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Dental caries and extractions of permanent teeth in Jos, Nigeria
GA Chukwu, OA Adeleke, IS Danfillo, EC Otoh
African Journal of Oral Health , 2004,
Abstract: Objective: To determine the effect of tooth morphology and positioning on the occurrence of dental caries in permanent teeth. Design: Retrospective study. Method: Data was extracted from the case notes of patients that underwent extraction at the Plateau State Dental Centre, Jos, Nigeria from January 2000 to December 2001, as a result of dental caries and its sequalae. Result: 12696 patients attended the clinic, with a total of 11546-teeth extracted. 6145 (53.2%) permanent teeth were extracted due to caries and it's sequalae within the period under review. The upper anteriors accounted for 3.2%, pre-molars 7.7% and molars 29.8% while lower anteriors accounted for 0.4%, pre-molars 3.3% and molars 55.6%. The upper anteriors were eight times more vulnerable to caries attack compared to their corresponding lower anteriors. The upper right (43.3%) and left (36.9%) first premolars were four times prone to losses due to caries compared to their corresponding lower right (11.5%) and left (8.3%) first premolars. Similar pattern was observed for the upper and lower second premolar (P = 0.001). The lower right (31.3%) and left (31.3%) first molar were about two times more susceptible to caries than their corresponding upper right (18.2%) and left (19.2%) first molar. The same trend holds for the second and third molars (P = 0.000). Conclusion: The result of this study revealed that the upper premolars were more susceptible to dental caries than the corresponding lower teeth. The study also revealed that the molars were most susceptible to dental caries and would benefit from the use of prophylactic pits and fissure sealants. Key Words: Tooth morphology; extraction; fissure sealant; caries African Journal of Oral Health Vol.1(1) 2004: 31-36
An Evaluation of the Rate of Dental Caries among Hypoplastic and Normal Teeth: A Case Control Study
M. Vahid Golpaygani,K. Mehrdad,A. Mehrdad,G. Ansari
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Structurally defected teeth are not only weak but also provide favorable areas for colonization of bacteria. This subsequently will increase the incidence of dental caries in such dentition. Enamel hypoplaisa is considered one of many caries inducing factors. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the frequency of dental caries among hypoplastic teeth in a group of 6-9 years old Iranian children. One hunder and one children of 6-9 years of age from Paedodontic Department of Shahid Beheshit Dental School were randomly selected. All the primary and permanent teeth of these children (2266 teeth) were examined for the Presence of enamel hypoplasia and dental caries. Overall, 1671 of teeth (73.9%) were primary and 589 (26.1%) were permanent. Of the permanent teeth, 315 were first permanent molars. Pearson, Mantel Haenszel and Fisher Exact test were used to analyze the data. A significant relationship was found between enamel hypoplasia and dental caries both in permanent (p<0.0001) and primary teeth (p = 0.038). The odds ratio was 7.362 for all the permanents, 4.47 for the first permanent molar and 1.887 for the primary teeth. Hypoplastic teeth are more likely to develop caries than non-hypoplastic teeth. Hypoplastic primary teeth are 2 times and the 1st permanent molars are 4 times more susceptible to dental caries than non-hypoplastic ones.
A Study on Nutritional Status and Dental Caries in Permanent Teeth among School Going Girl of Bengalee Population, India  [PDF]
Madhumati Chatterjee, Arup Ratan Bandyopadhyay
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2012.23013
Abstract: Variations in tooth eruption patterns are supposed to have multifactorial reasons and etiologic factors to explain variation in caries are unsatisfactory. Prevalence of caries is comparatively higher in the children of developing countries than that of the children of same age in developed countries. Indian studies on the dental caries mostly in children related to prevalence and treatment. However, nutritional effect on dental caries on Indian school going children is yet to be carried out in eastern India. This study investigated the prevalence of dental caries in permanent teeth and nutritional status among the 544 School going children (girls) of 6 - 19 years age group of Bengalee ethnicity of West Bengal, India. Caries was recorded based on DMFT index following basic guidelines for Oral Health Surveys guideline (WHO). Nutritional status was obtained using BMI and classification of nutritional status was achieved using the standards of WHO and CDC growth charts include an age- and sex-specific BMI reference for children aged 2 - 20 year. The overall prevalence of dental caries was 44.5% and mean DMFT was 0.45 ? 1.57. Nutritional status demonstrated, about 30% and 6.69% of schools going girls were underweight and overweight respectively. Occurrence of dental caries was found in all permanent teeth among the girls of underweight and normal according to their BMI-for age status. Furthermore, a significant association (p < 0.05) with occurrence of dental caries among the underweight girls has been found compared to that of the overweight and normal. This study indicates a close relationship between nutritional status and dental caries in this region.
