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Violence and Warfare in Precontact Melanesia  [PDF]
Stephen M. Younger
Journal of Anthropology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/658597
Abstract: Levels of interpersonal violence and warfare for 30 Melanesian societies at the time of contact with Europeans are estimated based on ethnographic and historical records. While violence was common in indigenous Melanesia, it was not ubiquitous and some societies experienced extended periods of internal and external peace. Interpersonal violence and warfare were correlated-when one occurred there was a high probability of finding the other. Violence was not dependent on total population. It was, however, higher for population density greater than 50 persons per square kilometer. Violence in Melanesia may have been stimulated by the large number of relatively small polities, many of which competed with one another for prestige and, in some cases, land. 1. Introduction Cross cultural studies of violence and warfare in indigenous cultures have revealed a number of general trends that appear to be independent of specific social contexts. Keeley [1] has examined a large number of small societies and has concluded that violence was more the rule than the exception in preindustrial societies. However, Loftin [2] found that the nature of violence changed with population, from a fight between individuals associated with distinct groups who knew one another to an impersonal collision of groups spurred into action by strong leaders. Ember et al. [3, 4] found that the degree of participation in governance was an important factor in the frequency of warfare among a wide range of societies. Indeed, leadership appears to have played a role in both interpersonal violence and warfare, occasionally suppressing the former to retain the social cohesion necessary to carry out the latter. 201C 201D Precontact Oceania offers a unique laboratory for the study of human behaviors, including leadership, violence, and warfare. Island populations varied from a few hundred—just sufficient to maintain a sustainable gene pool—to many tens of thousands. Social structures ranged from egalitarian bands to hierarchical systems with many of the aspects of nation states. In previous studies I examined the influence of leadership upon violence and warfare in Polynesia [5] and Micronesia [6]. In this paper I extend the same type of analysis to the third major cultural region in Oceania: Melanesia. Violence and warfare in Melanesia have been the subject of a number of studies, including Camilla Wedgwood’s [7] early paper “Some Aspects of Warfare in Melanesia.” More recently, Knauft [8] has surveyed violence in the context of evolving sociological and anthropological theory, with particular
Asymmetric Warfare  [PDF]
Xavier Bressaud,Anthony Quas
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We study a simple two player dynamic game with asymmetric information introduced by Renault and studied by H\"orner, Rosenberg, Solan and Vieille. We improve the range of parameters for which the optimal startegy is known and provide an unexpected bound on this range.
Asymmetric warfare in African conflicts
R Ferreira
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies , 2010,
Abstract: Irregular wars have erupted in African states since colonial independence from Western European countries in the 1960s. The end of the Cold War in 1989 and the changing nature of international politics did not bring about political stability in African states either. These intrastate wars were by-products of historic disputes kept hidden during the Cold War. When the ideological confrontation ended, they surfaced again. Intrastate wars and irregular warfare are not new phenomena on the African continent and led to the collapse of state institutions in countries such as Liberia, Somalia, Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Uganda, Sudan and Burundi. Rather than addressing African animosities, conflict continues unabated. The article aims to investigate why irregular (or asymmetric) warfare is utilised in African conflicts where rebel and ethnic groups retain residual military capacity to deploy against weak central governments if their socio-economic demands are not met in the emerging states. The article combines “grievance” and “greed” models to explain the motivations for conflict, while the conceptualisation and utilisation of asymmetric warfare approaches in the African context of irregular war are questioned. Democratic values such as freedom, justice, equality and human dignity are lacking in conflict-ridden societies where unequal forces compete for political and economic control or control over scarce resources. Peacekeeping operations cannot succeed unless the basis for equitable participation in, and the sharing of wealth and power is established in African societies.
