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1.8 MeV Emission from the Carina Region  [PDF]
J. Knoedlseder,K. Bennett,H. Bloemen,R. Diehl,W. Hermsen,U. Oberlack,J. Ryan,V. Schoenfelder
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: Significant 1.8 MeV emission from the Carina region has been detected by COMPTEL. The emission is concentrated within 6 degrees or less near the Carina nebula NGC 3372, one of the brightest HII regions known in our Galaxy. This region contains a wealth of extreme young open clusters whose massive stars possibly contributed to an enrichment of 26Al in the ISM within the last few million years. The relation of these clusters and the peculiar object Eta Carinae with the observed emission is discussed. The 26Al yield of the clusters is estimated using current theoretical nucleosynthesis models.
Near-Infrared properties of the X-ray emitting young stellar objects in the Carina Nebula  [PDF]
Thomas Preibisch,Simon Hodgkin,Mike Irwin,James R. Lewis,Robert R. King,Mark J. McCaughrean,Hans Zinnecker,Leisa Townsley,Patrick Broos
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/194/1/10
Abstract: Abbreviated Abstract: The near-infrared study of the Carina Nebula in this paper builds on the results of the Chandra Carina Complex Project (CCCP), that detected 14368 X-ray sources in the 1.4 square-degree survey region, an automatic source classification study that classified 10714 of these as very likely young stars in Carina, and an analysis of their clustering properties. We used HAWK-I at the ESO VLT to conduct a very deep near-IR survey with sub-arcsecond angular resolution, covering about 1280 square-arcminutes. The HAWK-I images reveal more than 600000 individual infrared sources, whereby objects as faint as J ~ 23, H ~ 22, and Ks ~ 21 are detected at S/N >= 3. While less than half of the Chandra X-ray sources have counterparts in the 2MASS catalog, the ~5 mag deeper HAWK-I data reveal infrared counterparts to 6636 (= 88.8%) of the 7472 Chandra X-ray sources in the HAWK-I field. We analyze near-infrared color-color and color-magnitude diagrams to derive information about the extinctions, infrared excesses, ages, and masses of the X-ray selected objects. The near-infrared properties agree well with the results of the automatic X-ray source classification. The shape of the K-band luminosity function of the X-ray selected Carina members agrees well with that derived for the Orion Nebula Cluster, suggesting that, down to the X-ray detection limit around 0.5-1 Msun, the shape of the IMF in Carina is consistent with that in Orion (and thus the field IMF). The fraction of stars with near-infrared excesses is rather small, <=10%, but shows considerable variations between individual parts of the complex. The distribution of extinctions for the diskless stars ranges from ~1.6 mag to ~6.2 mag (central 80th percentile), clearly showing a considerable range of differential extinction between individual stars in the complex.
Detection of a large massive circumstellar disk around a high-mass young stellar object in the Carina Nebula  [PDF]
Thomas Preibisch,Thorsten Ratzka,Tiago Gehring,Henrike Ohlendorf,Hans Zinnecker,Robert R. King,Mark J. McCaughrean,James R. Lewis
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201116528
Abstract: (abbreviated) We investigate the spatial structure and spectral energy distribution of an edge-on circumstellar disk around an optically invisible young stellar object that is embedded in a dark cloud in the Carina Nebula. Whereas the object was detected as an apparently point-like source in earlier infrared observations, only the superb image quality (FWHM ~0.5") of our VLT / HAWK-I data could reveal, for the first time, its peculiar morphology. It consists of a very red point-like central source that is surrounded by a roughly spherical nebula, which is intersected by a remarkable dark lane through the center. We construct the spectral energy distribution of the object from 1 to 870 microns and perform a detailed radiative transfer modeling of the spectral energy distribution and the source morphology. The observed object morphology in the near-IR images clearly suggests a young stellar object that is embedded in an extended, roughly spherical envelope and surrounded by a large circumstellar disk with a diameter of ~5500 AU that is seen nearly edge-on. The radiative transfer modeling shows that the central object is a massive (10-15 Msun) young stellar object. The circumstellar disk has a mass of about 2 Msun. The disk object in Carina is one of the most massive young stellar objects for which a circumstellar disk has been detected so far, and the size and mass of the disk are very large compared to the corresponding values found for most other similar objects.
