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 Physics , 2000, Abstract: The region centered in the NGC 6334 I(N) radio continuum source was surveyed in an extension of 6 arcmin in right ascension and 12 arcmin in declination, in the NH3(J,K) = (1,1) transition, using the Itapetinga radio telescope. The spectra show non-LTE behavior, and gradients of velocity and line-width were detected along the region. A detailed analysis of the spectra showed that the surveyed region is composed of at least three overlapped sources related to regions that are in different stages of star formation: NGC 6334 I, associated with an already known molecular bipolar outflow, NGC 6334 I(N)w, the brightest ammonia source, coincidental with the continuum source NGC 6334 I(N), and NGC 6334 I(N)e, weaker, more extended and probably less evolved than the others. The physical parameters of the last two sources were calculated in non-LTE conditions, assuming that their spectra are the superposition of the narrow line spectra produced by small dense clumps. The H2 density, NH3 column density, kinetic temperature, diameter and mass of the clumps were found to be very similar in the two regions, but the density of clumps is lower in the probably less evolved source NGC 6334 I(N)e. Differences between the physical parameters derived assuming LTE and non-LTE conditions are also discussed in this work.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322071 Abstract: Context. Ionization plays a central role in the gas-phase chemistry of molecular clouds. Since ions are coupled with magnetic fields, which can in turn counteract gravitational collapse, it is of paramount importance to measure their abundance in star-forming regions. Aims. We use spectral line observations of the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334 I to derive the abundance of two of the most abundant molecular ions, HCO+ and N2H+, and consequently, the cosmic ray ionization rate. In addition, the line profiles provide information about the kinematics of this region. Methods. We present high-resolution spectral line observations conducted with the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory of the rotational transitions with Jup > 5 of the molecular species C17O, C18O, HCO+, H13CO+, and N2H+. Results. The HCO+ and N2H+ line profiles display a redshifted asymmetry consistent with a region of expanding gas. We identify two emission components in the spectra, each with a different excitation, associated with the envelope of NGC 6334 I. The physical parameters obtained for the envelope are in agreement with previous models of the radial structure of NGC 6334 I based on submillimeter continuum observations. Based on our new Herschel/HIFI observations, combined with the predictions from a chemical model, we derive a cosmic ray ionization rate that is an order of magnitude higher than the canonical value of 10^(-17) s-1. Conclusions. We find evidence of an expansion of the envelope surrounding the hot core of NGC 6334 I, which is mainly driven by thermal pressure from the hot ionized gas in the region. The ionization rate seems to be dominated by cosmic rays originating from outside the source, although X-ray emission from the NGC 6334 I core could contribute to the ionization in the inner part of the envelope.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/765/1/61 Abstract: We present Herschel/HIFI observations of 30 transitions of water isotopologues toward the high-mass star forming region NGC 6334 I. The line profiles of H_2^{16}O, H_2^{17}O, H_2^{18}O, and HDO show a complex pattern of emission and absorption components associated with the embedded hot cores, a lower-density envelope, two outflow components, and several foreground clouds, some associated with the NGC 6334 complex, others seen in projection against the strong continuum background of the source. Our analysis reveals an H2O ortho/para ratio of 3 +/- 0.5 in the foreground clouds, as well as the outflow. The water abundance varies from ~10^{-8} in the foreground clouds and the outer envelope to ~10^{-6} in the hot core. The hot core abundance is two orders of magnitude below the chemical model predictions for dense, warm gas, but within the range of values found in other Herschel/HIFI studies of hot cores and hot corinos. This may be related to the relatively low gas and dust temperature (~100 K), or time dependent effects, resulting in a significant fraction of water molecules still locked up in dust grain mantles. The HDO/H_2O ratio in NGC 6334 I, ~2 10^{-4}, is also relatively low, but within the range found in other high-mass star forming regions.
