oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
杜梨HMGR基因克隆及其转基因烟草种子耐盐性分析
Clone of pear HMGR gene and salt-tolerance analysis of its transgenic tobacco seed
 [PDF]

黄晶,段续伟,张文娜,孟冬,马超,郝理,李天忠
- , 2015,
Abstract: 为研究3-羟基-3-甲基戊二酰辅酶A还原酶(HMGR)在植物耐盐方面的作用机理,以杜梨(Pyrus betulaefolia Bunge)叶片为材料,通过同源克隆获得开放阅读框为1 815 bp的cDNA全长序列,编码604个氨基酸的cDNA全长序列,结构预测显示该蛋白质的N端含有2个保守的跨膜结构域,C端具有催化区,包含HMG-CoA结合结构域和NADP(H)结合结构域。NCBI序列比对发现,其与苹果、沙梨HMGR的氨基酸序列同源性高达97%和93%;MEGA 5.0聚类分析发现该基因属于HMGR1亚类基因,因此,将该基因命名为PbHMGR。RT-PCR分析表明,PbHMGR在杜梨韧皮部、木质部、芽、叶片和花中均有表达,在芽中表达量最高。洋葱表皮亚细胞定位发现PbHMGR蛋白在细胞质中呈现点状分布。利用农杆菌侵染叶盘法将PbHMGR转化烟草,转基因T0代种子在添加不同浓度NaCl的培养基上播种,统计萌发率并观察萌发状态,发现转基因烟草种子抗盐胁迫的能力显著高于对照。说明PbHMGR基因可以在一定程度上提高植物种子的耐盐性。
To study the mechanism of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) on salt tolerance in plants, we used birch-leaf pear(Pyrus betulaefolia Bunge.)leaves as materials and obtained a complete cDNA sequence by homology cloning.The open reading frame of this gene was 1815 bp,while it encoded a protein consisting of 604 amino acids.Structure prediction revealed that there were two conserved transmembrane domains in the N-terminal of this protein, and catalytic domains in the C-terminal containing HMG-CoA binding domains and NADP (H) binding domains. Blasting from NCBI,the deduced amino acid sequence showed 97%,93% and 90% of homology rate with apple,flowering peach and sandy pear respectively.From clustering analysis by MEGA 5.0,the results indicated that the obtained gene was a member of HMGR1 subfamily,named as gene PbHMGR.From RT-PCR analysis,the data indicated that PbHMGR expressed widely in phloem,xylem,shoot,leave and flower of birch-leaf pear,but expressed superlatively in shoot.By onion epidermis subcellular positioning analysis,we observed that the PbHMGR protein showed punctate distribution in the cytoplasm.PbHMGR was then transformed into tobacco using the method of agrobacterium infecting leaf discs and sown transgenic T0 seed on medium supplemented with different concentrations of NaCl.The germination rate after 3 days and the germination state was significantly higher in the salt-tolerant transgenic tobacco seed than that of the control.The PbHMGR could thus increase the salt tolerance ability of plant seed.
Variability of some morphological traits of one-year old red oak, black walnut, birch and wild pear seedlings in the nurseries of Jastrebac region
Krsti? Milun,Vojinovi? Nevena
Glasnik ?umarskog Fakulteta , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/gsf0286147k
Abstract: Five morphological and quantitative characteristics of one-year old seedlings of Red oak (Quercus rubra L), Black walnut (Juglans nigra L), Wild pear (Pyrus pygrowser Borkh) and Birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh) were studied. The seedlings were produced and cultivated in the controlled conditions of the nursery in the region of Jastrebac, by the classical method. Aboveground seedling height, root collar diameter, root length, number of secondary roots and the leaf assimilation area were analysed. Intraspecific and interspecific variability of morphological features of the above species were assessed by the comparative analysis and statistical methods The comparative analysis shows the great individual variability of seedlings, which can indicate their genetic potential, adaptation to environment conditions, further spontaneous selection and the development in natural conditions. This justifies the need of the quality assessment and the first selection already in the nursery, in order to ensure the quality planting material and to reduce the risk of afforestation failure One-year old birch seedlings have the lowest average height (18.8 cm). Black walnut and Wild pear seedlings are approximately twice as high, and Red oak about 2.5 times higher. At the same time Red oak seedlings have for about one-fourth greater height than Black walnut, and for one-third greater height than Wild pear. Wild pear seedlings attain the averagely twice larger root collar diameter than Birch (2.8 cm), Red oak seedlings about 2.5 times larger diameter, and Black walnut 3.5 times larger diameter. Black walnut has a larger root collar diameter than Red oak for about one third, and almost twice larger than Wild pear. Birch, Red oak and Wild pear have almost twice longer root (1.8-1.9 times), Black walnut about 2.25 times longer. The total assimilation area of a Birch seedling is averagely 89.0 cm2. Compared to birch, wild pear has approximately double assimilation area per tree, Red oak 10 times larger, Black walnut even 14 times larger assimilation area The analysis of variance shows that the experiment is homogeneous in general, i.e. that variance within the group of the same species per all characteristics is not statistically significant at the level p>0.01. The statistically significant difference was found in the attained heights of one-year old seedlings of Red oak and Birch, as well as between them and other species, while there is no difference between Black walnut and Wild pear. All analysed species differ significantly in root collar diameter of one-year old seedlings. Bla