Herschel far-infrared observations of the Carina Nebula complex II: The embedded young stellar and protostellar population  [PDF]
Benjamin Gaczkowski,Thomas Preibisch,Thorsten Ratzka,Veronica Roccatagliata,Henrike Ohlendorf,Hans Zinnecker
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219836
Abstract: The Carina Nebula represents one of the largest and most active star forming regions known in our Galaxy with numerous very massive stars.Our recently obtained Herschel PACS & SPIRE far-infrared maps cover the full area (about 8.7 deg^2) of the Carina Nebula complex and reveal the population of deeply embedded young stellar objects, most of which are not yet visible in the mid- or near-infrared.We study the properties of the 642 objects that are independently detected as point-like sources in at least two of the five Herschel bands.For those objects that can be identified with apparently single Spitzer counterparts, we use radiative transfer models to derive information about the basic stellar and circumstellar parameters.We find that about 75% of the Herschel-detected YSOs are Class 0 protostars.The luminosities of the Herschel-detected YSOs with SED fits are restricted to values of <=5400 Lsun, their masses (estimated from the radiative transfer modeling) range from about 1 Msun to 10 Msun.Taking the observational limits into account and extrapolating the observed number of Herschel-detected protostars over the IMF suggest that the star formation rate of the CNC is about 0.017 Msun/yr.The spatial distribution of the Herschel YSO candidates is highly inhomogeneous and does not follow the distribution of cloud mass.Most Herschel YSO candidates are found at the irradiated edges of clouds and pillars.This provides support to the picture that the formation of this latest stellar generation is triggered by the advancing ionization fronts.The currently ongoing star formation process forms only low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, but no massive stars.The far-infrared fluxes of the famous object EtaCar are about a factor of two lower than expected from observations with the ISO obtained 15 years ago; this may be due to dynamical changes in the circumstellar dust in the Homunculus Nebula.
Distance and the Initial Mass Function of Young Open Clusters In The Eta Carina Nebula: Tr 14 and Tr 16  [PDF]
Hyeonoh Hur,Hwankyung Sung,Michael S. Bessell
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/143/2/41
Abstract: We present new UBVI_C CCD photometry of the young open clusters Trumpler 14 (Tr 14) and Trumpler 16 (Tr 16) in the eta Carina nebula. We also identify the optical counterpart of Chandra X-ray sources and Two Micron All Sky Survey point sources. The members of the clusters were selected from the proper motion study, spectral types, reddening characteristics, and X-ray or near-IR excess emission. An abnormal reddening law R_V,cl=4.4\pm0.2 was obtained for the stars in the eta Carina nebula using the 141 early-type stars with high proper motion membership probability (P_u\geq70). We determined the distance to each cluster and conclude that Tr 14 and Tr 16 have practically the same distance modulus of V_0-M_V=12.3\pm0.2 mag (d=2.9\pm0.3 kpc). The slope of the initial mass function was determined to be {\Gamma}=-1.3\pm0.1 for Tr 14, {\Gamma}=-1.3\pm0.1 for Tr 16, and {\Gamma}=-1.4\pm0.1 for all members in the observed region for the stars with log m\geq0.2. We also estimated the age of the clusters to be about 1 -- 3 Myr from the evolutionary stage of evolved stars and low-mass pre-main-sequence stars.
