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Drug utilization pattern in OPD of government dental college and hospital, Aurangabad  [cached]
M. D. Kulkarni,M. S. Baig,Samra A. Hussaini,S. M. Doifode
International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/2319-2003.ijbcp20130113
Abstract: Background: To study drug prescription pattern in dental OPD of Government Dental College and Hospital. Methods: 100 prescriptions were screened & analyzed as per the study parameters from OPD of Government Dental College & Hospital, Aurangabad. Groups of drugs commonly prescribed, like antibiotic, analgesics & others prescription were recorded. Results: Most common groups of drugs prescribed by dental surgeons were NSAIDs, antimicrobials, antiseptics and multivitamins. NSAIDs- 86%; Antimicrobials- 85%; Antiseptics- 8.6%; Multivitamins- 12.3%. The average number of drugs prescribed per patient was 3 and the average number of antimicrobial prescribed per patient was 1. Conclusions: For rational prescribing of drugs there is a need of mass-awareness amongst dental surgeons about the good prescribing by following 6 steps of WHO program on rational use of drugs. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(1.000): 69-70]
Preceptor preferences for participating in electronic preceptor development
Davison M,Medina MS,Ray NE
Pharmacy Practice (Granada) , 2009,
Abstract: Objectives: New guidelines require preceptors to deliver approximately 30% of the doctor of pharmacy curricula. With preceptor’s increasing responsibilities, colleges are faced with the task of training preceptors as educators. Identifying preceptor’s training format preferences (i.e. electronic vs. live) should contribute to the more effective and efficient creation of training materials and programs. Methods: A preceptor training video was created and made available electronically and was distributed to 400 preceptors with a brief 2-part questionnaire about preceptor training preferences, electronic training preferences after viewing the video, and available technology resources for participating in electronic training.Results: 38.25% of the questionnaires were returned. The majority of respondents (57%) preferred electronic to live preceptor developing training and the majority (53%) had not previously attended the live annual preceptor development conference offered by the college. 51.6% participants reviewed the electronic training video created by the OU College of Pharmacy. Of the respondents who did not watch the video, 73% cited having too little time, problems accessing the video, or technical reasons for not watching the training video. The majority of responders in all age groups preferred electronic training to face-to-face training except those ages 61-65 and the majority (55.7%) would participate in on-line training again in the future. The majority of respondents have the technical resources to participate in electronic training. Conclusion: Preceptors have limited time to participate in preceptor development training, although they view training as an important activity. This study reveals three main findings: (1) the majority of preceptors prefer electronic preceptor development training programs regardless of age; (2) would participate in future electronic training after having participated in electronic training; and (3) have the available resources to participate in electronic training. Future preceptor development programs should have flexible formats to accommodate preferences for live and electronic programming.
Preceptor preferences for participating in electronic preceptor development
Davison,Machelle; Medina,Melissa S.; Ray,Nancy E.;
Pharmacy Practice (Internet) , 2009, DOI: 10.4321/S1886-36552009000100007
Abstract: objectives: new guidelines require preceptors to deliver approximately 30% of the doctor of pharmacy curricula. with preceptor?s increasing responsibilities, colleges are faced with the task of training preceptors as educators. identifying preceptor?s training format preferences (i.e. electronic vs. live) should contribute to the more effective and efficient creation of training materials and programs. methods: a preceptor training video was created and made available electronically and was distributed to 400 preceptors with a brief 2-part questionnaire about preceptor training preferences, electronic training preferences after viewing the video, and available technology resources for participating in electronic training. results: 38.25% of the questionnaires were returned. the majority of respondents (57%) preferred electronic to live preceptor developing training and the majority (53%) had not previously attended the live annual preceptor development conference offered by the college. 51.6% participants reviewed the electronic training video created by the ou college of pharmacy. of the respondents who did not watch the video, 73% cited having too little time, problems accessing the video, or technical reasons for not watching the training video. the majority of responders in all age groups preferred electronic training to face-to-face training except those ages 61-65 and the majority (55.7%) would participate in on-line training again in the future. the majority of respondents have the technical resources to participate in electronic training. conclusion: preceptors have limited time to participate in preceptor development training, although they view training as an important activity. this study reveals three main findings: (1) the majority of preceptors prefer electronic preceptor development training programs regardless of age; (2) would participate in future electronic training after having participated in electronic training; and (3) have the available resou
Rational use of fluconazole prior to attending skin & vd-opd in a tertiary Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh
Rokon Uddin,Khondaker Bulbul Sarwar,Farzana Akhter
Our Dermatology Online , 2011,
Abstract: This study was done keeping the hypothesis in mind that Fluconazole is used irrationally irrespective of diagnosis. Material: All patients attending at Skin-VD OPD of Enam Medical College Hospital during a 6-month time-period (July-Dec, 2009) were considered for this research. Structured questionnaire, check-list and face-to-face interview were used as data collection tools. After careful analysis, 274 cases were found valid out of 976 respondents. The cases were mostly adult (>20 yrs., 70.4%), dominated by male (58%), marriage (54%), literacy (71.6%) and coming from far (>5 km; 65.9%). The referral was made by registered doctors (10.9%), village doctors and/or drug-sellers (50.3%) and self (38.8%). Out of the total Fluconazole-intakers (N=119), it was found that correct prescription done by registered doctors (10.08%), village doctors and/or drug sellers (9.24%) and by self (0.8%) was very few. The respondents wrongly-taken Fluconazole were finally diagnosed as case of psoriasis (21.84%), atopic dermatitis (13.44%) sebrrhoic dermatitis (12.6%) and so on. Results: The findings put this recommendation that prior to confirm diagnosis, use of Fluconazole was not rational for generalized skin lessions.
