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Injury morbidity in an urban and a rural area in Tanzania: an epidemiological survey
Candida Moshiro, Ivar Heuch, Anne ?str?m, Philip Setel, Yusuf Hemed, Gunnar Kv?le
BMC Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-5-11
Abstract: A population-based household survey was conducted in 2002. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. A total of 8,188 urban and 7,035 rural residents of all ages participated in the survey. All injuries reported among all household members in the year preceding the interview and resulting in one or more days of restricted activity were included in the analyis.A total of 206 (2.5%) and 303 (4.3%) persons reported to have been injured in the urban and rural area respectively. Although the overall incidence was higher in the rural area, the incidence of major injuries (≥ 30 disability days) was similar in both areas. Males were at a higher risk of having an injury than females. Rural residents were more likely to experience injuries due to falls (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 – 2.3) and cuts (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.0 – 6.2) but had a lower risk of transport injuries. The most common causes of injury in the urban area were transport injuries and falls. In the rural area, cuts and stabs, of which two thirds were related to agriculture, formed the most common cause. Age was an important risk factor for certain types of injuries. Poverty levels were not significantly associated with experiencing a nonfatal injury.The patterns of injury differ in urban and rural areas partly as a reflection of livelihoods and infrastructure. Rural residents are at a higher overall injury risk than urban residents. This may be important in the development of injury prevention strategies.Injuries have been recognised as a major public health problem in both developed and less developed countries [1]. It is generally acknowledged that this problem is growing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa [2]. Studies in Tanzania show that injuries are an important cause of death among adults [3], and accounted for 12% of all admissions at the national hospital in the country's largest city [4].Studies on the magnitude of injuries and the groups at risk, have been conducted world-wide, and especially in developed
A Socio -Epidemiological Study of Tuberculosis in a Rural Area  [PDF]
JK Science : Journal of Medical Education & Research , 2002,
Abstract: hc thousand rural adults (aged IS years and above) were studied to find out role of socIal vanabiesm the occurrence of tuberculosis in seven villages of R.S.Pura tehsi! ofJammu district. During thIScross-,ccllonal study. 25 tubercular cases were found in the adult rural population. Out of 25 cases.16 yorc lound m the age group of below 45 years and only 9 cases were above -15 ycaf'. Men ereal"ICctcd more than women. Smoking and overcrowding were found to be important social factor,slgnJ!'lcantly related to thc higher prevalence or disease. The other social variables like occupallon.Ilterac) .....OcID-econOllllc status and family size were not found to be slglllficantly related to thepreaknce of tuberculosIs m'thls study.
An epidemiological study of 500 paediatric burn patients in Mumbai, India
Verma S,Srinivasan S,Vartak A
Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery , 2007,
Abstract: Aim: To study the epidemiological data of paediatric burn patients to determine the role of demographic distribution and epidemiological parameters for assessment of mortality rate and development of burn prevention strategy. Materials and Methods : Epidemiological data of 500 patients admitted to the Burns and Plastic Surgery Unit of B.J. Wadia Hospital, Mumbai over a period of six years (2000-2005) was reviewed from medical records. Age, sex, demographic distribution, seasonal variation, total body surface area (TBSA) involved, type and place of burn injury, parental occupation, family size, first aid and mortality rate were studied. Result: Median age group for patient was 3.44 years (range one month to 14 years). The majority (24%) of burns occurred in children between the one to two years age group. Male to female sex ratio was 1.38:1. Most of the patients were from the defined demographic region served by the hospital. A significant number of patients however were from outside this region. Burn injury occurred predominantly during winter. Most common type of burn was scalds which occurred mainly in domestic circumstances. In the majority of patients, less than 10% TBSA was involved. All patients were managed as per the unit protocol. Mortality rate was 10.4%. Mortality rate was high in patients having more than 40% TBSA involvement. Seventy-three per cent of the total deaths occurred in the patients coming from regions outside the demographic region served by the hospital. Parental occupation, family size and the first aid did not affect the mortality rate. Conclusion: Availability of a burn care unit in the vicinity can decrease the mortality rates in the paediatric burn patients. An intense and focused burn prevention campaign to educate the general population about dangerous aetiological factors will decrease the incidence of paediatric burns.
Shubhada S. Avachat,Vaishali D. Phalke,Deepak B. Phalke
Pravara Medical Review , 2009,
Abstract: Prevalence of malnutrition is very high in India; especially in rural area. A cross sectional study was done in randomly selected six villages to estimate the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomicfactors associated with malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition among the under five children was 50.46%.Children from lower socioeconomic status, with low birth weight were significantly malnourished.