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/138/1/227 Abstract: The full stellar population of NGC 6334, one of the most spectacular regions of massive star formation in the nearby Galaxy, have not been well-sampled in past studies. We analyze here a mosaic of two Chandra X-ray Observatory images of the region using sensitive data analysis methods, giving a list of 1607 faint X-ray sources with arcsecond positions and approximate line-of-sight absorption. About 95 percent of these are expected to be cluster members, most lower mass pre-main sequence stars. Extrapolating to low X-ray levels, the total stellar population is estimated to be 20-30,000 pre-main sequence stars. The X-ray sources show a complicated spatial pattern with about 10 distinct star clusters. The heavily-obscured clusters are mostly associated with previously known far-infrared sources and radio HII regions. The lightly-obscured clusters are mostly newly identified in the X-ray images. Dozens of likely OB stars are found, both in clusters and dispersed throughout the region, suggesting that star formation in the complex has proceeded over millions of years. A number of extraordinarily heavily absorbed X-ray sources are associated with the active regions of star formation.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201015086 Abstract: We present observations of twelve rotational transitions of H2O-16, H2O-18, and H2O-17 toward the massive star-forming region NGC 6334 I, carried out with Herschel/HIFI as part of the guaranteed time key program Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions (CHESS). We analyze these observations to obtain insights into physical processes in this region. We identify three main gas components (hot core, cold foreground, and outflow) in NGC 6334 I and derive the physical conditions in these components. The hot core, identified by the emission in highly excited lines, shows a high excitation temperature of 200 K, whereas water in the foreground component is predominantly in the ortho- and para- ground states. The abundance of water varies between 4 10^-5 (outflow) and 10^-8 (cold foreground gas). This variation is most likely due to the freeze-out of water molecules onto dust grains. The H2O-18/H2O-17 abundance ratio is 3.2, which is consistent with the O-18/O-17 ratio determined from CO isotopologues. The ortho/para ratio in water appears to be relatively low 1.6(1) in the cold, quiescent gas, but close to the equilibrium value of three in the warmer outflow material (2.5(0.8)).
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219803 Abstract: We aim at deriving the molecular abundances and temperatures of the hot molecular cores in the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334I and consequently deriving their physical and astrochemical conditions. In the framework of the Herschel guaranteed time key program CHESS, NGC 6334I is investigated by using HIFI aboard the Herschel Space Observatory. A spectral line survey is carried out in the frequency range 480-1907 GHz, and auxiliary interferometric data from the SMA in the 230 GHz band provide spatial information for disentangling the different physical components contributing to the HIFI spectrum. The spectral lines are identified with the aid of former surveys and spectral line catalogs. The observed spectrum is then compared to a simulated synthetic spectrum with XCLASS, assuming local thermal equilibrium, and best fit parameters are derived using the model optimization package MAGIX. A total of 46 molecules are identified, with 31 isotopologues, resulting in about 4300 emission and absorption lines. High- energy levels of the dominant emitter methanol and vibrationally excited HCN are detected. The number of unidentified lines remains low with 75, or less than 2 percent of the lines detected. The modeling suggests that several spectral features need two or more components to be fitted properly. Other components could be assigned to cold foreground clouds or to outflows, most visible in the SiO emission. A chemical variation between the two embedded hot cores is found, with more N-bearing molecules identified in SMA1 and O-bearing molecules in SMA2. Spectral line surveys give powerful insights into the study of the interstellar medium. Different molecules trace different physical conditions like the inner hot core, the envelope, the outflows or the cold foreground clouds. The derived molecular abundances provide further constraints for astrochemical models.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/778/2/96 Abstract: This paper presents a study of the rate and efficiency of star formation in the NGC 6334 star forming region. We obtained observations at J, H, and Ks taken with the NOAO Extremely Wide-Field Infrared Imager (NEWFIRM) and combined them with observations taken with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope at wavelengths {\lambda} = 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {\mu}m. We also analyzed previous observations taken at 24 {\mu}m using the Spitzer MIPS camera as part of the MIPSGAL survey. We have produced a point source catalog with >700,000 entries. We have identified 2283 YSO candidates, 375 Class I YSOs and 1908 Class II YSOs using a combination of existing IRAC-based color classification schemes that we have extended and validated to the near-IR for use with warm Spitzer data. We have identified multiple new sites of ongoing star formation activity along filamentary structures extending tens of parsecs beyond the central molecular ridge of NGC 6334. By mapping the extinction we derived an estimate for the gas mass, 2.2 x 10^5 M_sun. The heavy concentration of protostars along the dense filamentary structures indicates that NGC 6334 may be undergoing a "mini-starburst" event with {\Sigma}{SFR}>8.2 M_sun Myr^-1 pc^-2 and SFE>0.10. We have used these estimates to place NGC 6334 in the Kennicutt-Schmidt diagram to help bridge the gap between observations of local low-mass star forming regions and star formation in other galaxies.
 Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/301204 Abstract: We present HST optical images and UV spectra, as well as ground-based near-infrared images of the high surface brightness giant HII region NGC 2363 (NGC 2366-I) and its surroundings. The massive star content of the southern end of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 2366 is investigated, with an emphasis on Wolf-Rayet and red supergiant stars, and we attempt the reconstruction of the time sequence of the most recent episode of massive star formation at the southwestern tip of the galaxy. We show that the most massive super cluster A of NGC 2363 is still embedded in dust; from the photoevaporative erosion or cleaning'' time scale of the associated cloud, we infer its age to be 1 Myr or less. We conclude that the star-forming complex NGC 2366-I and II is a good example of a multiple stage starburst with a characteristic age decreasing from 10 Myr to less than 1 Myr over a linear scale of 400 pc. The age sequence of the stars and the gas kinematics suggest that these powerful star formation episodes are being triggered by a small passing-by satellite.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16353.x Abstract: A 5'x5' region encompassing NGC6334I and I(N) has been mapped at a wavelength of 3mm (from 83.5 to 115.5GHz) with the Mopra telescope at an angular resolution between 33 arcsec and 36 arcsec. This investigation has made use of the recently installed 3mm MMIC receiver and the Mopra Spectrometer (MOPS) with broadband capabilities permitting total coverage of the entire frequency range with just five different observations. In total, the spatial distribution of nineteen different molecules, ions and radicals, along with additional selected isotopologues have been studied. Whilst most species trace the sites of star formation, CH_3CN appears to be most closely associated with NGC6334I and I(N). Both CN and C_2H appear to be widespread, tracing gas that is not associated with active star formation. Both N_2H^+ and HC_3N closely resemble dust continuum emission, showing they are reliable tracers of dense material, as well as the youngest stages of high mass star formation. Hot (E_u/k>100K) thermal CH_3OH emission is preferentially found towards NGC6334I, contrasting with I(N), where only cold (E_u/k<22K) thermal CH_3OH emission is found.
 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/150/1/29 Abstract: Star formation activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 region were studied by imaging centimeter continuum sources and water maser sources using several archival data sets from the Very Large Array. The continuum source VLA 9 is elongated in the northwest-southeast direction, consistent with the FIR 4 bipolar outflow axis, and has a flat spectrum in the 6.2-3.6 cm interval. The three water maser spots associated with FIR 4 are also distributed along the outflow axis. One of the spots is located close to VLA 9, and another one is close to an X-ray source. Examinations of the positions of compact objects in this region suggest that the FIR 4 cloud core contains a single low-mass protostar. VLA 9 is the best indicator of the protostellar position. VLA 9 may be a radio thermal jet driven by this protostar, and it is unlikely that FIR 4 contains a high-mass young stellar object (YSO). A methanol 6.7 GHz maser source is located close to VLA 9, at a distance of about 100 AU. The FIR 4 protostar must be responsible for the methanol maser action, which suggests that methanol class II masers are not necessarily excited by high-mass YSOs. Also discussed are properties of other centimeter continuum sources in the field of view and the water masers associated with FIR 6n. Some of the continuum sources are radio thermal jets, and some are magnetically active young stars.
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