Users’ perceptions and efficacy of indigenous adjunct teeth-cleansing agents on the bacterial flora of human dental caries
A Ogunshe, O Odumesi
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2010,
Abstract: Background and Aim: The aim of this study was to conduct in vitro and in vivo studies for the evaluation of antimicrobial potential of four Nigerian indigenous chewing sticks and to compare the oral effects of the popular Nigerian chewing sticks with toothpastes and other teeth-cleansing agents on a total of 21 and 17 oral bacterial strains isolated from children and adult dental caries respectively. Materials and Methods: Teeth cleansing agents were assayed in vitro against the isolated bacterial carries flora on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar using modified agar well-diffusion methods. The simulated in vivo studies were carried out using twenty four human subjects. Results: The results obtained indicated that the bacterial flora exhibited different degrees of in vitro inhibitions of between low and moderate susceptibility against the teeth-cleansing agents. Toothpastes recorded the highest rates of inhibition against the dental caries isolates, while H2O2 was the most inhibitory among the chemical teethcleansing agents against the dental caries isolates from children (47.6%) and adults (52.9%). No species differential susceptibility to the teeth-cleansing agents was observed among the dental caries isolates. Conclusions: This study showed that combined teeth cleansing hygiene with toothpastes, chewing sticks and chemical teeth cleansing agent (H2O2) gave the best mouth feel and were found to be the most preferred.
The management of dental caries in primary teeth - involving service providers and users in the design of a trial
Marshman Zoe,Innes Nicola,Deery Chris,Hall Melanie
Trials , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-13-143
Abstract: Background There is a lack of evidence for the effective management of dental caries in children’s primary teeth. The trial entitled ‘Filling Children’s Teeth: Indicated Or Not?’ (FiCTION) was designed to examine the clinical and cost effectiveness, in primary dental care, of three different approaches to the management of caries in primary teeth. However, before the FiCTION main trial commenced, a pilot trial was designed. Service provider (dentists and other members of the team including dental nurses and practice managers) and participant (child participants and their parents) involvement was incorporated into the pilot trial. The aim of this study is to describe service providers’ and users’ perspectives on the pilot trial to identify improvements to the conduct and design of the FiCTION main trial. Methods Qualitative interviews (individual and group) were held with dentists, dental team members, children and parents involved in the FiCTION pilot trial. Individual interviews were held with four dentists and a group interview was held with 17 dental team members. Face-to-face interviews were held with four parents and children (four- to eight-years old) representing the three arms of the trial and five telephone interviews were conducted with parents. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was used. Results Overall, service providers, children and parents found the pilot trial to be well conducted and an interesting experience. Service providers highlighted the challenges of adhering to research protocols, especially managing the documentation and undertaking new clinical techniques. They indicated that the time and financial commitments were greater than they had anticipated. Particular difficulties were found recruiting suitable patients within the timeframe. For parents recruitment was apparently more related to trusting their dentist than the content of information packs. While some of the older children understood what a study was, others did not understand or were not aware they were enrolled. Conclusions The findings provided valuable recommendations to improve the method of recruitment of dental practices and patients, the timing and content of the training, the type of support dentists would value and ways to further engage children and parents in the FiCTION main trial. Trial registration ISRCTN77044005
Estimate of DMFT index using teeth most affected by dental caries in twelve-year-old children
Pereira,Stela Márcia; Tagliaferro,Elaine Pereira da Silva; Cortellazzi,Karine Laura; Ambrosano,Gláucia Maria Bovi; Mialhe,Fábio Luiz; Meneghim,Marcelo de Castro; Pereira,Antonio Carlos;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102009000100024
Abstract: the objective of the study was to develop regression models to describe the epidemiological profile of dental caries in 12-year-old children in an area of low prevalence of caries. two distinct random probabilistic samples of schoolchildren (n=1,763) attending public and private schools in piracicaba, southeastern brazil, were studied. regression models were estimated as a function of the most affected teeth using data collected in 2005 and were validated using a 2001 database. the mean (sd) dmft index was 1.7 (2.08) in 2001 and the regression equations estimated a dmft index of 1.67 (1.98), which corresponds to 98.2% of the dmft index in 2001. the study provided detailed data on the caries profile in 12-year-old children by using an updated analytical approach. regression models can be an accurate and feasible method that can provide valuable information for the planning and evaluation of oral health services.