A five-year retrospective study of the epidemiological characteristics and visual outcomes of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma in a Mediterranean area
Salvatore Cillino, Alessandra Casuccio, Francesco Di Pace, Francesco Pillitteri, Giovanni Cillino
BMC Ophthalmology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-8-6
Abstract: All cases of ocular trauma admitted to Department of Ophthalmology of Palermo University, Italy, from January 2001–December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed for open- or closed-globe injury (OGI or CGI). Data extracted included age, sex, residence, initial and final visual acuity (VA), cause and treatment of injury, hospitalization. The injuries were classified by Ocular Trauma Classification System (OTCS) and Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology (BETT). We also referred to the Ocular Trauma Score (OTS) in evaluating the final visual outcome.Of the 298 eyes, there were 146 OGI and 152 CGI. Fifty eyes (16.8%) had an intraocular foreign body (IOFB). The annual incidence of eye injuries was 4.9 per 100,000. Most injuries occurred in men (84.6%, p < 0.0005), with an average age of 33.0 vs. 49.9 for women (p = 0.005). Cause of injury differed significantly by gender (p = 0.001) and urban vs. rural location (p = 0.009). The most frequent causes in men were outdoor activities related injuries (30.9%), work-related (25.4%), and sport-related (17.5%), and in women were home-related (52.2%) and outdoor activities related injuries (30.4%). In urban areas, road accidents were more frequent; in rural areas, work-related injuries were more frequent with a greater rate of IOFBs than in urban areas (p = 0.002).The incidence of OGI and CGI differed in work-related injuries (p < 0.0005), sport-related injuries (p < 0.0005), and assaults (p = 0.033). The final visual acuity was 20/40 (6/12) or better in 144 eyes (48.3%), 20/40–20/200 (6/12–6/60) in 90 eyes (30.2%), and <20/200 (6/60) or less in 46 eyes (15.5%). Eighteen eyes (6%) had a final acuity of no light perception. Of those eyes that presented with hand motion vision or better, 220 (86.6%) had a final vision of better than 20/200 (6/60). Initial visual acuity was found to be correlated with final visual acuity (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.658; p < 0.001). The likelihood of the final visual acuities in the OTS categori
Secular trends of blood isolates in patients from a rural area population hospitalized in a tertiary center in a small city in Greece
Matthew E Falagas, Alexandra Bakossi, Vasilis D Pappas, Pierros V Holevas, Antonis Bouras, Eleni Stamata
BMC Microbiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-6-41
Abstract: We retrospectively collected and analysed data for the first positive blood culture obtained for each admission for each patient hospitalized in General Hospital of Tripolis, Tripolis, Peloponnesus, Greece during a 5 year period (16/05/2000 – 15/05/2005).Sixty-seven thousand and seventy patients were hospitalized during the study period from whom 3,206 blood cultures were obtained. A higher increase of the number of obtained blood cultures than the number of admissions was noted during the study period (p < 0.001). Three hundred and seventy-three (11.6%) blood cultures were positive. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (35.9%), Escherichia coli (29%), and Staphylococcus aureus (18.2%) were the most commonly isolated pathogens. Among the Staphylococcus aureus isolates, the proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was 17.2% (5/29). The proportion of Escherichia coli resistant to trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and cefuroxime was 29.6% (32/108), 25.0% (27/108), and 8.3% (9/108) respectively. Imipenem-resistance was noted in 3.4% (1/29) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. There were only 6 (1.6%) Acinetobacter baummanii blood isolates during the study period.The antimicrobial resistance of isolates from patients receiving care at the studied tertiary hospital in a small city in Greece is considerably less compared to that noted in tertiary hospitals in larger cities of the country.There is an increasing incidence of multi drug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections in several parts of the world [1]. However, the majority of the studies on the secular trends of antimicrobial resistance have been performed in tertiary medical centers in large cities. There is relatively scarcity of information regarding the trends of antimicrobial resistance in patients from rural populations hospitalized in healthcare centers in small cities. Thus, we sought to collect and analyze data relevant to this significant public health problem from the General Ho
The Correlation Between the Burning Features, the Burning Agent and Motivation in Burn Victims Attending Shahid Motahari Hospital in Tehran During 2009: letter to Editor  [PDF]
Kamran Aghakhani M.D.,Seyedhamid Salehi M.D.,Alireza Ghassemi Toussi M.D.
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Burning is one of the commonest causes of death. Due to the high rate of death among burn victims epidemiological investigation of burning, burning agents and the relevant motivations can be of great preventive value.1 In this cross-sectional study all the hospitalized patients in Shahid Motahari Burn Hospital at Tehran city in the year 2009 were included in the study. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (ver. 17) software. Out of the 1548 hospitalized patients for burn, 1134 (73.3%) left hospital in good conditions, 47 (3%) left in relatively good conditions, 289 (18.7%) died and 78 (5%) persons left the Hospital satisfactorily on their own volition. About two-thirds of the patients were men. The mean age of the burn victims was 27.9±18.3 years, 16% of them being 5 years old or younger. The highest percentage of burn area was 30% of the total body surface which was seen in 20 to 30-year old patients. 58.7% of burns had been caused by fire. 94% of the burns had happened accidentally, 5% by suicidal and 1% by homicidal acts. The highest percentage of burn was observed in patients in whom the burn agent was fire. Six (4%) persons had first degree, 820 (53%) persons had second degree and 722 (46.6%) had third degree burns. In patients who had committed suicide third degree burns were higher than second degree burns (7.7% vs. 2%). 24.4% of women and 16.6% of men died due to the burns. The rate of death in patients less than 50 years of age was 18% but the figure increased to 24% in those above 50. A burn area less than or more than 10% was, respectively correlated with 2.1% and 22.1% of deaths. 34.8% of the patients with third degree burns and 4.6% of those with second and first degree burns died. 58.3% of the suicidal patient died due to the severity of the burns relative to 16.7% due to other causes. 89 (5.7%) patients had respiratory tract burns and the death rate was 58.4% among these patients while the death rate was 16.2% in patients without respiratory tract involvement. The results of logistic regression analysis revealed that age more than 50 years, female sex, burn area greater than 10% (previous studies 40%), 2 third degree burns, respiratory tract involvement and suicide increased the risk of death in burn patients.