Chandra X-ray observation of the HII region Gum 31 in the Carina Nebula complex  [PDF]
T. Preibisch,M. Mehlhorn,L. Townsley,P. Broos,T. Ratzka
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201323133
Abstract: (abridged) We used the Chandra observatory to perform a deep (70 ksec) X-ray observation of the Gum 31 region and detected 679 X-ray point sources. This extends and complements the X-ray survey of the central Carina nebula regions performed in the Chandra Carina Complex Project. Using deep near-infrared images from our recent VISTA survey of the Carina nebula complex, our Spitzer point-source catalog, and optical archive data, we identify counterparts for 75% of these X-ray sources. Their spatial distribution shows two major concentrations, the central cluster NGC 3324 and a partly embedded cluster in the southern rim of the HII region, but majority of X-ray sources constitute a rather homogeneously distributed population of young stars. Our color-magnitude diagram analysis suggests ages of ~1-2 Myr for the two clusters, whereas the distributed population shows a wider age range up to ~10 Myr. We also identify previously unknown companions to two of the three O-type members of NGC 3324 and detect diffuse X-ray emission in the region. Our results suggests that the observed region contains about 4000 young stars in total. The distributed population is probably part of the widely distributed population of ~ 1-10 Myr old stars, that was identified in the CCCP area. This implies that the global stellar configuration of the Carina nebula complex is a very extended stellar association, in which the (optically prominent) clusters contain only a minority of the stellar population.
A Pan-Carina YSO Catalog: Intermediate-Mass Young Stellar Objects in the Carina Nebula Identified Via Mid-Infrared Excess Emission  [PDF]
Matthew S. Povich,Nathan Smith,Steven R. Majewski,Konstantin V. Getman,Leisa K. Townsley,Brian L. Babler,Patrick S. Broos,Rémy Indebetouw,Marilyn R. Meade,Thomas P. Robitaille,Keivan G. Stassun,Barbara A. Whitney,Yoshinori Yonekura,Yasuo Fukui
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/194/1/14
Abstract: We present a catalog of 1439 young stellar objects (YSOs) spanning the 1.42 deg^2 field surveyed by the Chandra Carina Complex Project (CCCP), which includes the major ionizing clusters and the most active sites of ongoing star formation within the Great Nebula in Carina. Candidate YSOs were identified via infrared (IR) excess emission from dusty circumstellar disks and envelopes, using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Vela--Carina survey and the Two-Micron All Sky Survey. We model the 1--24 /mu m IR spectral energy distributions of the YSOs to constrain physical properties. Our Pan-Carina YSO Catalog (PCYC) is dominated by intermediate-mass (2 Msun < m < 10 Msun) objects with disks, including Herbig Ae/Be stars and their less evolved progenitors. The PCYC provides a valuable complementary dataset to the CCCP X-ray source catalogs, identifying 1029 YSOs in Carina with no X-ray detection. We also catalog 410 YSOs with X-ray counterparts, including 62 candidate protostars. Candidate protostars with X-ray detections tend to be more evolved than those without. In most cases, X-ray emission apparently originating from intermediate-mass, disk-dominated YSOs is consistent with the presence of low-mass companions, but we also find that X-ray emission correlates with cooler stellar photospheres and higher disk masses. We suggest that intermediate-mass YSOs produce X-rays during their early pre-main sequence evolution, perhaps driven by magnetic dynamo activity during the convective atmosphere phase, but this emission dies off as the stars approach the main sequence. Extrapolating over the stellar initial mass function scaled to the PCYC population, we predict a total population of >2x10^4 YSOs and a present-day star formation rate (SFR) of >0.008 Msun/yr. The global SFR in the Carina Nebula, averaged over the past ~5 Myr, has been approximately constant.