Perception of Partner Abuse and Its Impact on Marital Violence from Both Spouses  [PDF]
Claude Bélanger, Cynthia Mathieu, Hélène Brisebois
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.411123
Abstract:

Few studies have investigated bi-directional models of marital violence. Research suggests that female victims are also often perpetrators of violence. Accordingly, some researchers propose that we should test the hypothesis that the victim and perpetrator roles can be played by both men and women. The current study addresses this issue by attempting to understand the effect that perceptions of spousal violence will have on both partners’ level of marital violence. Our objectives were to verify the links between levels of violence and perceptions of violence by both partners, and actual self-reports of each type of violence perpetrated. We verified if self-reports and partner’s reports of violence would differ, if one partner’s abuses would influence the other partner’s abuses, and whether the spouse’s self-reported violence or the other spouse’s perception of that violence had a differential impact on the level of violence perpetrated. Twenty-three couples in which the male partner was undergoing treatment for marital violence took part in the study. Results indicate that for both partners perceptions of partner violence modulate the level of marital violence that is perpetrated. The link between perceptions and violent behaviors appears to explain female marital violence better than that it does for males. Implications based on these results are discussed.

The Violence Perception of Teachers and Students at Primary Schools
G?nül ?ENER,Mukadder BOYDAK ?ZAN
Sakarya University Journal of Education , 2013,
Abstract: In parallel with the increasing number of acts of violence in recent years, it is seen that the effect of violence in schools is becoming growingly worrisome. The violence the students are exposed to affect them not only in their academic life but also throughout their life and may make irrecoverable traumas. With this study, it is endeavoured to identify how the acts of violence in the primary schools are perceived and conceptualized through the teachers and students’ opinions. In this study designed in line with the qualitative research approach, “the content analysis” has been conducted. Within this context, the open-ended question, “Violence is like ……… because ……..” has been asked to the participants. In order to identify the teachers and students’ perceptions on violence, the random sample has been used and the opinions of 222 teachers from the schools in the city centre and districts of Elaz and 425 students attending at the 6th, 7th and 8th grade at these school have been taken. According to the themes created following the analysis of metaphors, it is seen that the students have created the most metaphors under “destroying” theme and the least metaphors under “penalty” theme. Again, according to the themes, it is seen that the teachers have considered violence under “natural disaster” theme the most and under “warning” theme the least.
Computer Games as the Representation of Military Information Operations–A Philosophical Description of Cyborgizing of Propaganda Warfare
International Journal of Networks and Communications , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.ijnc.20120206.03
Abstract: The history of combat is primarily the history of radically changing fields of perception. In other words, war consists not so much of scoring territorial, economic or other material victories but of appropriating the immateriality of perceptual field. The function of the eye has become the function of the weapons[1]. To understand information age warfare we have to understand the concept of representation as a part of our process of violence. The idea of information warfare or an information operation is based on the process where the physical target is no longer destroyed with the kinetic systems, but the process where the non-kinetic systems, like information, scan the symbols-semiotics networks. Today, particularly the advanced mobile technology, the Internet and the entertainment industry immensely exploit the experiences from different wars and conflicts for example as ideas of computer games. In return the military industrial complex represents its own language for example in the concept of information operations with the help of applications particularly rising from the entertainment industry[2].
Social perception of violence against women: Individual and psychosocial characteristics of victims and abusers  [PDF]
Francisca Exposito,Maria del Carmen Herrera
European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context , 2009,
Abstract: Violence against women in close relationships is one of the most worrying and controversial situations in modern society. The main goal of this study was to identify the social perception that people generally have of gender violence in order to obtain profiles of both men who resort to violence against their partners and women who are victims of abuse, identifying both individual (e.g. self-esteem) and social (power in relationship) characteristics related to gender violence. Using a questionnaire (designed between groups), 268 participants were asked to estimate the probability of men (Batterers vs. Non-batterers) and women (Victims vs. Non-victims) displaying certain behaviours, beliefs or attitudes. The results revealed the existence of clear social profiles of both aggressors and victims, comprising both individual and psychosocial characteristics. These profiles contained aspects that coincide with the roles traditionally associated with men and women, thus highlighting inequality between both sexes, and which seems to be one of the main causes of gender violence.
