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Effect of Intercropping Maize (Zea mays L.) With Cow Pea (Vigna unguiculata L.) on Green Forage Yield and Quality Evaluation  [PDF]
Mehdi Dahmardeh,Ahmad Ghanbari,Baratali Syasar,Mahmood Ramroudi
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: In this study effect of different planting ratios and harvest time of intercropping maize and cowpea on economical and biological yield and quality of maize forage (Zea mays L.) was evaluated in the Department of Agronomy, University of Zabol, during 2007. The planting ratios of maize to bean was 100:100, 50:100, 100:50, 25:75, 75:25, 50:50 , 0:100 and 100:0, respectively. The intercropped of maize and bean in different planting ratio significantly affected the quantitative and qualitative characters of the forage. The highest yield of green fodder (65.7 t ha-1) was obtained by sowing the crops in ratio of 100:100. The highest grain yield (9.0 t ha-1) for maize was recorded from 75+25% ratio, maize and cowpea and the highest grain yield for cowpea (3.9 t ha-1) was recorded from 50+100% ratio, maize and cowpea, respectively. The highest crude protein (19.65%) was produced by the cowpea sole cropping and the lowest from the maize plots sole cropping (12.11%). The highest land equivalent ratio (2.26) was obtained by sowing the crops in ratio of 100:100 and the highest crude protein was obtained by harvest time in milky stage (15.2%).
Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping
LIMA FILHO, JOSé MOACIR PINHEIRO;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2000000500008
Abstract: the effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (zea mays l.) cv. centralmex, and cowpea (vigna unguiculata l. (walp)) cv. pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the embrapa-centro de pesquisa agropecuária do trópico semi-árido (cpatsa) at petrolina, pe, brazil. the treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. the results obtained in this paper appear to be related to the degree of competition experienced by the components, mainly for water and light. maize intercropped had higher values of leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than as sole crop. intercropped cowpea had higher values of leaf water potential but lower stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than sole cowpea. maize productivity increased 18% in relation to sole crop whereas a 5% decrease was observed with cowpea. despite these facts the land equivalent ratio obtained was 1.13 indicating intercropping advantage over the sole system. the higher partial land equivalent ratio observed for maize suggests that this specie was the main component influencing the final productivity of the intercropping system studied.
Physiological responses of maize and cowpea to intercropping
LIMA FILHO JOSé MOACIR PINHEIRO
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2000,
Abstract: The effect of intercropping on plant water status, gas exchange and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) cv. Centralmex, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) cv. Pitiuba were evaluated under semi-arid conditions at the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Semi-árido (CPATSA) at Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments were: maize and cowpea as sole crops, at a population of 40,000 plants ha-1, and intercropped at a population of 20,000 plants ha-1. The results obtained in this paper appear to be related to the degree of competition experienced by the components, mainly for water and light. Maize intercropped had higher values of leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than as sole crop. Intercropped cowpea had higher values of leaf water potential but lower stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis than sole cowpea. Maize productivity increased 18% in relation to sole crop whereas a 5% decrease was observed with cowpea. Despite these facts the Land Equivalent Ratio obtained was 1.13 indicating intercropping advantage over the sole system. The higher partial Land Equivalent Ratio observed for maize suggests that this specie was the main component influencing the final productivity of the intercropping system studied.
Growth Attributes of Component Crops in a Maize (Zea mays L.)/Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) Intercropping System as Influenced by Crop Arrangement and Proportion in Semi-Arid Nigeria
M.A. Adeleke,V.B. Ogunlela,O.O. Olufajo,E.N.O. Iwuafor
Research Journal of Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjagr.2011.38.45
Abstract: Field trials were conducted at Samaru, Nigeria during the 2004-2006 wet seasons to study the influence of to crop arrangement and proportion on the growth attributes of component crops in a maize-cowpea intercropping system. The treatments tested consisted of maize and cowpea intercrops with two forms of crop arrangement (intra- and inter-row), four different crop proportions (1C:1M, 3C:1M, 1C:3M and 2C:2M Cowpea:Maize) and two row arrangements (single- and paired-row) in factorial combinations. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Crop arrangement significantly affected the growth and growth characters of maize and cowpea intercrops. The inter-row crop arrangement produced taller maize plants and higher dry weight than the intra-row crop arrangement. The 1:1 and 1:3 (Cowpea:Maize) crop proportions produced taller maize plants than the 3:1 and 2:2 (Cowpea:Maize) crop proportions while the paired-row arrangement also produced taller maize plants with low dry weight compared to the single-row arrangement. The inter-row crop arrangement produced cowpea crop with moderate height, higher dry weight and wider canopy spread. The 3:1 (Cowpea:Maize) crop proportion produced wider cowpea canopy spread and higher dry matter weight but shorter plants compared to the other proportions. The paired-row arrangement produced taller cowpea plants with low dry matter weight. Researchers conclude that the vegetative growth of maize and cowpea plants in an intercropping system can be enhanced using the inter-row crop arrangement, 1:1 or 2:2 (Cowpea:Maize) crop proportions and paired-row arrangement for subsequent high maize grain yield. Alternatively by using inter-row arrangement, 3:1 (Cowpea:Maize) crop proportion and single-row arrangement for moderate maize grain yield but higher cowpea grain yield as well as soil fertility improvement through nitrogen fixation. The provision of cowpea haulms for livestock feed would be a bonus.
