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Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) in Japanese Quails Feeding 1. Performance and Egg Quality Parameters
Musa Karaalp,Mahfuz Elmasta,Nusret Genc,Metin Sezer,Musa Yavuz,Mehmet Ozkan
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.1883.1889
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplemented bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) leaves to a conventional diet of laying Japanese quail on the performance and some egg quality. A total number of 60 and 54 days old laying type quails were distributed into individual cages for three different treatments. The control diet did not contain Laurus nobilis (LN) leaves (LN0) and the other diets were supplemented with 2 g (LN2) and 4 g (LN4) leaves kg-1, respectively. The trial lasted for a total of 10 weeks. Supplemented leaves of LN (2 or 4 g kg-1 feed) had no effect on any performance parameters, external and internal egg quality traits of quails. The diets have not changed the amount of egg yolk total cholesterol at 121 days old. However, egg yolk triglyceride concentration of quails fed LN4 diet was lower (p<0.01) than quails fed with the other diets at 121 days old. Besides, the amount of total cholesterol and triglyceride of egg yolk increased (p<0.01) in all of the groups with age. In egg yolk in the group receiving diet LN4, the level of palmitic acid was lower (p<0.05) and oleic acid was higher (p<0.05) than those of the other 2 groups at 118 days. Besides at that age, the level of palmitic acid was lower and oleic acid was >55, 76 and 97 days. There was no change in the other fatty acids. The changes in total saturated and total monounsaturated fatty acids were parallel with palmitic acid and oleic acid, respectively. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the present study did not change with diet and age. The results of this study demonstrated that supplemented a conventional diet with LN could change some biochemical parameters of quail egg yolk.
Effects of auxin and boron on the rooting of Laurus nobilis L. stem cuttings
Tatiana Isabel Herrera,Elizabeth Orika Ono,Fernando Perez Leal
Biotemas , 2004,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of indolebutyric acid (IBA), applied with or without boric acid, on rooting laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) stem cuttings. The cuttings (15cm) that presented two apical leaves were collected from the apexes. They were treated with IBA 0, 50, 150 and 300 mg L-1, with or without boron 150 mg mL-1, for 24 hours. After the treatments, the cuttings were cultivated in polystyrene trays with carbonized rice linings and maintained under intermittent nebulization for 70 days when the percentages for rooting, stem cuttings with callus, and live and dead cuttings, root numbers and root lengths were evaluated. The results showed that IBA 50 mg L-1, IBA 150 and 300mg L-1 with boron enhanced the rooting percentage. The treatment with IBA 150 mg L-1 showed the highest root number in stem cuttings.
Effects of Laurel (Laurus nobilis) on the Non-Specific Immune Responses of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum)
Soner Bilen,Musa Bulut
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.1275.1279
Abstract: In this study, it is investigated that immunostimulant effects of laurel powder by dietary intake on rainbow trout. After 14 days of adaptation on a control diet 3 groups of rainbow trout were fed the experimental diets containing 0.5 and 1% laurel leaf powder for 21 days. The fish were then switched back to the control diet. Non-specific immunity was investigated at the end of the 21 day experimental feeding period and then again 42nd, 63rd days later. The non-specific immune parameters, extracellular and intracellular respiratory burst activities, phagocytosis in blood leukocytes, lysozyme and total plasma protein level were evaluated. The result of this study showed no effect on respiratory burst, lysozyme activity and total plasma protein levels. Phagocytic activity of fish fed diet supplemented 0.5 and %1 laurel, respectively was significantly higher than other groups. However, there is no correlation between dosages of laurel.
Vardapetyan H
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: The ethanolic extracts of Laurus nobilis L. collected from Tavush region of Armenia (L. nobilisA) and Zugdidi region of Georgia (L. nobilisG) were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activities of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH) discoloration method, and total flavonoids content was evaluated by aluminum chloride colorimetric method. It was reported that that the major compound in both extracts is an oxygenated monoterpene 1.8-cineole (eucalyptol). Other predominant compounds of both extracts are -thujene, -pinene, β-pinene, D-limonene, o-cymene. L. nobilisG has a terpineol and β-phellandrene which are absent in L. nobilisA. The highest antiradical activity was detected in L. nobilisG leaf ethanolic extract and the lowest - in aqueous leaf extract of L. nobilisA. IC50 value of L. nobilisG ethanolic extract is equal to that of wild laurel while IC50 of L.nobilisА ethanolic extract is comparable to that of the cultivated plants.Total flavonoids content both in ethanolic and aqueous extracts of L. nobilisА are 1.5 and 1.4 times less than that of L. nobilisG leaves extract, respectively. It was revealed a positive correlation between the total flavonoids content and the antiradical activity of L. nobilis leaves extracts.
Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae) especie naturalizada en la República Argentina
Delucchi,Gustavo; Farina,Eduardo; Torres Robles,Silvia;
Bolet?-n de la Sociedad Argentina de Bot??nica , 2007,
Abstract: in this paper laurus nobilis l. (lauraceae) is reported for the first time naturalized in the provinces of buenos aires and la pampa (argentina). a description and ilustration of this species are given.
Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae) especie naturalizada en la República Argentina Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae), a naturalized species in Argentina  [cached]
Gustavo Delucchi,Eduardo Farina,Silvia Torres Robles
Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica , 2007,
Abstract: En este trabajo se menciona por primera vez a Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae) como especie naturalizada en la Argentina en las provincias de Buenos Aires y La Pampa. Se describe e ilustra a la especie. In this paper Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae) is reported for the first time naturalized in the provinces of Buenos Aires and La Pampa (Argentina). A description and ilustration of this species are given.
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Laurus nobilis L. Leaves by Using Solvent-Free Microwave and Hydrodistillation  [PDF]
Sedef Nehir El, Nural Karagozlu, Sibel Karakaya, Serpil Sah?n
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.52013

