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Um método eficiente para a detec o de Phytophthora cinnamomi associada com a Doen a da Tinta do Castanheiro na rizosfera de Castanheiro (Castanea sativa Mill.) An efficient assay for detection of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the rhizosphere of Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.)  [cached]
E. Gouveia,V. Coelho,N. Sousa,S. Coutinho
Revista de Ciências Agrárias , 2009,
Abstract: O ciclo biológico de Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands e P. cambivora (Petri) Buisman espécies associadas com a Doen a da Tinta do Castanheiro, ocorre integralmente no ambiente solo. A presen a de qualquer uma destas espécies parasitas inviabiliza as novas planta es de castanheiro e coloca sérios problemas à manuten o dos soutos já instalados. Para garantir a ausência de propágulos dos parasitas no material de multiplica o do castanheiro e avaliar o estado sanitário dos solos é necessário que os métodos de detec o sejam sensíveis e rápidos, o que nem sempre é conseguido com as espécies de Phytophthora cujo ciclo de vida ocorre no ambiente solo. Neste estudo desenvolveuse e optimizou-se um método de biodetec o conjugado com a utiliza o de meios de cultura selectivos. Como material biológico utilizaram-se discos de folha de castanheiro (Castanea sativa), azevinho (Ilex aquifolium) e camélia (Camellia japonica), em condi es de temperatura constante (25o) e em condi es normais de laboratório com a adi o ou n o de biocidas (pimaricina e penicilina) na água de dilui o do solo. Os discos de folha de castanheiro foram mais eficientes na detec o de Phytophthora, obtendo-se maior percentagem de isolamentos positivos no meio de cultura selectivo (P10VPH). Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitiram estabelecer um protocolo experimental de fácil utiliza o e tornar mais eficiente a detec o de Phytophthora cinnamomi associada com a Doen a da Tinta do Castanheiro. The life cycle of Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands and P. cambivora (Petri)Buisman, both species associated with Ink Disease of Chestnut, occurs entirely in soil. The presence of any of these parasitic species is a limiting constraint for new plantations of sweet chestnut and represents a serious problem for established groves. Sensitive and fast detection methods are necessary to guarantee the absence of inoculum in the propagation material and to evaluate the sanitary condition of soils. In this study a method that involved a baiting assay conjugated with selective agar medium was developed. As biological baits, leaf discs of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa), holly trees (Ilex aquifolium) and camellia (Camellia japonica) were used, at 25 oC and normal laboratory conditions with or without addition of biocides (pimaricin and penicillin) in the water of soil dilution. The leaf discs of sweet chestnut were more efficient for detection of Phytophthora and greater percentage of positive isolations were always obtained in the selective medium P10VPH. Results of this study allow us to establish an efficient
CAPACITY OF EXTRACTS OF SWEET CHESTNUT CONCERNING TO REMOVE LIPID PEROXIDATION
J ?ivkovi?,I Muji?,Z Zekovi?,S Vidovi?
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2008,
Abstract: Permanent attention of researchers has been focused on the use of natural antioxidants to inhibit lipid peroxidation, or to protect the damage provoked by free radicals. Extracts of sweet chestnut, Lovran’s Marrone cultivar and grafted Italian ″Marrone″ cultivar obtained in two years (2006. and 2007.), were investigated for their capacity to remove lipid peroxidation in liposomes exposed to hydroxyl radical, and for their total phenolics and flavonoids content. Selected tissues of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruit, leaf, catkin, spiny burs, young and old bark of chestnut tree have been extracted under the same conditions using 50% ethanol and afterwards dry extracts of examined samples have been gained. All extracts, excluding those with low content of both, total phenolics and flavonoids, showed the ability to protect liposomes from lipid peroxidation. We find practical importance of results in the fact that extract of spiny burs could potentially have beneficial effects in diet of hypertensive patients.
