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Molecular Epidemiology of Female Lung Cancer  [PDF]
Seon-Hee Yim,Yeun-Jun Chung
Cancers , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/cancers3021861
Abstract: Lung cancer is still a leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. The incidence of lung cancer in developed countries started to decrease mainly due to global anti-smoking campaigns. However, the incidence of lung cancer in women has been increasing in recent decades for various reasons. Furthermore, since the screening of lung cancer is not as yet very effective, clinically applicable molecular markers for early diagnosis are much required. Lung cancer in women appears to have differences compared with that in men, in terms of histologic types and susceptibility to environmental risk factors. This suggests that female lung cancer can be derived by carcinogenic mechanisms different from those involved in male lung cancer. Among female lung cancer patients, many are non-smokers, which could be studied to identify alternative carcinogenic mechanisms independent from smoking-related ones. In this paper, we reviewed molecular susceptibility markers and genetic changes in lung cancer tissues observed in female lung cancer patients, which have been validated by various studies and will be helpful to understand the tumorigenesis of lung cancer.
Effect of Smoking on Lung Cancer Histology and Its Epidemiology in Chinese Male  [PDF]
Manman JIA, Jibin LI, Hua LIN, Xiaonong ZOU, Ping ZHAO
- , 2017, DOI: : 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2017.08.03
Abstract: Background and objective Studies found that there were changes in histological subtypes of lung cancer patients in China. This study investigated the effect of smoking on lung cancer histology and its trend in Chinese male. Methods Demographic, smoking history and histological information about male lung cancer patients diagnosed or treated from 2000 to 2012 was collected from Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science. Trends of histological subtypes calculated with annual percentage change (APC). Results A total of 14,106 patients with lung cancer were enrolled, with smoking 11,750 cases and non-smoking 2,356 cases. The main histological type of smoking lung cancer was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)(39.38%), followed by adenocarcinoma (ADC)(29.85%). Among smokers, the proportion of SCC decreased from 44.19% to 35.50% (APC=-1.9%, P<0.001), however, the ADC increased from 15.25% to 41.85% (APC=6.8%, P<0.001). Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) was from 4.13% to 0.72% (APC=-14.9%, P<0.001). In non-smokers, the ADC was 53.86%, and SCC was 16.64%. ADC increased from 38.03% to 67.83% (APC=4.3%, P<0.001). Distributions of LCC and ASC were scattered. Conclusion Proportion of ADC increased significantly in smoking and non-smoking lung cancer patients, and the relationship between non-smoking factor exposure and lung cancer should be further studied.
Clinical Epidemiology and Histological Characteristics of 3,663 Lung Cancer Patients in Sichuan Province from 2008 to 2013  [PDF]
Shuang ZHAO, Lei LI, Zhixin QIU, Yue CHEN, Yuting JING, Yongzhao ZHOU, Weimin LI
- , 2016, DOI: : 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2016.02.03
Abstract: Background and objective Lung cancer is the most common malignancy and is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Thus, this disease severely threatens human health. This study aims to identify the clinical epidemiology and histological characteristics of lung cancer patients in Sichuan areas. Methods We enrolled 3,761 lung-cancer patients who were identified as residents of Sichuan province and treated in West China Hospital from 2008 to 2013. Results A total of 3,663 patients from Central, Southern, North, and Western areas in Sichuan province, respectively, were enrolled. The average age of patients was 59.6 years, and patients were predominantly male (68.4%). Significant statistical differences were observed among the average age of patients, male, and pathological types in different regions (all P<0.05). In addition, compared with the 2008 group, the 2013 group had lower rates of adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma but higher rates of early-stage lung cancer and lymph-node metastasis. After a three-year follow-up of 1,003 cases, results showed that the 3-year overall survival (OS) was not the same in different regions (P=0.021), and that the poorest OS was in Western Sichuan. This result may be related to the high rate of patients with palliative care. Conclusion For the last six years, the patients with lung cancer in Sichuan were mainly from Central Sichuan, male patients, elder (age > 60 yr) patients, and with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Patients of 2013 had lower rates of adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma but higher rates of early-stage lung cancer and lymph-node metastasis. Furthermore, the 3-year OS was not the same in different regions.
