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THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AEROBIC CAPACITY IN TRAINED AND UNTRAINED SUBJECTS  [cached]
Purru Ravi Kumar,Yogananda Reddy Indla,Ragam Ravi Sunder,Rajani Santha Kumari
International Journal of Biomedical Research , 2013, DOI: 10.7439/ijbr.v3i1.272
Abstract: Aim: To evaluate aerobic capacity in trained and untrained subjects by measuring Vo2 max. Methods and Materials: In the present study 40 healthy subjects were selected between the age group 20-30 years. One group is not having any regular specific physical exercise and the second group which includes subjects, who regularly do the cycling in gym since more than two years. Resting pulse rate was recorded with E.C.G. The subjects were asked to peddle the bicycle ergo metre first with a resistance of 2 kg for 5 minutes next with a resistance of 4 kg for 3 minutes there after resistance is increased by 0.5 kg for every 3 minutes until the subject is exhausted. Immediately after the exercise heart rate was recorded with E.C.G. Vo2max =55.23-(0.09xheart rate/min). Results: P-value of Vo2 max is 0.005 which is highly significant. Conclusion: The Vo2 max is higher in trained subjects than in untrained subjects. This is due to cardiac output and total skeletal muscle mass are more in trained subjects.
THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AEROBIC CAPACITY IN TRAINED AND UNTRAINED SUBJECTS  [cached]
Purru Ravi Kumar,Yogananda Reddy Indla,Ragam Ravi Sunder,Rajani Santha Kumari
International Journal of Biomedical Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijbr.v3i1.272
Abstract: Aim: To evaluate aerobic capacity in trained and untrained subjects by measuring Vo2 max. Methods and Materials: In the present study 40 healthy subjects were selected between the age group 20-30 years. One group is not having any regular specific physical exercise and the second group which includes subjects, who regularly do the cycling in gym since more than two years. Resting pulse rate was recorded with E.C.G. The subjects were asked to peddle the bicycle ergo metre first with a resistance of 2 kg for 5 minutes next with a resistance of 4 kg for 3 minutes there after resistance is increased by 0.5 kg for every 3 minutes until the subject is exhausted. Immediately after the exercise heart rate was recorded with E.C.G. Vo2max =55.23-(0.09xheart rate/min). Results: P-value of Vo2 max is 0.005 which is highly significant. Conclusion: The Vo2 max is higher in trained subjects than in untrained subjects. This is due to cardiac output and total skeletal muscle mass are more in trained subjects.
Anaerobic endurance of young untrained male and female subjects
Edyta Sienkiewicz-Dianzenza, Ph.D. , Pawe Tomaszewski , Dagmara Iwańska , Romuald Stupnicki
Biomedical Human Kinetics , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10101-009-0005-y
Abstract: Study aim: To assess the anaerobic endurance of untrained male and female subjects by applying repeated maximal exercises. Material and methods: Untrained male subjects aged 23 - 27 years (n = 17, body height 170 - 197 cm, body mass 65 - 110 kg) and female ones aged 20 - 25 years (n = 10, body height 168 - 184 cm, body mass 55 - 86 kg) performed 6 maximal cycle ergometer (CE) exercises (64 flywheel revolutions each, spaced by 15 s intermissions, the load amounting to 75 g per kg body mass) and 6 bouts of 10 push-offs on an inclined plane device (IP). Mean and maximal relative power outputs were recorded, the ratio of the two - the performance index (PI), served as a measure of anaerobic performance. Results: Men attained significantly higher maximum power outputs than women in both tests but the respective PI values were in both genders alike. Highest power outputs amounted to 10.80 ± 0.91 and 9.45 ± 0.43 W/kg (cycle ergometer) for men and women, respectively, and to 20.06 ± 3.78 and 13.70 ± 1.88 W/kg (inclined plane) for men and women, respectively. No significant differences between genders were found for the PI values in either test but significant within-gender differences were detected between tests: mean PI values (±SD) amounted to 0.799 ± 0.052 and 0.850 ± 0.063 for men (p<0.01), and 0.803 ± 0.030 and 0.875 ± 0.078 for women (p<0.05), for CE and IP, respectively. Conclusions: The performance index enabled comparing male and female subjects, as well as different exercise tests consisting of repeated, short, maximal exercises, with respect to anaerobic endurance.