Origin, Domestication, and Dispersing of Pear (Pyrus spp.)  [PDF]
G. J. Silva,Tatiane Medeiros Souza,Rosa Lía Barbieri,Antonio Costa de Oliveira
Advances in Agriculture , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/541097
Abstract: The pear (Pyrus communis L.) is a typical fruit of temperate regions, having its origin and domestication at two different points, China and Asia Minor until the Middle East. It is the fifth most widely produced fruit in the world, being produced mainly in China, Europe, and the United States. Pear belongs to rosaceous family, being a close “cousin” of the apple, but with some particularities that make this fruit special with a delicate flavor. Thus, it deserves a special attention and a meticulous review of all the history involved, and the recent research devoted to it, because of the economic and cultural importance of this fruit in a range of countries and cultures. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to approach the history of the origin, domestication, and dispersal of pears, as well as reporting their botany, their current scenario in the world, and their breeding and conservation. 1. Introduction Pear, a typical fruit of temperate climates, with delicate pleasant taste and smooth, has a wide acceptance throughout the world. By its shape, it inspires designers and architects. The fruit pleases generations; already in 1661, Jean-Baptiste de La Quintinie, lawyer and botanist, responsible for the gardens of the Versailles palace, passionate about the cultivation of pears, wrote in reports: “It must be confessed that, among all fruits in this place, nature does not show anything so beautiful nor so noble as this pear. It is pear that makes the greatest honor on the tables…” The pear is mainly consumed in natura, pies, cakes, accompanying strong cheese or carpaccio, risotto, jams, and ice creams and is a great fruit to be consumed in diets because of its low caloric value. It has high nutritional value with reasonable amounts of vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, and C and minerals like sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and iron. It has a lot of fiber, giving excellent results in the treatment of constipation and intestine inflammation. Many recommend pears to cure anomalies such as cystitis and kidney stones [1]. Belonging to the genus Pyrus, which originated in the Tertiary period, in Western China, the pear had its dispersion from northern Italy, Switzerland, former Yugoslavia, Germany, Greece, Moldova, and Ukraine to the East, in countries such as Iran, Uzbekistan, China, Japan, Korea, and Bhutan. Commercially, it is divided into two major groups: European and Asian pears. The first, with elongated and full-bodied texture, and the second, with sandy texture and rounded body, make this fruit the ninth in world production,
Identification of Pyrus Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and Evaluation for Genetic Mapping in European Pear and Interspecific Pyrus Hybrids  [PDF]
Sara Montanari, Munazza Saeed, Mareike Kn?bel, YoonKyeong Kim, Michela Troggio, Mickael Malnoy, Riccardo Velasco, Paolo Fontana, KyungHo Won, Charles-Eric Durel, Laure Perchepied, Robert Schaffer, Claudia Wiedow, Vincent Bus, Lester Brewer, Susan E. Gardiner, Ross N. Crowhurst, David Chagné
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077022
Abstract: We have used new generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from three European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars and subsequently developed a subset of 1096 pear SNPs into high throughput markers by combining them with the set of 7692 apple SNPs on the IRSC apple Infinium? II 8K array. We then evaluated this apple and pear Infinium? II 9K SNP array for large-scale genotyping in pear across several species, using both pear and apple SNPs. The segregating populations employed for array validation included a segregating population of European pear (‘Old Home’בLouise Bon Jersey’) and four interspecific breeding families derived from Asian (P. pyrifolia Nakai and P. bretschneideri Rehd.) and European pear pedigrees. In total, we mapped 857 polymorphic pear markers to construct the first SNP-based genetic maps for pear, comprising 78% of the total pear SNPs included in the array. In addition, 1031 SNP markers derived from apple (13% of the total apple SNPs included in the array) were polymorphic and were mapped in one or more of the pear populations. These results are the first to demonstrate SNP transferability across the genera Malus and Pyrus. Our construction of high density SNP-based and gene-based genetic maps in pear represents an important step towards the identification of chromosomal regions associated with a range of horticultural characters, such as pest and disease resistance, orchard yield and fruit quality.