Analysis of Growth of Intercrop Species in a Maize (Zea mays L.)/Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) Intercropping System as Influenced by Crop Arrangement and Proportion in Semi-Arid Nigeria
M.A. Adeleke,V.B. Ogunlela,O.O. Olufajo
Research Journal of Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjagr.2012.13.19
Abstract: In order to determine how the growth indices of intercrop species in an intercropping system are influenced by certain factors, field trials were conducted at Institute for Agriculture Research (IAR) farm at Samaru, Zaria during the wet seasons of 2004-2006. The treatments tested consisted of maize and cowpea intercrops with 2 forms of crop arrangement (intra- and inter-row), 4 different crop proportions (1C:1M, 3C:1M, 1C:3M and 2C:2M Cowpea: Maize) and 2 row arrangements (single- and paired-row) in factorial combinations. These treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications. The crop varieties used were: maize-TZPBSR and cowpea-SAMPEA-6. Crop arrangement significantly affected the rate of growth of the 2 component crops. The Relative Growth Rate (RGR) and Crop Growth Rate (CGR) measured at 6-8 and 8-10 Weeks After Sowing (WAS) were higher under the inter-row crop arrangement in maize by 23 and 22.6%, respectively on the average relative to those under the intra-row crop arrangement. The 3:1 and 2:2 (Cowpea: Maize) crop proportions had higher RGR and CGR values. The 3:1 (cowpea: maize) crop proportion in the single row arrangement produced higher growth rates of cowpea than under any of the other arrangements. In relation to the yield parameters which were measured later, the rate of growth in relation to the productivity of maize/cowpea intercropping system could be determined by using the indices of Relative Growth Rate (RGR) and Crop Growth Rate (CGR) particularly at the later stages of growth of the 2 crops. Indices of crop growth were generally higher for the components when they were grown under the single- and inter-row arrangements.
Root Length Density in Maize/Cowpea Intercropping under a Basin Tillage System in a Semi-Arid Area of Zimbabwe  [PDF]
E. D. N. Dube, T. Madanzi, A. Kapenzi, E. Masvaya
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.511165
Abstract:


A study to assess the effect of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) within the same basin or outside the basin on root length density (RLD) was conducted at the International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Matopos Research Station from December 2009 to April 2010. The experiment was laid out in a Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four treatments replicated four times namely; sole maize, sole cowpea, maize-cowpea intercrop with cowpea and maize planted within the same basin and maize-cowpea intercrop with cowpea planted 20 cm outside the maize basin. There was significant difference (P < 0.001) in RLD, grain yield and stover yield. Maize-cowpea intercropped within the same basin achieved higher RLD, grain yield and stover yield than cowpea that was intercropped outside the basin and the sole crops. The land equivalent ratio (LER) in both intercrop designs showed that intercropping had better grain yield performance when compared to sole cropping. It can be concluded that intercropping maize and cowpeas within the same basin can result in an environment around the crop achieving higher RLD which translates to better grain yield compared to the sole cropping and intercropping cowpeas outside the basin.


Evaluating the Intercropping of Millet with Cowpea for Forage Yield and Quality  [PDF]
Naveed Islam, Muhammad Shahid Ibni Zamir, Shan Mohi Ud Din, Umer Farooq, Haseeb Arshad, Aqib Bilal, Muhammad Talha Sajjad
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.99130
Abstract: A field study was scheduled to estimate the impact of intercropping of pearl millet with cowpea on forage yield and quality at Agronomy Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. It was done in kharif season 2016. Randomized complete block design was used to conduct this experiment. It has three replications. The size of net plot is 3.6 m × 6 m. It comprised of five treatments (T1 = one row of millet alternating with one row of cowpea (1M:1C), T2 = two rows of millet alternating with one row of cowpea (2M:1C), T3 = one row of millet alternating with two rows of cowpea (1M:2C), T4 = sole millet, T5 = sole cowpea). We found that intercropping significantly effected the yield and quality of forage. Intercropping system had significant effects on nutritive value of forage crop. Within various treatments of intercropping, it is evident that treatment T2 (two rows of millet alternating with one row of cowpea) gives maximum total dry matter yield (9.68 t ha-1). It was then tracked by treatment T1 (one row of millet alternating with one row of cowpea) and treatment T3 (one row of millet alternating with two rows of cowpea) producing
Influence du décalage du semis du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) par rapport au ma s (Zea mays L.) sur la croissance et le rendement du niébé
Adipala, E.,Ocaya, CP.,Osiru, DSO.