In this study, laurel essential oils were obtained by using solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and hydrodistillation (HD) methods from Laurus nobilis leaves and determined their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Extraction time was reduced by about 43% in SFME at 622 W and 67% in SFME at 249 W compared to hydrodistillation. Essential oil of laurel was extracted by SFME at 622 W (100%) and 249 W (40%) power levels and HD inhibited oxidation generated by ABTS radical by 93.88%, 94.13% and 92.06%, respectively. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC) of essential oils were 0.18 mM/mL oil for SFME at 622 W, 1.36 mM/mL oil for SFME at 249 W and 2.40 mM/mL oil for HD (p < 0.05). Essential oils of L. nobilis were extracted by SFME at 100% and 40% power levels and HD inhibited linoleic acid peroxidation by 70.57%, 63.53% and 89.18% respectively. Inhibition effects of laurel essential oils obtained by SFME at different power levels and HD on DPPH radical cation oxidation were not significantly different. The strongest antioxidant activity against DPPH radical was found in the essential oil obtained by SFME at 100% power level. Essential oils displayed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus 6538P, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium NRRL E 4463 except for Listeria monocytogenes. The inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus 6538P survival of laurel oil obtained from SFME by using lower power level was found to be lower than that obtained from SFME at 100% power level and HD (p < 0.05).

Structural Analysis of Reproductive Development in Staminate Flowers of Laurus nobilis L.  [cached]
?zlem AYTüRK,Meral üNAL
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2012,
Abstract: Male (staminat) flower development, being separated in 8 phases, was investigated in Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae) through the usage of histological sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Flower development starts when apical meristem differentiates, followed by the conversion of this structure to floral meristem. Initial development phases comprise incidents similar to the ones of the female flower. 4 tepals and 8-10 stamens primordia develop through floral meristem in turn. In early stages of the development, sexual dimorphism occurs when the carpel primordium arrests. Filaments carry 2 nectaries in stamens which arise in 3 whorls. Anther wall consists of epidermis, endothecium, 2 or 3 middle layers and a single-layered glandular tapetum. Anthers are bisporangiate. Meiotic division is regular in pollen mother cells, and pollen grains do not contain aperture. Beside the pollen scattered individually within the pollen sacs, groups which contain some pollen tied to each other are rarely observed, as well. Pollen grains seldom germinate within microsporangium. Anthers are opened with 2 valves which widen from the base through the top. Accumulation of polysaccharides, lipids and proteins were identified by histochemical methods in stamens. These organic substances are greater within and around the vascular bundle compared to other tissues.
Evaluation of wound healing activity of Allamanda cathartica. L. and Laurus nobilis. L. extracts on rats
Shivananda Nayak, Poorna Nalabothu, Steve Sandiford, Vidyasagar Bhogadi, Andrew Adogwa
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-6-12
Abstract: Excision and incision wound models were used to evaluate the wound healing activity of both the extracts on Sprague Dawley rats. In each model, animals were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. In both the model, group 1 served as control and group 2 as reference standard. In an excision wound model, group 3 animals were treated with Allamanda (150 mg kg-1 day-1) and group 4 animals were treated with Laurus nobilis (200 mg kg-1 b.w day-1) for 14 days respectively. In the case of incision wound model, group 3 and 4 animals were treated with the extracts of Allamanda and Laurus respectively for 10 days. The effects of vehicles on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, tensile strength, weights of the granulation tissue, hydroxyproline content and histopathology of the granulation tissue.The aqueous extract of Allamanda promoted wound healing activity significantly in both the wound models studied. High rate of wound contraction (P < .001), decrease in the period of epithelialisation (10.2 ± 0.13), high skin breaking strength (440.0 ± 4.53), significant increase in the weight of the granulation tissue (P < .001) and hydroxyproline (P < .001) content were observed in animals treated with the aqueous extract of Allamanda. Histological studies of the granulation tissue from the Allamanda treated group showed the presence of a lesser number of inflammatory cells, and increased collagen formation than the control. In Laurus nobilis treated animals, the rate of wound contraction, weight of the granulation tissue and hydroxyproline content were moderately high (P < .05). The histological study of the granulation tissue of the Laurus nobilis treated animals showed larger number of inflammatory cells, and lesser collagen when compared with the Allamanda treated group of animals. However, it was better than the control group of animals.The data of this study indicated that the leaf extract of Allamanda possesses
Distillation Parameters for Pilot Plant Production of Laurus nobilis Essential oil  [PDF]
Temel ?zek
Records of Natural Products , 2012,
Abstract: Essential oils have increasing importance in flavour and fragrance industries. They are obtained by distillation techniques. In order to produce an oil with market potential its optimum production parameters have to be well known prior to its commercial production. Determination of the steam distillation parameters of commercially available Laurel leaves oil in pilot plant scale is described. The effect of steam rate and processing time play a major role in distillation of essential oils. Distillation speed was high in the beginning of the process, then gradually reduced as the distillation proceeded. The main component of the oil of Laurel leaf oil was 1,8-cineole accumulating significantly in the early fractions.

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