The Draft Genome Sequence of European Pear (Pyrus communis L. ‘Bartlett’)  [PDF]
David Chagné, Ross N. Crowhurst, Massimo Pindo, Amali Thrimawithana, Cecilia Deng, Hilary Ireland, Mark Fiers, Helge Dzierzon, Alessandro Cestaro, Paolo Fontana, Luca Bianco, Ashley Lu, Roy Storey, Mareike Kn?bel, Munazza Saeed, Sara Montanari, Yoon Kyeong Kim, Daniela Nicolini, Simone Larger, Erika Stefani, Andrew C. Allan, Judith Bowen, Isaac Harvey, Jason Johnston, Mickael Malnoy, Michela Troggio, Laure Perchepied, Greg Sawyer, Claudia Wiedow, Kyungho Won, Roberto Viola, Roger P. Hellens, Lester Brewer, Vincent G. M. Bus, Robert J. Schaffer, Susan E. Gardiner, Riccardo Velasco
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092644
Abstract: We present a draft assembly of the genome of European pear (Pyrus communis) ‘Bartlett’. Our assembly was developed employing second generation sequencing technology (Roche 454), from single-end, 2 kb, and 7 kb insert paired-end reads using Newbler (version 2.7). It contains 142,083 scaffolds greater than 499 bases (maximum scaffold length of 1.2 Mb) and covers a total of 577.3 Mb, representing most of the expected 600 Mb Pyrus genome. A total of 829,823 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected using re-sequencing of ‘Louise Bonne de Jersey’ and ‘Old Home’. A total of 2,279 genetically mapped SNP markers anchor 171 Mb of the assembled genome. Ab initio gene prediction combined with prediction based on homology searching detected 43,419 putative gene models. Of these, 1219 proteins (556 clusters) are unique to European pear compared to 12 other sequenced plant genomes. Analysis of the expansin gene family provided an example of the quality of the gene prediction and an insight into the relationships among one class of cell wall related genes that control fruit softening in both European pear and apple (Malus×domestica). The ‘Bartlett’ genome assembly v1.0 (http://www.rosaceae.org/species/pyrus/py?rus_communis/genome_v1.0) is an invaluable tool for identifying the genetic control of key horticultural traits in pear and will enable the wide application of marker-assisted and genomic selection that will enhance the speed and efficiency of pear cultivar development.
Transcriptomic analysis of ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) buds during the dormancy by RNA-Seq  [cached]
Liu Guoqin,Li Wanshun,Zheng Penghua,Xu Tong
BMC Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-700
Abstract: Background Bud dormancy is a critical developmental process that allows perennial plants to survive unfavorable environmental conditions. Pear is one of the most important deciduous fruit trees in the world, but the mechanisms regulating bud dormancy in this species are unknown. Because genomic information for pear is currently unavailable, transcriptome and digital gene expression data for this species would be valuable resources to better understand the molecular and biological mechanisms regulating its bud dormancy. Results We performed de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling analyses of ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) using the Illumina RNA-seq system. RNA-Seq generated approximately 100 M high-quality reads that were assembled into 69,393 unigenes (mean length = 853 bp), including 14,531 clusters and 34,194 singletons. A total of 51,448 (74.1%) unigenes were annotated using public protein databases with a cut-off E-value above 10-5. We mainly compared gene expression levels at four time-points during bud dormancy. Between Nov. 15 and Dec. 15, Dec. 15 and Jan. 15, and Jan. 15 and Feb. 15, 1,978, 1,024, and 3,468 genes were differentially expressed, respectively. Hierarchical clustering analysis arranged 190 significantly differentially-expressed genes into seven groups. Seven genes were randomly selected to confirm their expression levels using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusions The new transcriptomes offer comprehensive sequence and DGE profiling data for a dynamic view of transcriptomic variation during bud dormancy in pear. These data provided a basis for future studies of metabolism during bud dormancy in non-model but economically-important perennial species.