The VISTA Carina Nebula Survey II. Spatial distribution of the infrared-excess-selected young stellar population  [PDF]
Peter Zeidler,Thomas Preibisch,Thorsten Ratzka,Veronica Roccatagliata,Monika G. Petr-Gotzens
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201424376
Abstract: We performed a deep wide-field (6.76 deg^2) near-infrared survey with the VISTA telescope that covers the entire extent of the Carina nebula complex (CNC). The point-source catalog created from these data contains around four million individual objects down to masses of 0.1 M_sun. We present a statistical study of the large-scale spatial distribution and an investigation of the clustering properties of infrared-excesses objects, which are used to trace disk-bearing young stellar objects (YSOs). We find that a (J - H) versus (Ks - [4.5]) color-color diagram is well suited to tracing the population of YSO-candidates (cYSOs) by their infrared excess. We identify 8781 sources with strong infrared excess, which we consider as cYSOs. This sample is used to investigate the spatial distribution of the cYSOs with a nearest-neighbor analysis. The surface density distribution of cYSOs agrees well with the shape of the clouds as seen in our Herschel far-infrared survey. The strong decline in the surface density of excess sources outside the area of the clouds supports the hypothesis that our excess-selected sample consists predominantly of cYSOs with a low level of background contamination. This analysis allows us to identify 14 groups of cYSOs outside the central area. Our results suggest that the total population of cYSOs in the CNC comprises about 164000 objects, with a substantial fraction (~35%) located in the northern, still not well studied parts. Our cluster analysis suggests that roughly half of the cYSOs constitute a non-clustered, dispersed population.
[Fe II] 1.64 um Features of Jets and Outflows from Young Stellar Objects in the Carina Nebula  [PDF]
Jong-Ho Shinn,Tae-Soo Pyo,Jae-Joon Lee,Ho-Gyu Lee,Hyun-Jeong Kim,Bon-Chul Koo,Hwankyung Sung,Moo Young Chun,A. -Ran Lyo,Dae-Sik Moon,Jaemann Kyeong,Byeong-Gon Park,Hyeonoh Hur,Yong-Hyun Lee
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/777/1/45
Abstract: We present [Fe II] 1.64 {\mu}m imaging observations for jets and outflows from young stellar objects (YSOs) over the northern part (~ 24'x45') of the Carina Nebula, a massive star forming region. The observations were performed with IRIS2 of Anglo-Australian Telescope and the seeing was ~1.5"+-0.5". Eleven jet and outflow features are detected at eight different regions, and are named as Ionized Fe Objects (IFOs). One Herbig-Haro object candidate missed in Hubble Space Telescope H{\alpha} observations is newly identified as HHc-16, referring our [Fe II] images. IFOs have knotty or longish shapes, and the detection rate of IFOs against previously identified YSOs is 1.4 %, which should be treated as a lower limit. Four IFOs show an anti-correlated peak intensities in [Fe II] and H{\alpha}, where the ratio I([Fe II])/I(H{\alpha}) is higher for longish IFOs than for knotty IFOs. We estimate the outflow mass loss rate from the [Fe II] flux, using two different methods. The jet-driving objects are identified for three IFOs (IFO-2, -4, and -7), for which we study the relations between the outflow mass loss rate and the YSO physical parameters from the radiative transfer model fitting. The ratios of the outflow mass loss rate over the disk accretion rate are consistent for IFO-4 and -7 with the previously reported values (10^-2-10^+1), while it is higher for IFO-2. This excess may be from the underestimation of the disk accretion rate. The jet-driving objects are likely to be low- or intermediate-mass stars. Other YSO physical parameters, such as luminosity and age, show reasonable relations or trends.
Young open clusters in the Milky Way and Small Magellanic Cloud  [PDF]
Christophe Martayan
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921309991712
Abstract: NGC6611, Trumpler 14, Trumpler 15, Trumpler 16, Collinder 232 are very young open clusters located in star-formation regions of the Eagle Nebula or the Carina in the MW, and NGC346 in the SMC. With different instrumentations and techniques, it was possible to detect and classify new Herbig Ae/Be stars, classical Be stars and to provide new tests / comparisons about the Be stars appearance models. Special stars (He-strong) of these star-formation regions are also presented.
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