Resilience of Sweet Chestnut and Truffle Holm-Oak Rural Forests in Languedoc-Roussillon, France: Roles of Social-Ecological Legacies, Domestication, and Innovations
Yildiz Aumeeruddy-Thomas,Clara Therville,Cedric Lemarchand,Alban Lauriac
Ecology and Society , 2012, DOI: 10.5751/es-04750-170212
Abstract: The Cévennes sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) forest-orchards and the holm-oak (Quercus ilex L.) black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.) associations of the garrigue in Languedoc-Roussillon have suffered a century of decline because of great reductions of rural populations and lack of understanding of the ecological and social dimensions of these rural forests by sectorial public agencies. Levels of tree and forest domestication alternated during historical periods in parallel with statuses of disorganization and reorganization of local social groups. Social-ecological legacies intrinsically linked to trees, forests, and landscape domestication, as well as knowledge, social, and technical practices have been mobilized and provided a basis for knowledge innovations, new domestications, uses, and new institutional networks related to changes in social set-ups. Collective actions emerging from local needs to revive territories in a modern context, cross-scale and reciprocal exchanges of rural and scientific knowledge, as well as institutional changes are interrelated variables that have enabled innovations and have increased resilience of these rural forests. This paper opens new avenues for future research on the interplay between the effects of social-ecological legacies and innovations on the resilience of social-ecological systems.
Thermoanalytical study and characterization of native starches of Paraná pine seeds (Araucaria angustiofolia, Bert O. Ktze) and European chestnut seeds (Castanea sativa, Mill)
Bicudo, S. C. W.;Demiate, I. M.;Bannach, G.;Lacerda, L. G.;Carvalho Filho, M. A. S.;Ionashiro, M.;Schnitzler, E.;
Eclética Química , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-46702009000100001
Abstract: starch is the most important carbohydrate storage in plants. it is a raw material with diverse botanical origins, and is used by the food, paper, chemical, pharmaceutical, textile and other industries. in this work, native starches of paraná pine seeds (pinh?o) (araucária angustiofolia, bert o. ktze) and european chestnut seeds (castanea sativa, mill) were studied by thermoanalytical techniques: thermo-gravimetry (tg), differential thermal analysis (dta) and differential scanning calorimetry (dsc), as well as x-ray powder patterns diffractometry. apparent and total amylose content was also determined.
Diversidad vegetal y tratamientos forestales en parcelas de casta o (Castanea sativa Mill.) de dos regiones mediterráneas  [cached]
Gondard, H.,Leonardi, S.,Santa Regina, I.,Romanae, R.
Pirineos : Revista de Ecología de Monta?a , 2004,
Abstract: During the last few decades; marked land use changes have taken place throughout the Mediterranean region. These changes have a great impact on plant diversity and also affect the current ecosystem functioning. This is particularly true for sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) stands (groves or coppices) that have been more or less abandoned from the end of the last century. Thus; our objective was to analyze consequences on plant species diversity of various management types in chestnut stands of two Mediterranean areas; the Cévennes in France; and Mt. Etna in Italy. Our results indicate that there are few species in common between the two Mediterranean areas; only less than 9%. These differences can be explained by different ecological conditions (climate; soil type; etc.) between the two areas; but also by the differences of management type (groves and coppice stands in the Cévennes; only coppice stands on Mt. Etna) or stand characteristics (shoot density; diameter at breast height; etc.). Moreover; plant species diversity is different according to management types. Indeed; we found that plant species diversity is higher in groves than in coppice stands. VSfe also demonstrated that C. sativa cultivated groves were generally characterized by small heliophilous therophytes. C. sativa abandoned groves; young C. sativa coppice stands were characterized by hemicryptophytes with anemochorous dispersal mode and chamaephytes. Medium and old C. sativa coppice stands (that differ by the shoot age) were more particularly characterized by phanerophytes with zoochorous dispersal mode. A consequence of chestnut stands abandonment is homogeneous vegetation with decreasing plant diversity. One solution could be to maintain a landscape mosaic of diverse chestnut stands diversely modified by human activities. This could allow enhancing the high regional plant diversity. [fr] Ces dernières décades les changements subis dans la région Méditerranéenne ont affecté la diversité végétale dont les variations affectent aussi le fonctionnement des écosystèmes. Ainsi des la fin du siècle dernier les peuplements de chataigniers ont été abandonnés. Notre objectif était d'analyser les conséquences sur la diversité végétale de différents traitements dans deux chataigneraies méditerranéennes des Cévennes (France) et de l'Etna en Italie. Les résultats indiquent qu'il y a peu d'espèces communes aux deux zones d'étude; environ 9%. Ces différences peuvent être justifiées par les facteurs écologiques (climat; sol; etc.) mais aussi par les différences de traitement (plantation pour le fr
INTRODUCCIóN DE CULTIVARES DE CASTA O EUROPEO (Castanea sativa Mill.), HíBRIDOS EUROJAPONESES (Castanea crenata x Castanea sativa), Y CASTA O JAPONéS (Castanea crenata Sieb et Zucc.) A CHILE. PRIMEROS RESULTADOS Introduction of European chestnut cultivars (Castanea sativa Mill.), Eurojapanese hybrids (Castanea crenata x Castanea sativa) and Japanese cultivars (Castanea crenata Sieb et Zucc.) to Chile. First results
Pablo Grau B.