Tropicultura , 2002,
Abstract: Effect of Time of Planting Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Relative to Maize (Zea mays L.) on Growth and Yield of Cowpea. Field investigations were carried out for three seasons in two locations of Uganda to examine yield benefits when cowpea and maize are planted under intensive farming conditions. Additive mixtures of cowpea were planted into maize thrice at 2 weekly intervals together with sole crops. Time of introducing cowpea into maize significantly affected both the growth and yield of cowpea. Simultaneous planting generally showed a yield advantage (LER> 1) of the cowpea/ maize intercropping systems irrespective of the cowpea varieties used, but LER declined when time of introducing cowpea into maize was delayed being as low as 0.76 when cowpea was planted four weeks after planting maize. The reduction in the growth and yield of cowpea was due to increased shading from the maize plants especially when cowpea was introduced at the fourth week. Therefore, to achieve yield benefit simultaneous planting of maize and cowpea recommended.
Maximizing Land Use Efficiency by Intercropping Cowpea with Some Maize Cultivars under Different Maize Planting Geometries  [PDF]
Yasser E. El-Ghobashy, Amr S. Shams, Mohamed M. Lamlom
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.912112
Abstract: Adjustment of planting geometry along with suitable maize cultivar can be a viable tool for maximizing land usage and net return. A two-year study was carried out at Serw Agricultural Experiments and Research Station, A.R.C., Domiate governorate, Egypt, during 2015 and 2016 seasons to evaluate intercropping cowpea with suitable maize cultivar and its planting geometry for maximizing land usage and net return. The treatments were the combinations between three maize cultivars (SC 30K08, TWC 310 and TWC 352) and three maize plant distributions (one plant/hill distanced at 25, 50 and 75 cm between hills, respectively). Ridge width with maize plant distribution formed maize planting geometry (25 cm × 140 cm, 50 cm × 140 cm and 75 cm × 140 cm). These treatments were compared in a split plot distribution in randomized complete block design with three replications. Maize cultivar SC 30K08 had the highest grain yield and its attributes compared with the other cultivars in both seasons. Also, maize planting geometry 25 cm × 140 cm resulted in the highest grain yield and its attributes compared with the other planting geometries in both seasons. Ear length, ear weight, 100-grain weight and grain yield/fad were affected significantly by maize cultivars × maize planting geometry. Intercropping cowpea with maize cultivar TWC 352 had the highest seed yield and its attributes compared with those intercropped with the other cultivars in both seasons. Also, maize planting geometry 75 cm × 140 cm resulted in the highest seed yield and its attributes through growing two cowpea rows between maize hills compared with the other maize planting geometries in both seasons. Number of pods/plant and seed yield/fad were affected significantly by maize cultivars × maize planting geometry. LER and LEC values of the intercrops were much greater than 1.00 and 0.25, respectively, for all the combinations indicating less land requirements of intercropping system than solid culture of both crops. Growing one row of maize cultivar TWC352 in both sides of bed 140 cm width with cowpea two rows in middle of the bed increased land productivity and net return compared with solid culture of maize.
Yield Performance of Some Cowpea Varieties under Sole and Intercropping with Maize at Bauchi, Nigeria.
IH Alhaji
African Research Review , 2008,
Abstract: Field experiments were conducted during the 1997 and 1998 rainy seasons at the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Research Farm, Bauchi (10020'N and 9048'E) to investigate the yield performance by some cowpea varieties under sole and intercropping with maize at Bauchi, Nigeria. Treatments consisted of three planting patterns (sole cowpea, cowpea/maize and sole maize) and ten cowpea varieties (IT89KD-391, IT93K-452-1, IT90K-277-2, IT86D-719, IT89KD-349, IT93K-734, IT93K-273-2-1, IT90K-372-1-2, and yar dunga (L)) combined factorially in a split plot design. Results revealed that cowpea plant height, days to fifty percent flowering; leaf area and leaf area indices were not significantly affected by intercropping in 1997 and 1998. The mean number of pod/plant, pod weight and seed yield of the cowpea varieties were significantly different in maize intercrop. Intercropping was also significant in affecting the plant height, leaf area and leaf area indices of maize in 1997 and 1998 cropping season. Similarly maize cob weight, stover and grain yield were significantly affected by intercropping. Land equivalent ratio greater than 1.00 and a maximum 2.11 were recorded in the two years of the investigation. For intercropping purpose, it is therefore suggested that varieties IT90K-372-1-2, IT90K-277-2, IT88D-867-11, IT89KD-391 and IT86D-719 are more suitable for high yield in Bauchi. African Research Review Vol. 2 (3) 2008: pp. 278-291
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