Analysis of Pathological Types and Clinical Epidemiology of 6,058 Patients with Lung Cancer  [PDF]
Renfeng ZHANG, Yan ZHANG, Fengbiao WEN, Kai WU, Song ZHAO
- , 2016, DOI: : 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2016.03.03
Abstract: Background and objective The epidemiology of lung cancer changes with time, region, and population. The pathological and clinical characteristics of patients with primary bronchial lung cancer were retrospectively analyzed to understand the epidemic trend of lung cancer in recent years. Methods We reviewed the clinical data of patients with primary bronchogenic carcinoma. These patients, who are permanent residents of Henan province, were treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from 2012 to 2014. The distributions of gender, age, urban/rural residency, smoking history, drinking history, operation history, and histological types of tumor were compared among the patients and analyzed. Results A total of 6,058 cases of lung cancer were collected, including 1,495 cases in 2012, 2,070 cases in 2013 and 2,493 cases in 2014. The proportions of male to female patients with lung cancer were 2.26:1, 2.29:1 and 2.20:1 in 2012 to 2014, respectively (χ2=0.367, P=0.832). The age of onset was 60-69 years old, which accounted for 35.72% of the patients, and exhibited statistically significant differences between male and female patients (χ2=109.848, P<0.001). Moreover, differences in the pathological types of patients with lung cancer were statistically significant in 2012-2014 (χ2=25.344, P=0.013). Lung adenocarcinoma accounted for 38.5% and 73.63% in male and female patients, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=562.382, P<0.001). Adenocarcinoma also accounted for 60.62%, 56.59%, 49.84%, 45.15%, 47.03% and 41.25% in all ages of patients with lung cancer; the difference was statistically significant (χ2=48.886, P<0.001). Furthermore, the proportions of various pathological types in rural and urban patients were statistically significant among the five regions of Henan Province. The proportions of squamous cell carcinoma were the highest in smoking and drinking patients, accounting for 38.39% and 37.37%, respectively. About 15.4% of the patients included in the study received surgical treatment. Conclusions The proportion of adenocarcinoma in all types of lung cancer has increased in recent years, whereas the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma has declined. Adenocarcinoma is common in male patients with lung cancer as well as in young- and middle-aged patients. Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with smoking and drinking in male patients.
Comparative Analysis of Clinical Epidemiology and Pathological Characteristics of 908 Patients with Primary Lung Cancer of Hunan Province in 1997 and 2007  [PDF]
Fang LI,Li HUANG,Chengping HU,Qihua GU
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer , 2010,
Abstract: Background and objective Epidemiology of lung cancer will be changed along with time and region. The aim of this study is to acknowledge the tendency of primary lung cancer in hunan province in recent years by comparing and analyzing the distribution of gender, age, area, smoking and pathology of patients who were initial diagnosed lung cancer and ancestral or permanent residence of hunan province in 1997 and 2007. Methods Clinical data of 908 patients with primary lung cancer hospitalized in Xiangya hospital were collected and evaluated. Results Compared patients in 2007 with those in 1997, ratio between male and female dropped from 3.8:1 to 2.98:1, while the proportion of young patients who were under 40 years old raised from 4.4% to 8.6% (χ2=4.465, P=0.035), patients living in the county raised from 19.9% to 40.1% (χ2=30.670, P < 0.001), smoking rate of patients from county raised from 16.9% to 39.9% (χ2= 24.939, P < 0.01). In addition, the proportion of rare histological types of lung cancer were also increased from 1.3% to 4.5% (χ2= 5.142, P=0.023). Conclusion Female patients, young patients, rural patients and rare histological types of lung cancer may have a tendency of increase in hunan province in recent years, whereas smoking cessation education should be strengthened.