Agricultura Técnica , 2003,
Abstract: El Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), en su Centro Regional de Investigación (CRI) Quilamapu, ubicado en la ciudad de Chillán, como parte del programa de mejoramiento de frutos de nuez, introdujo 18 de los cultivares comerciales más importantes de casta a desde Italia, Francia y Japón, a mediados de la década del 90. La mayoría de los cultivares introducidos pertenecen a la clasificación marrón, siendo ésta la primera vez que cultivares comerciales de fruto de alta calidad de casta o europeo (Castanea sativa Mill.) tipo marrón, de casta o japonés (Castanea crenata Sieb et Zucc.), e híbridos eurojaponeses (C. crenata x C. sativa) son introducidos al país. Luego de cumplir dos a os de cuarentena, el material fue liberado e injertado en portainjertos de semilla en el CRI Quilamapu. La mayoría de los cultivares iniciaron su producción al segundo a o de establecidos, el a o 2002, y su comportamiento agronómico está siendo evaluado anualmente. La calidad del fruto de la mayoría de los cultivares fue excelente, y cumplen los requisitos para ser clasificados como marrón según el sistema francés o italiano. Los cvs. más promisorios fueron Marrone di Citta di Castello, Marrone di Marradi y Marrone di Val di Susa que expresaron una alta calidad de fruto. La precocidad de los cultivares híbridos eurojaponeses fue superior a la expresada por selecciones locales, iniciándose la cosecha a inicios de marzo. A partir del a o 2002 todos los cultivares se encuentran en evaluación en ensayos de adaptación desde la VII a la X Región del país, área con alto potencial para el cultivo de ambas especies. El presente trabajo constituye la primera introducción de cultivares tipo marrón de casta o europeos, híbridos eurojaponeses y cultivares japoneses a Chile. The Agricultural Research Institute (INIA), at its Regional Research Center (CRI) Quilamapu at Chillán, as part of a nut fruit improvement program, introduced in the middle of 90’s eighteen of the most important commercial chestnut cultivars from Italy, France and Japan. Most of the introduced cultivars belong to the "marron type" and represent the first time that cultivars of high fruit quality of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.), Japanese cultivars (C. crenata Sieb et Zucc.) and Eurojapanese hybrids (C. crenata x C. sativa) are introduced to Chile. After two years of quarantine period, the germplasm was released and grafted onto seedling rootstocks at CRI Quilamapu. Most of the cultivars started yielding after two years of planting, by year 2002, and their agronomic performance it was year round e
In Vitro Propagation Potential via Somatic Embryogenesis of the Two Maturing Early Cultivars of European Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.)  [PDF]
Mehmet Sezgin, Hatice Dumano?lu
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.77095
Abstract: Turkey ranks the third in the production of chestnuts in the world having an important place both in domestic and global markets. However, the chestnut production and the number of trees have been diminishing in recent years. Therefore, in vitro propagation of the chestnut, in addition to the classical propagation techniques, should be applied. Especially the propogation of the early maturing cultivars and production of the quality chestnuts will provide a better income to the producer. Here, somatic embryo production and regeneration from the immature cotyledons of the early maturing cultivars of the European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill), Haciibis and Karamehmet, were studied using the somatic embryogenesis, one of the in vitro propagation techniques. To induce the somatic embryogenesis, 168 different combinations were applied to both cultivars. The somatic embryogenesis rate in Haciibis cultivar, in which the interactions were observed among the applications, was found to be 9.9% while it was 11.1% for the Karamehmet cultivar. Dessication, cold treatment, gibberellic acid (GA3) and benzyladenine (BA) + naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) applications were performed on the regeneration of the somatic embryos, and 40% conversion to plant was obtained with desiccation together with BA + NAA supplementation to the medium.