Dental caries vaccine  [cached]
Shivakumar K,Vidya S,Chandu G
Indian Journal of Dental Research , 2009,
Abstract: Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.
Early prevention of dental caries in children  [PDF]
Kharitonova T.L.,Lebedeva S.N.,Kazakova L.N.
Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research , 2011,
Abstract: Early prevention of dental caries in children plays an important role in the preservation of dental health. This article explains the necessity of early prevention of dental caries in children. The most effective methods of prevention of dental caries are beginning hygiene care and respect for the recommendations dentist since the first teeth. It is shown that the use of conservative therapy is very effective in the treatment of early forms of dental caries
Dental health estimation for children age twelve and fifteen
Davidovi? Bojana,Ivanovi? Mirjana,Jankovi? Svjetlana
Stomatolo?ki Glasnik Srbije , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/sgs1201035d
Abstract: Introduction. The problem of chronic diseases such as caries is very complex because it appears very early in life, often during childhood. The number of involved people is growing as well as the number of affected teeth and surfaces that eventually lead to teeth loss. The aim of this study was to determine the dental status of adolescents age 12 and 15 in three municipalities in Bosnia, Foca, Cajnice and Kalinovik. Material and methods. The study included 506 school children both genders of six schools in three municipalities (Foca, Cajnice and Kalinovik). Teeth examination and criteria for diagnosis and coding were estimated based of criteria of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD). To estimate dental health DMFT index [number of carious teeth (D), missing (M) and filled teeth (F)] and related indices (Person Caries Index, Teeth Caries Index, Average Caries Index and DMFT structure) were used. Results. Dental health status and caries prevalence were presented through the values of the Average Caries Index. The value of Average Caries Index for examined children was 6.17. Of all examined children 96.05% of them had at least one carious tooth. The average value of Teeth Caries Index was 23.04%. Conclusion. Dental health of the children in the examined region was characterized by high values of untreated carious teeth as well as the other components of DMFT index. Therefore, preventive measures and primary dental care must be implemented better among school children.
An Evo-Devo perspective on ever-growing teeth in mammals and dental stem cell maintenance  [PDF]
Elodie Renvoisé,Frederic Michon
Frontiers in Physiology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2014.00324
Abstract: A major challenge for current evolutionary and developmental biology research is to understand the evolution of morphogenesis and the mechanisms involved. Teeth are well suited for the investigation of developmental processes. In addition, since teeth are composed of hard-mineralized tissues, primarily apatite, that are readily preserved, the evolution of mammals is well documented through their teeth in the fossil record. Hypsodonty, high crowned teeth with shallow roots, and hypselodonty, ever-growing teeth, are convergent innovations that have appeared multiple times since the mammalian radiation 65 million years ago, in all tooth categories (incisors, canines, premolars, and molars). A shift to hypsodonty, or hypselodonty, during mammalian evolution is often, but not necessarily, associated with increasingly abrasive diet during important environmental change events. Although the evolution of hypsodonty and hypselodonty is considered to be the result of heterochrony of development, little has been known about the exact developmental mechanisms at the origin of these morphological traits. Developmental biologists have been intrigued by the mechanism of hypselodonty since it requires the maintenance of continuous crown formation during development via stem cell niche activity. Understanding this mechanism may allow bioengineered tooth formation in humans. Hypsodonty and hypselodonty are thus examples of phenotypic features of teeth that have both impacts in understanding the evolution of mammals and holds promise for human tooth bioengineering.
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