Descriptive Study of the Environmental Epidemiology of High Lung Cancer Incidence Rate in Qujing, Yunnan, China
Linlin ZHANG,Jihua LI,Yajie WANG,Guoping WU
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2012.03.05
Abstract: Background and objective Qujing, located in Southwest China, is an area with an extremely high lung cancer incidence. Combustion of coal has exposed local people to great health hazards. The aim of this study is to achieve a thorough understanding of the relationship between environmental pollution and the high incidence of lung cancer in Qujing, Yunnan Province, China. The results would provide a scientific basis and support for the etiology of lung cancer, as well as suggestions on improving the environmental conditions in the area. Methods A total of 280 rural villages were selected through stratified cluster random sampling. Environmental background and pollution were investigated, including details on fuel type, coking plant, metal smelting, and chemical plant, among others. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the investigated factors. Results Out of the total number of local villages studied, 78.1% of those with high incidence often use smoky coal and coking. On the other hand, 78.8% of the low-incidence areas use smokeless coal or wood. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the coal type used for everyday life was a main risk factor related to lung cancer (P<0.05). Using smoky and coking coals create an alarmingly high risk for developing lung cancer. Meanwhile, smokeless coals and wood seemed to have no significant relationship to the lung cancer incidence. Conclusion The fuel type used for everyday life is an important factor in the high incidence of lung cancer in Qujing. Evidently, the use of smoky coal and coke increased the incidence of lung cancer, whereas smokeless coal and wood seem to bring about the contrary.
Survival by histologic subtype in stage IV nonsmall cell lung cancer based on data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program  [cached]
Cetin K,Ettinger DS,Hei Y,O'Malley CD
Clinical Epidemiology , 2011,
Abstract: Karynsa Cetin1, David S Ettinger2, Yong-jiang Hei3, Cynthia D O'Malley11Center for Observational Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 2Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Global Development, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USABackground: The role of histology in the targeted management of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has garnered renewed attention in recent years. We provide contemporary population-based estimates of survival and an assessment of important prognostic factors in stage IV NSCLC by major histologic subtype.Methods: Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, we stratified 51,749 incident stage IV NSCLC patients (1988–2003 with follow-up through 2006) by major histologic subtype. We used Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards methods to describe overall survival and the prognostic influence of select patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics for each histologic subgroup.Results: Survival was highest in patients with bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma (1-year survival: 29.1%) and lowest in those with large cell tumors (1-year survival: 12.8%). Diagnosis in later years, female gender, younger age, either Asian/Pacific Islander or Hispanic race/ethnicity, lower tumor grade, and surgery or beam radiation as part of first-line treatment were generally independently associated with a decreased risk of death, but the prognostic significance of some of these factors (age, ethnicity, tumor grade) varied according to histologic subtype.Conclusion: Findings demonstrate a poor prognosis across histologic subtypes in stage IV NSCLC patients but highlight differences in both absolute survival and the relative importance of select prognostic factors by histologic subclassification. More research using other sources of population-based data could help clarify the role of histology in the presentation, management, and prognosis of late-stage NSCLC.Keywords: epidemiology, nonsmall cell lung cancer, histology, survival
Breast cancer epidemiology according to recognized breast cancer risk factors in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial Cohort
James V Lacey, Aimee R Kreimer, Saundra S Buys, Pamela M Marcus, Shih-Chen Chang, Michael F Leitzmann, Robert N Hoover, Philip C Prorok, Christine D Berg, Patricia Hartge, the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial Project Team
BMC Cancer , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-84