An analysis of the physical and germination parameters of the sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa)
Benedetti,Susana; González,Marta; García,Edison; Quiroz,Iván;
Ciencia e investigación agraria , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-16202012000100015
Abstract: this study analyzed the physical characteristics, number of seeds per kilogram, seed weight, germination characteristics, germination percentage, germination energy, germination period and the germination vigor of sweet chestnut seeds from two forest plantations in the los ríos region of chile. no significant differences were found in any of the characteristics related to the collection zone. following the international classification systems for seeds of this species, the values of the physical characteristics allow us to classify these seeds as a small caliber or "chestnut". the values of the germination characteristics (>80%) demonstrate a good germination for chestnut seeds of forest origin.
EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.
J ?ivkovi?,I Muji?,G Nikoli?,S Vidovi?
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2010,
Abstract: Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins are widespread in woody plants, but are also found in certain forages. Castanea sativa Mill. are exploited for various purposes, but a little is known about potential of this species and possible application in diet and therapy. The parts of chestnut such as: seed, peeled seed, brown seed shell, red internal seed shell, leaves, catkin, spiny bur, as well as the new and old chestnut bark were extracted with 50% ethanol as an extragents. Contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids were measured by application of the standard colorimetric assay. The total condensed tannins content estimated was highest in red internal seed shell 15.29%CE (vanillin assay) and 3.12%CT (acid butanol assay). Also high content of total phenolic compounds and condensed tannins had extracts of catkin, brown seed shell of chestnut and new chestnut bark. Extracts of C. sativa Mill. can be a potential resource of natural tannins with possible application in diet and therapy.
Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill) starch for industrial utilization
Demiate, Ivo Mottin;Oetterer, Marília;Wosiacki, Gilvan;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132001000100010
Abstract: studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g), lipid (5.39 g/100g), crude fiber (2.34 g/100g) and ash (2.14 g/100g). starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and corn. this fraction showed more lipids and proteins than the other starches. chestnut starch granules showed peculiar shape, smaller than the control starches and low amount of damaged units. chemical composition concerning amylose : amylopectin ratio was intermediate to that presented by cassava and corn starch granules. water absorption at different temperatures as well as solubility were also intermediate but closer to that presented by cassava granules. the same behavior was observed in the interaction with dimethyl-sulfoxide. native starch granules and those submitted to enzymatic treatment with commercial a-amylase and also with enzymes from germinated wheat were observed by scanning electronic microscopy. water suspensions of chestnut starch granules were heated to form pastes that were studied comparatively to those obtained with cassava and corn starches. viscographic pattern of chestnut starch pastes showed a characteristic profile with high initial viscosity but peak absence, high resistance to mechanical stirring under hot conditions and high final viscosity. there was no way to compare it with the paste viscographic profiles obtained with the control starches. chestnut starch pastes were stable down to ph 4 but unstable at ph 3. the water losses observed in the chestnut starch pastes after freeze-thaw cycles showed more similarity to the pattern observed in corn starch pastes as well as clarity and strength of the gel. in general the results showed that chestnut pa
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