BODY BUILD AND BODY COMPOSITION VS. PHYSICAL CAPACITY IN YOUNG JUDO CONTESTANTS COMPARED TO UNTRAINED SUBJECTS  [PDF]
S. Sterkowicz,G. Lech,T. Pa?ka,A. Tyka
Biology of Sport , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to (1) find differences in body build and aerobic and anaerobic capacity between young judoists and untrained peers; (2) compare correlations for indicators of body build with indicators of aerobic and anaerobic capacity among the group of trained and untrained subjects. The study group comprised 18 subjects selected during a competitive period, who had taken at least fifth place in national judo tournaments. Their training experience ranged from 6 to 11 years, 8 to 10 hours a week. The control group was composed of 18 untrained students from one of the schools included in the study. Their body height and mass (BM) did not differ compared to judoists. A body composition chart was employed for analysis of body build and body composition. Physiological investigations encompassed measurements of anaerobic (Wingate test) and aerobic (graded exercise test on cycle ergometer) capacity. Judo contestants are typically characterized by higher BMI, fat-free mass and fat-free mass index compared to the untrained. Compared to the group of untrained peers, young athletes in this sport are distinguished by the time needed to generate peak power. This difference is not observed in the indices characterising aerobic capacity. The level of the indices of body build and composition in young judo contestants shows a moderate and strong correlation with indices of anaerobic and aerobic capacity. The amount of total work in the Wingate test was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.65, p<0.01), fat-free mass index (r=0.63, p<0.01), body mass (r=0.49, p<0.05), fat mass index (r=0.49, p<0.05) and percentage of fat (r=0.48, p<0.05). Maximal peak anaerobic power was positively correlated with fat-free mass index (r=0.48, p<0.05) and percentage of fat (r=0.50, p<0.05). A strong negative correlation between ·VO2max with body mass (r=-0.75, p<0.001), BMI (r=-0.72, p<0.001), moderate correlation with PF%(r=-0.64, p<0.01), fat-free mass index (r=-0.52, p<0.05), and fat mass index (-0.67, p<0.01) were observed. Heart rate at the anaerobic threshold (%max) showed positive relationships with fat-free mass index (r=0.52, p<0.05). In the untrained subjects, only a negative relationship between BM and TOPP was observed (r=-0.48, p<0.05). These findings confirm interrelations between structural and functional parameters, developed through many years of training. Although physical capacity might affect the course of a fight, it should be considered....
Athletic humans and horses: Comparative analysis of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in trained and untrained subjects at rest
Stefano Capomaccio, Katia Cappelli, Giacomo Spinsanti, Marzia Mencarelli, Michela Muscettola, Michela Felicetti, Andrea Supplizi, Marco Bonifazi
BMC Physiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6793-11-3
Abstract: Nine highly trained male swimmers (training volume: 21.6 ± 1.7 h/wk in 10-12 sessions) were compared with two age-matched control groups represented by eight lightly trained runners (training volume: 6.4 ± 2.6 h/wk in 3-5 sessions) and nine untrained subjects. In addition, eight trained horses (training volume: 8.0 ± 2.1 h/wk in 3-4 sessions) were compared with eight age-matched sedentary mares. In humans, IL-6 mRNA levels in PBMCs determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were significantly higher in highly trained subjects, whereas IL-6R expression did not differ among groups. In horses, transcripts of both IL-6 and IL-6R were significantly up-regulated in the trained group.Up-regulation of IL-6R expression in PBMCs in horses could reflect a mechanism that maintains an adequate anti-inflammatory environment at rest through ubiquitous production of anti-inflammatory cytokines throughout the body. These findings suggest that the system that controls the inflammatory response in horses is better adapted to respond to exercise than that in humans.As species, humans and horses are closely linked, not only because of their historical and cultural backgrounds, but also because they share a natural aptitude for athletic performance. This similarity has prompted some researchers to consider the horse a reference species for comparative studies in human exercise physiology; conversely, knowledge gained from human medicine frequently represents a starting point for research on veterinary exercise medicine [1-4]. This topic is of interest for both species, as evidenced by the number of studies that have reported on efforts to identify genes involved in the response to moderate activity and/or strenuous exercise [5-10]. These previous studies have provided evidence that oxidative stress during exercise is a physiological event that is common among exercising mammals.Recent years have seen an exponential increase in specific molecular informatio
DAILY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN 11-TO 15-YEAR-OLD TRAINED AND UNTRAINED TURKISH BOYS  [cached]