A Clinico-Epidemiological Study on Health Problems of Post-Menopausal Women in Rural Area of Vadodara District, Gujarat.  [cached]
Donald Shailendra Christian,Manish Kathad,Bharat Bhavsar
National Journal of Medical Research , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Health issues of postmenopausal women pose a significant challenge to public health, considering the facts like; there hasn’t been a specific health program for such women in the country and the rising geriatric population. Objectives: 1. To find out the health problems among rural post-menopausal women. 2. To compare the results with few of the studies in the past with different settings. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional study, Participants: 147 post-menopausal women residing in Piparia village of Vadodara district were involved in the study, based on sample size calculation and necessary assumptions. Information was filled up in a pre-tested questionnaire. Objectives: 1. To find out the health problems among rural post-menopausal women. 2. To compare the results with few of the studies in the past with different settings. Results: Most of them suffered from physical symptoms of tiredness (88.4%) and headache (74.8%). This was followed by vasomotor symptoms like hot flushes (40.1%), night sweats (40.8%) and palpitations (37.4%) as well as psychological symptoms like insomnia (57.1%), anxiety (38.1%) and lack of concentration in the work (33.3%). Conclusion: The rural post-menopausal women suffer from variety of health problems and it has also some relevance to the settings they come from. [Natl J of Med Res 2012; 2(4.000): 478-480]
Epidemiological correlates of contraceptive prevalence in married women of reproductive age group in rural area  [PDF]
Sujata K. Murarkar, S. G. Soundale
National Journal of Community Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: In spite of availability of a wide range of contraceptives and mass media campaigns population control is a distant dream to achieve. It is pertinent to identify the factors responsible for poor contraceptive acceptance. The study was conducted to find out contraceptive prevalence in married women of reproductive age group and to study epidemiological correlates affecting contraceptive practices. A cross-sectional population based study covered 512 married women in reproductive age group in the village Chanai, Taluka- Ambajogai, Dist.-Breed. They were interviewed by predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Out of 512 married women 48.63% were contraceptive acceptors. Contraceptive acceptance was more in women who are graduate and above(82.76%), women from nuclear family (58.79%), Upper middle socioeconomic class (79.62%).Contraceptive acceptance was lowest in agricultural laborer(38.87%) .A significant association was found between contraceptive acceptance and literacy status, occupation, type of family, socioeconomic status and age at marriage.
Epidemiological Study Of Burn Cases And Their Mortality Experiences Amongst Adults From A Tertiary Level Care Centre  [cached]
Kumar P,Chaddha A
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 1997,
Abstract: Research question: How to use hospital statistics in establishing epidemiology of burns amongst adults? Objectives: To identify epidemiological determinants for Ii) Various burn injuries and ii) their mortality experiences. Study design: Hospital based study carried out for a period of one year (1st January 1991 to 31st December 1991). Settings: Wards of department of Burn & Plastic Surgery, BJ Medical College, Ahmedabad. Participants: 386 adults (20 years and above) admitted at the centre for burn injuries during 1991. Study variables: Epidemiological determinants (age, sex, temporal, place, etc.) for various burn injuries and the determinants of mortality (type of burn, extent of burn, referral time lag etc.) Outcome profile: Common profile of burn victims with relation to the epidemiological factors and other factors responsible for high mortality in burn cases. Statistical analysis: Chi- square and Z tests. Results:Burns occured more in females specially in the age group of 20-24 years. Eighty five percent were flame burns. Flame burns were more in females, while electric burns were more in males. Burns were less during monsoon (27.7%) than winter (32.6%) and summer (39.6%), but electric burns were twice more common during monsoon. Maximum burns (81.9%) were domestic, occurring mainly either in kitchen or living room. They were seen more in late evening. Sixty two percent cases were severe as total burn surface area (TBSA) was >40%. Case fatality correlated positively with TBSA and death was almost universal with TBSA >60%. Early referral reduced fatality significantly in less severe burns (TBSA<40%) but failed to influence it in severe burns. Appraisal of alleged suicide cases (2.6%) and of stove bursting (4.4%) revealed that young females carry additional risk of burn injuries.
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