Abstract: We evaluated risk factors for breast cancer (N = 2085) among 70,575 women who were randomized in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Using Poisson regression, we calculated adjusted relative risks [RRs, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for lifestyle and reproductive factors during an average of 5 years of follow-up from date of randomization.As expected, increasing age, nulliparity, positive family history of breast cancer, and use of menopausal hormone therapy were positively associated with breast cancer. Later age at menarche (16 years or older vs. < 12: RR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.65–1.02) or menopause (55 years or older vs. < 45: RR = 1.29, 95% CI, 1.03–1.62) were less strongly associated with breast cancer than was expected. There were weak positive associations between taller height and heavier weight, and only severe obesity [body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) 35 or more vs. 18.5–24.9: RR = 1.21, 95% CI, 1.02–1.43] was statistically significantly associated with breast cancer.The ongoing PLCO trial offers continued opportunities for new breast cancer investigations, but these analyses suggest that the associations between breast cancer and age at menarche, age at menopause, and obesity might be changing as the underlying demographics of these factors change.http://www.clinicaltrials.gov webcite, NCT00002540.Environment, genes, and lifestyle work together to increase or decrease the probability of developing female breast cancer [1]. Events early and late in life consistently influence breast cancer risk [2], but it remains difficult to explain why some women develop breast cancer and others do not [3]. This complicates prevention, yet some groups consistently have notably higher risks than other groups: women whose relatives have breast cancer [4], who first give birth later in life [5], who use exogenous hormones for extended durations [6], and who are overweight or obese after menopause [7].Most of these conclusions were drawn from in
Molecular Epidemiology Study in Xuanwei: the Relationship among?Coal Type, Genotype and Lung Cancer Risk  [PDF]
Jihua LI, Jun HE, Rui TANG, Wei HU, Qing LAN, Xingzhou HE, Yun LI, Yunsheng ZHANG
- , 2015, DOI: : 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2015.01.03
Abstract: Background and objective It has been proven that the lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei County, China was among the highest in the country and has been associated with exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This risk may be modified by variation in genetic polymorphisms and coal subtypes. Our objective was to use molecular epidemiological techniques to investigate the relationship among genetic polymorphisms, coal subtype and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei County. Methods On the basis of two population-based case-control studies in residents of Xuanwei County, China, questionnaires covering demographic information, smoking history, family and personal medical history, and information on other variables were administered and buccal cells and sputum samples were collected separately from each subject enrolled to extract DNA. GST superfamily, AKR1C3 superfamily, OGG1 superfamily and other genotype were scanned by useing PCR method. ORs and 95%CIs were used to estimate the association between genotypes, coal subtypes and lung cancer risk factors by conditional Logistic regression using Statistical Analysis Software. Results Compared with subjects who using smokeless coal or wood, smoky coal use was statistically significantly associated with lung cancer risk (OR=7.7, 95%CI: 4.5-13.3). There was marked heterogeneity in risk estimates for specific subtypes of smoky coal. Estimates were highest for coal from the Laibin (OR=24.8), Longtan (OR=11.6) and Baoshan (OR=6.0) coal types, and lower for coal from other types; the risk within the same subtype of coal in male and female were similar. The GSTM1-null genotype, the AKR1C3 (Ex1-70C>G), OGG1 (Ex6-315C>G) genotypes were closely associated with increased risk of lung cancer in Xuanwei County, and their odds ratios (95%CI) were 2.3 (1.3-4.2), 1.8 (1.0-3.5) and 1.9 (1.1-3.3), respectively. Compared to subjects who with GSTM1-positive and used less than 130 tons of smoky coal during their lifetime, higher risks were closely associated with GSTM1-null and heavier users (≥130 tons), with the OR was 4.9 (95%CI: 1.3-18.2) and 2.7 (95%CI: 1.0-7.4) for female and male, respectively. However, higher risks were only found within female for AKR1C3 (Ex1-70C>G) and OGG1 (Ex6-315C>G), with OR (95%CI)=12.9 (2.2-107.8) and 5.7 (1.1-34.2), respectively. Conclusion Lung cancer risks varied among coal subtypes; however, risks were similar between men and women exposed to the same type of coal. The GSTM1-null genotype may enhance susceptibility to air
Nonsmall cell lung cancer  [cached]
Jean-Paul Sculier
European Respiratory Review , 2013,
Abstract: The objective of this review is to report the Clinical Year in Review proceedings in the field of nonsmall cell lung cancer that were presented at the 2012 European Respiratory Society Congress in Vienna, Austria. Various topics were reviewed, including epidemiology, screening, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and palliative and end of life care.
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