Alpay Güven?,Caner A??kada,Alper Aslan,Kamil ?zer
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: The aims of this study were to assess levels and patterns of physical activity (PA) in relation to age and regular sport activity, and to examine its relationship to physical fitness in trained and untrained boys. One hundred forty-seven 11-to 15- year-old boys (73 trained and 74 untrained) participated in this study. Trained boys, comprised of 26 soccer, 25 handball and 22 volleyball players, had been training regularly for at least one year. The intensity, duration and frequency of PA were assessed from four complete days of heart rate monitoring with 15-seconds sampling intervals. Aerobic fitness was assessed by determining peakVO2 with a portable breath-by-breath gas analyzer (Cosmed K4b2) and the running speeds at fixed lactate concentrations during an incremental running test. Anaerobic fitness was evalu-ated with the Wingate Anaerobic Test. Skinfold thicknesses from eight sites and Tanner stages of pubic hair were also obtained. Based on 15-s heart rate data, instead of continuous activity, multiple short bouts of moderate and vigorous PA, lasting up to one minute, were characteristic of daily PA patterns of both trained and untrained boys. PA levels of trained boys were higher than untrained boys (p < 0.01) and the levels of PA decreased with age and maturation in both groups (p < 0.05). Daily PA variables were related to body fatness in both groups (p < 0.05), but the relationships were not consistent in the trained group. Daily PA variables were also related to aerobic fitness in the untrained group (p < 0.05) and these relationships were somewhat better with vigorous PA, whereas in the trained group, none of the PA variables were related to any of the aerobic fitness indices (p > 0.05). No relationship was observed between PA variables and anaerobic fitness in either group (p> 0.05). It seems that such relationships may somewhat depend on the fitness level of the subjects
Age-related changes in anaerobic power in the former highly trained oarsmen and kayakers
M ?adyga,J Faff,L Borkowski,K Burkhard-Jagodzińska
Biology of Sport , 2009,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the age-related changes in anaerobic power in the former highly trained oarsmen and kayakers, i.e. the representatives of sports requiring high endurance capacity and strength. Sixty-six former athletes, aged 30-67 years participated in this study. The subjects were assessed for peak anaerobic power in arms (Pan arms) and legs (Pan legs) during 10 s- maximal cycle ergometer exercise tests and for peak aerobic power (PVO2max) during incremental exercise. Body mass, lean body mass and body fat content were measured as well. The peak anaerobic power decline in the former highly trained athletes examined in the present study equalled to 0.6-0.7% per year. The recreational physical activity, based primarily on the endurance exercises, did not affect the peak anaerobic power whereas the peak aerobic power and body fat content strongly depended on the age and physical activity. The peak anaerobic power in the upper and lower extremities exhibited similar reduction with age of the subjects. Furthermore, in the less active group the ratio of Pan legs to PVO2max did not change with age whereas in physically active subjects this index increased. It was concluded that in the sample of former highly trained oarsmen and kayakers the age-related decline in the peak anaerobic power approximated that reported by other authors for untrained or endurance trained subjects, the peak anaerobic power in the arms was almost the same as that in the legs and that in the less active group the ratio of the peak anaerobic power to the peak aerobic power was independent of age and strongly tended to increase in the physically active subjects.
Pulmonary Functions in Trained and Untrained Wind Instrument Blowers  [PDF]
Mohan Manohar Sagdeo,,*Prashant Devidas Khuje
People's Journal of Scientific Research , 2012,
Abstract: The present cross-sectional study was designed to ascertain whether regular and trained wind instrument blowers develop higher pulmonary functions than untrained or part time blowers. The study included 155 trained & regular blowers (Group A), 100 untrained part-time blowers (Group B) and 100 non-blowers (Group C). They were investigated by a computerized spirometer (RMS medspiror).Group A subjects showed a significantly higher (p<0.001) percentage predicted value for Forced Vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV 1 ), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR), Maximum Voluntary Ventilation(MVV), Forced Expiratory Flow at 25% & 50% of FVC (FEF25% & FEF50%), Forced Expiratory Flow between 25% & 75%of FVC (FEF 25-75%), FEF50% of FVC, than the other two groups. However, FEV 1/FVC % in group A was not statistically higher than the other two groups (p=0.3699). Thus, regular training of wind instrument blowing increases the pulmonary functions which may be a physiological advantage of blowing.