Putting the Evidence into Preceptor Preparation  [PDF]
Florence Myrick,Florence Luhanga,Diane Billay,Vicki Foley,Olive Yonge
Nursing Research and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/948593
Abstract: The term evidence-based practice refers to the utilization of knowledge derived from research. Nursing practice, however, is not limited to clinical practice but also encompasses nursing education. It is, therefore, equally important that teaching preparation is derived from evidence also. The purpose of this study was to examine whether an evidence-based approach to preceptor preparation influenced preceptors in a assuming that role. A qualitative method using semistructured interviews was used to collect data. A total of 29 preceptors were interviewed. Constant comparative analysis facilitated examination of the data. Findings indicate that preceptors were afforded an opportunity to participate in a preparatory process that was engaging, enriching, and critically reflective/reflexive. This study has generated empirical evidence that can (a) contribute substantively to effective preceptor preparation, (b) promote best teaching practices in the clinical setting, and (c) enhance the preceptorship experience for nursing students. 1. Introduction Since the early nineties, a recent development in the health care system and the health professions in general is the prevailing trend towards evidence-based practice, a trend or gold standard against which current practices are being compared [1]. Its ascendancy in the field of research and practice is related to the Cochrane Collaboration in 1993 [2], and also to the efforts of Hargreaves [3] who purported that research in medicine was a model to which educational researchers should aspire. Indeed since that time evidence-based practice (EDP) has become equated with accountable, professional nursing practice [4]. Essentially, the term evidence-based practice refers to the utilization of knowledge, derived primarily from research, in practice. Nursing practice, however, is not restricted to clinical and community-practice but also encompasses the education or teaching of present and future professional nurses. Thus, it is equally important that the teaching practices of nurse educators involved in the different aspects of the educational process are to be also derived from best evidence [5]. According to Stevens and Cassidy [6], evidence-based teaching may be described as “the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the education of professional nurses” (page 3). 2. Background The evidence-based preparation of preceptors in this study comprised two full day conferences: (1) preparatory (Day 1); and (2) advanced (Day 2). In the preparatory conference various
Prognostic Value of the Six-Minute Walk Test in Heart Failure Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Literature Review  [PDF]
Dominika Zielińska,Jerzy Bellwon,Andrzej Rynkiewicz,Mohamed Amr Elkady
Rehabilitation Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/965494
Abstract: Background. The prognostic value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is known, but the predictive value of 6MWT in patients with heart failure (HF) and patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is not established yet. Objective. We conducted a systematic review exploring the prognostic value of 6MWT in HF patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The aim was to find out whether the change in the distance walked during follow-up visits was associated with prognosis. Data Source. We searched “PubMed” from January 1990 to December 2012 for any review articles or experimental studies investigating the prognostic value of 6MWT in HF patients and patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Results. 53 studies were included in the review, and they explored the role of 6MWT in cardiology, cardiac surgery, and rehabilitation. The results did not show the relation between the six-minute walk distance and adverse events after CABG. The predictive power of the distance walked for death in HF patients undergoing cardiac surgery was not found. It is not yet proved if the change in the six-minute walk distance is associated with prognosis. The predictive power of the six-minute walk distance for death in HF patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains unclear. 1. Background 1.1. Definition and History of Implementation of the Six-Minute Walk Test The six-minute walk test is a simple, inexpensive, and reproducible method for the assessment of exercise capacity. Implementation of the test does not require any advanced equipment or training for technicians. During the test, the patient walks the longest possible distance within the time of 6 minutes on the flat surface and can stop or slow down at any time and then resume walking during the test. The main result of the six-minute walk test (6MWT) is the distance covered by the patient in 6 minutes. The 6MWT shows good correlation with the peak VO2 from cardiopulmonary exercise test and is much easier to perform, and it reflects well the daily activities of the patients. However, many variables may influence this test, and, therefore, it should always be performed according to the strict given protocol. The 6MWT was proposed for the first time by Balke in 1963, and since the mid-1980s, it has been used more and more widely in different clinical conditions. This test is most commonly used in pulmonary diseases, but it has been successfully implemented also in patients with cardiovascular diseases, pre- and postsurgical treatment, different neurological disorders, and fibromyalgia or spinal muscular atrophy.