Teachers’ perception of adolescents violence in Anambra state secondary schools
N Obikeze
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: The study which was a survey investigated teachers’ perception of adolescents’ violence in secondary schools in Awka Education zone of Anambra State. The study was guided by three research questions and two null hypotheses stated at .05 level of significance. A sample of 400 out of 1,863 teachers responded to the questionnaire items. The data generated through the questionnaire were statistically analysed using mean, standard deviation and t-test statistics. The study found out that such forms of violence as destruction of school property, fighting, kicking, bullying, pushing, breaking and destroying other students’ lockers and personal belongings, cultism, riots, beating teachers, flogging the junior students by the senior ones are prevalent in secondary schools. Again the study revealed that the degree of adolescents’ involvement in violence is relatively very high. In view of the findings of the study, recommendations of the study were highlighted.
An examination on the perception of violence and its relation to self-esteem among Turkish women
Müge Akba?,Ra?el Barakas
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Violence is a type of behavior that takes different forms and is also directed at different groups. This is one of the major societal problems. The main objective of the present study is to examine the relationship between the perception of violence and self-esteem levels in Turkish women. The Personal Information Form asked some questions concerning Turkish women’s perception of violence, the kinds of violence they are exposed to; the frequency of violence they are exposed to and their reactions to the violent behavior. This was administered to 212 Turkish women, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale. The findings revealed that most of the women (70%) perceive violence most intensely as physical violence. Another significant finding of this study revealed that when the self-esteem of women increases, the sensitivity to the kinds of violence also increases. The findings have also been discussed in the light of similar research findings and finally some suggestions have been made.
Perception and Attitudes of Physicians and Nurses about Violence against Women  [PDF]
Ana Cyntia Paulin Baraldi,Ana Maria de Almeida,Gleici Perdoná,Elisabeth Meloni Vieira,Manoel Antonio dos Santos
Nursing Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/785025
Abstract: Cross-sectional study compares the perception and attitudes about violence against women of physicians and nurses working in the primary health care clinics in Ribeir?o Preto, SP. A total of 170 physicians and 51 nurses were interviewed in the District Health Clinics. Physicians feel more comfortable than nurses to talk about the sex life of patients ( ) and to investigate the use of drugs (0.001). Compared to the nurses greater number of physicians believed that the aggression to the woman by the husband should be treated as a medical problem ( ). Both believe that external factors, as alcohol or drug abuse, unemployment, and psychological problems of the husband and not of the victim, can cause violent acts. Most interviewees understand that gender violence exceeds the issues of individuality and privacy and has become a public health problem, by the dimension present in the social relationships. 1. Introduction From the 1970s, violence against women (VAW) has become increasingly visible in Brazilian society. Since 1990, VAW is considered a topic of study and intervention in health assistance [1], and, as a reflection of national and international conventions, it is now considered a fundamental human right [2–7]. Data from the World Bank show that domestic violence affects about 25% to 50% of women in Latin America, with costs of approximately 14.2% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which means US $ 168 billion [8]. In Brazil, it is estimated that every 15 seconds a woman is raped, usually in their home by a person who keeps loving relationship, and 70% of crimes against women happen at home and domestic violence costs to the country about 10, 5% of its GDP [8]. Although the national political scene is favorable to combat VAW [9–11], its resolution involves the training of professionals who deal daily with these women. Even today, the use of health services by women in situations of violence, although frequent, is not very resolute, and most time it is ignored. For professionals, those cases are causes for frustration and sense of impotence [12], and this demand generates high costs with little result for the health system. Several factors have been identified as barriers to the recognition of VAW by health professionals, such as lack of training to identify women subjected to violence, ignorance about the handling of cases, feelings of insecurity when dealing with the problem, and little support for the victims [13, 14]. Adequate assistance is hindered by the spread of the erroneous idea that intimate partner violence is a private matter that should
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