STUDIES ON KARYOTYPES OF PYRUS IN CHINA (1)
我国梨属植物染色体核型研究(一)

Pu Fushen,Lin Shenghua,
.蒲富慎
,.林盛华,.宋文芹,.陈瑞阳,.李秀兰

植物科学学报 , 1985,
Abstract: In this paper the karyotypes of 5 pear species in China were analysed. The result indicates that the karyotype of Pyrus phacocarpa, 2n=2x=34=24m+10sm(2SAT), is similar to that of P. betulaefolia, 2n=2x=34=24m+10sm, and thus they belong to the same group of species; the karyotypes of P. sinkiangensis and P. hopeihensis are identical, 2n = 2x = 34 = 16m + 18sm(2SAT), and are similar to that of P. serrulata, making up another group of species. In the two groups of species the former is relatively primitive and the latter seems to be a secondary one, derived from natural hybridization.
Establishment of proteome spot profiles and comparative analysis of the red and green phenotypes of ‘Bon Rouge’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) leaves
LA Thomas, MJ Sehata, MG du Preez, JG Rees, BK Ndimba
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: The ‘Bon Rouge’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar is characterized by high levels of anthocyanins, the pigments responsible for the red leaf and red fruit skin phenotype. Branches of ‘Bon Rouge’ pear trees planted in commercial orchards often revert to the original green phenotype. The study aimed at establishing proteome maps of ‘Bon Rouge’ pear leaves and at comparing the proteomes of the red and green phenotypes of these leaves. In this study, total proteins extracted from red and green leaves were resolved on two-dimensional (2D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and stained with coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) to establish proteome maps. An average of 183 and 173 protein spots were detected in the red and green phenotypes, respectively. Using mass spectrometry, 12 differentially expressed proteins, as determined by the comparative PDQuest analysis of the two phenotypes, were positively identified. The identifications were then validated using the publicly available apple expressed sequence tag (EST) database. One of the proteins that was up regulated in the green phenotype was identified as phytochrome B, a protein involved with the inhibition of anthocyanin synthesis. Overall, the present data showed a predominant increase of photosynthesis-related proteins in the green leaves.
Evaluation of several less known pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars in the climatic conditions of Lower Silesia
Ireneusz Sosna,Daria Kortylewska
Acta Agrobotanica , 2012, DOI: 10.5586/aa.2012.033
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate flowering, yielding, fruit quality, and growth of several less known pear cultivars growing in the climatic conditions of Lower Silesia. The experiment was conducted in the years 2006–2010 in the Fruit Experimental Station located in Samotwór near Wroc aw. In spring 2006, trees of several less known pear cultivars were planted: 'Isolda', 'Hortensia', 'Fertilia Delbard Delwilmor', 'Wy nica', 'Nojabrskaja' ('Xenia '), 'Uta', 'David' on Caucasian pear (Pyrus caucasica Fed.), 'Bohemica' on quince S1 (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) as well as 'Morava' and 'Blanka' on both these rootstocks. The highest total yield in the years 2007–2010 was recorded for the 'Nojabrskaja' and 'Wy nica' cultivars. The 'Blanka' cultivar produced the largest fruit, while fruits of the 'Isolda' cultivar were significantly the smallest. The largest growth and cross-sectional area of the trunk were recorded for the trees of the 'Wy nica' cultivar, while the smallest were observed in the case of 'Morava', in which the thickness of the trunk was similar on both rootstocks. The 'Morava' cultivar grafted on quince S1 formed the smallest crowns. On the other hand, 'Isolda' and 'Hortensia' were among the cultivars that produced the largest crowns.
The Properties of Terrestrial Laser System Intensity for Measuring Leaf Geometries: A Case Study with Conference Pear Trees (Pyrus Communis)  [PDF]
Mathilde A.F. Balduzzi,Dimitry Van der Zande,Jan Stuckens,Willem W. Verstraeten,Pol Coppin
Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/s110201657
Abstract: Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology can be a valuable tool for describing and quantifying vegetation structure. However, because of their size, extraction of leaf geometries remains complicated. In this study, the intensity data produced by the Terrestrial Laser System (TLS) FARO LS880 is corrected for the distance effect and its relationship with the angle of incidence between the laser beam and the surface of the leaf of a Conference Pear tree (Pyrus Commmunis) is established. The results demonstrate that with only intensity, this relationship has a potential for determining the angle of incidence with the leaves surface with a precision of ±5° for an angle of incidence smaller than 60°, whereas it is more variable for an angle of incidence larger than 60°. It appears that TLS beam footprint, leaf curvatures and leaf wrinkles have an impact on the relationship between intensity and angle of incidence, though, this analysis shows that the intensity of scanned leaves has a potential to eliminate ghost points and to improve their meshing.
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.