have sufficient health care facilities nor a strong infrastructure that can address the health needs of the people. The expansion of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) around the globe has set up an unprecedented opportunity for delivery of healthcare facilities and infrastructure in these rural areas of Pakistan as well as in other developing countries. Mobile Health (mHealth)—the provision of health care services through mobile telephony—will revolutionize the way health care is delivered. From messaging campaigns to remote monitoring, mobile technology will impact every aspect of health systems. This paper highlights the growth of ICT sector and status of health care facilities in the developing countries, and explores prospects of mHealth as a transformer for health systems and service delivery especially in the remote rural areas.

Ethnic Dilemma in Pakistan and Division of Punjab: End or Beginning of the New Era of Conflict  [cached]
Yasmin Roofi,Khawaja Alqama
Journal of Politics and Law , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/jpl.v6n1p156
Abstract: Punjab is the largest province in Pakistan in terms of population and enjoys a vital position in politics. The dominant role of Punjab has been under criticism in the political history in the past but now it has taken a serious mood. The protagonists of this division claim that province is a multi-lingual and it should be divided on ethnic lines. Even elites from other provinces favor the division to eliminate the powerful position of Punjab but division of Punjab within the given political framework will make the ethnic plurality in Pakistan more problematic and leave an enduring impact on other provinces.
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