Specific tension index of elbow flexors in trained and untrained men
Thiago Torres Matta,Belmiro Freitas Salles,Juliano Spinetti,Roberto Sim?o
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2010,
Abstract: The specific tension index (STI) estimates the ratio of maximum torque (TQ) to muscle volume (MV) for a specific task and includes muscle thickness as a parameter, which can be directly evaluated by ultrasound. The objective of the present study was to compare TQ, MV and STI of the elbow flexors between strength-trained and untrained subjects. Forty men, including 11 subjects strength trained for at least two years [trained group (TG): 23.5 ± 3.1 years; 182.1 ± 4.9 cm; 88.1 ± 8.4 kg] and 29 untrained subjects [untrained group (UG): 29.8 ± 1.6 years; 172.4 ± 6.6 cm; 76.4 ± 8.1 kg], participated in the study. The STI of the elbow flexors, expressed as the TQ/MV ratio, was calculated for both groups. Muscle thickness measured by ultrasound was used to estimate MV. TQ of the elbow flexors was estimated using maximum isometric voluntary contractions. The Mann-Whitney test was used to determine possible differences in TQ, STI and MV between groups. MV and TQ were significantly higher in TG (526.07 ± 86.13 cm3; 112.04 ± 24.18 Nm) than UG (385.40 ± 80.89 cm3; 88.46 ± 13.77 Nm). There was no significant difference in the STI between TG (0.213 ± 0.03 Nm.cm3-) and UG (0.233 ± 0.02 Nm.cm3-). Although stronger, trained subjects presented elbow flexor STI values similar to those of the untrained group, a finding suggesting the maintenance of the linearity of the force-volume ratio. TQ and MV estimates were found to be reliable parameters for the distinction between groups. The STI may contribute to a more applied analysis in clinical practice and in the prescription of physical activity as an indicator of inadequate levels of overload and of the risk of injury.
Effects of acute and 14-day coenzyme Q10 supplementation on exercise performance in both trained and untrained individuals
Matthew Cooke, Mike Iosia, Thomas Buford, Brian Shelmadine, Geoffrey Hudson, Chad Kerksick, Christopher Rasmussen, Mike Greenwood, Brian Leutholtz, Darryn Willoughby, Richard Kreider
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-5-8
Abstract: Twenty-two aerobically trained and nineteen untrained male and female subjects (26.1 ± 7.6 yrs, 172 ± 8.7 cm, 73.5 ± 17 kg, and 21.2 ± 7.0%) were randomized to ingest in a double-blind manner either 100 mg of a dextrose placebo (CON) or a fast-melt CoQ10 supplement (CoQ10) twice a day for 14-days. On the first day of supplementation, subjects donated fasting blood samples and a muscle biopsy. Subjects were then given 200 mg of the placebo or the CoQ10 supplement. Sixty minutes following supplement ingestion, subjects completed an isokinetic knee extension endurance test, a 30-second wingate anaerobic capacity test, and a maximal cardiopulmonary graded exercise test interspersed with 30-minutes of recovery. Additional blood samples were taken immediately following each exercise test and a second muscle biopsy sample was taken following the final exercise test. Subjects consumed twice daily (morning and night), 100 mg of either supplement for a period of 14-days, and then returned to the lab to complete the same battery of tests. Data was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05.Plasma CoQ10 levels were significantly increased following 2 weeks of CoQ10 supplementation (p < 0.001); while a trend for higher muscle CoQ10 levels was observed after acute CoQ10 ingestion (p = 0.098). A trend for lower serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) was observed following acute supplementation with CoQ10 (p = 0.06), whereas serum malondialdehyde (MDA) tended to be significantly higher (p < 0.05). Following acute ingestion of CoQ10, plasma CoQ10 levels were significantly correlated to muscle CoQ10 levels; maximal oxygen consumption; and treadmill time to exhaustion. A trend for increased time to exhaustion was observed following 2 weeks of CoQ10 supplementation (p = 0.06).Acute supplementation with CoQ10 resulted in higher muscle CoQ10 concentration, lower serum SOD oxidative stress, and higher MDA levels during and following exercise. Chronic CoQ10 supplementation incr
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