O papel do preceptor no ensino médico e o modelo preceptoria em um minuto
Chemello, Diego;Manfrói, Waldomiro Carlos;Machado, Carmen Lúcia Bezerra;
Revista Brasileira de Educa??o Médica , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-55022009000400018
Abstract: medical teaching is extremely important for determining the quality of future professionals. although brazil has specific legislation on the subject, discrepancies have been observed in the learning process, often jeopardizing the training of future physicians. furthermore, traditional teaching methods, based mainly on the diagnosis of problems, are still practiced in various medical schools. these methods ignore fundamental rules of education and relegate students to a secondary role. from this perspective, we present a promising method for medical education called the one-minute preceptor, emphasizing its role for in-training medical professionals. we also emphasize its importance for teaching in a time-limited scenario, due to the growing demand for care
Visual outcome after cataract surgery at the University College Hospital, Ibadan
OO Olawoye, AO Ashaye, CO Bekibele, BGK Ajayi
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the visual outcome of patients who had cataract surgery in the University College Hospital Ibadan. Methodology: This is an observational descriptive, longitudinal study of consecutive patients undergoing cataract surgery at the University College Hospital conducted between May and October 2007. A total of 184 patients who presented to the hospital and met the inclusion criteria were recruited into the study. Patients were examined preoperatively, 1st day postoperatively and 8th week postoperatively. Results: The mean age was 66.5 years; and the male to female ratio was 1.2:1. Preoperatively, 137 patients (74.5%) were blind in the operated eye, while 39 patients (23.6%) were blind in both eyes at presentation. At 1st day postoperatively, 87 patients (47.3%) had pinhole visual acuity of 6/6-6/18. Best corrected vision after refraction eight weeks postoperatively showed that 127 patients out of 161 patients (78.8%) had good vision while 28 patients (17.4%) had borderline vision, and six patients (3.8%) had severe visual impairment after refraction. The number of bilaterally blind patients also reduced from 39 (23.6%) to one (0.6%). Uncorrected refractive error was the commonest cause of poor vision prior to refraction. Glaucoma was the commonest ocular co-morbidity accounting for poor vision in 9.1% of patients eight weeks after cataract surgery. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that good results can be obtained with cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation in the developing world. More attention should be directed towards ensuring that successful outcomes are indeed being realized by continued monitoring of postoperative visual outcomes and prompt refraction for all patients.
Preceptor, supervisor, tutor e mentor: quais s?o seus papéis?
Botti, Sérgio Henrique de Oliveira;Rego, Sérgio;
Revista Brasileira de Educa??o Médica , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-55022008000300011
Abstract: the education of those who care for the health of the population has always been a matter of concern. in medical education, the figure of the experienced professional helping to educate and qualify a new generation is a constant finding. such a professional has been given different names, preceptor, supervisor, tutor and mentor being the most common among them. even official documents fail to clearly specify which functions, interventions, and activities each denomination entails. we thus aimed to analyze the meaning of these different denominations as used by the national and international scientific communities. starting with the analysis of the concept each term expresses, we intend to build up a better framework for the regulation and practice of the teaching-learning process in the graduation and post-graduation courses in the health professions.
Ambulatory teaching: Do approaches to learning predict the site and preceptor characteristics valued by clerks and residents in the ambulatory setting?
M Dianne Delva, Karen W Schultz, John R Kirby, Marshall Godwin
BMC Medical Education , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-5-35
Abstract: Postal survey of all medical residents and clerks in training in Ontario determining the site and preceptor characteristics most valued in the ambulatory setting. Participants also completed the Workplace Learning questionnaire that includes 3 approaches to learning scales and 3 workplace climate scales. Multiple regression analysis was used to predict the preferred site and preceptor characteristics as the dependent variables by the average scores of the approaches to learning and perception of workplace climate scales as the independent variables.There were 1642 respondents, yielding a 47.3% response rate. Factor analysis revealed 7 preceptor characteristics and 6 site characteristics valued in the ambulatory setting. The Deep approach to learning scale predicted all of the learners' preferred preceptor characteristics (β = 0.076 to β = 0.234, p < .001). Valuing preceptor Direction was more strongly associated with the Surface Rational approach (β = .252, p < .001) and with the Surface Disorganized approach to learning (β = .154, p < 001) than with the Deep approach.The Deep approach to learning scale predicted valued site characteristics of Office Management, Patient Logistics, Objectives and Preceptor Interaction (p < .001). The Surface Rational approach to learning predicted valuing Learning Resources and Clinic Set-up (β = .09, p = .001; β = .197, p < .001). The Surface Disorganized approach to learning weakly negatively predicted Patient Logistics (β = -.082, p = .003) and positively the Learning Resources (β = .088, p = .003).Climate factors were not strongly predictive for any studied characteristics. Role Modeling and Patient Logistics were predicted by Supportive Receptive climate (β = .135, p < .001, β = .118, p < .001).Most site and preceptor characteristics valued by clerks and residents were predicted by their Deep approach to learning scores. Some characteristics reflecting the need for good organization and clear direction are predicted by learners'
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