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Scope of nanotechnology in ovarian cancer therapeutics
Murali M Yallapu, Meena Jaggi, Subhash C Chauhan
Journal of Ovarian Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1757-2215-3-19
Abstract: Ovarian cancer is the fifth most prevalent cancer among women with a life time risk of 1.4 to 1.8% for women living in the US. There are no early symptoms for ovarian cancer which hinders detection until it reaches advanced stages. Survival of the patients is primarily dependent on the disease stage of the patients. For example, stage I, II, III, and IV ovarian cancer have median 5-year survival rates of approximately 93%, 70%, 37%, and 25%, respectively [1,2]. Diagnosed ovarian cancers can be treated by eliminating the cancerous tissue through surgery and care must be taken to prevent the disease from recurring. Surgery alone is effective for only stage I disease, whereas chemotherapy is required in all other stages of ovarian cancer [3]. Therefore, our current review article is focused on the concept of improving the efficacy of ovarian cancer therapeutics using polymer micelle nanotechnology approaches.Chemotherapy helps to improve the overall survival of patients with ovarian cancer. Many chemotherapeutic agents (anti-cancer drugs) are available, including cisplatin (CP), paclitaxel (PTX), doxorubicin (DOX), decitabine (DB), gemcitabine, and their combinations for ovarian cancer treatment. There is significant interest in identifying novel therapeutic agents and improving the efficacy of existing therapeutic modalities. A number of randomized trials treating advanced ovarian cancer using a combination chemotherapy with HEXA-CAF (hexamethyl melamine (HMMA), cyclophosphamide (CPP), methotrexate (MTX) and fluorouracil (FU)) have achieved higher survival rates than using a single therapeutic agent [4]. Other clinical studies using cisplatin, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide were initiated for stage III and IV ovarian cancer [5-8]. Nevertheless, these trials have not shown a significant benefit of one type of chemotherapy over another. Cisplatin and carboplatin (CBP) have been the most effective chemotherapeutic regimens for more than two decades [9,10]. The majority
Potential prospects of nanomedicine for targeted therapeutics in inflammatory bowel diseases  [cached]
Madharasi VA Pichai,Lynnette R Ferguson
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i23.2895
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as Crohn’s disease are highly debilitating. There are inconsistencies in response to and side effects in the current conventional medications, failures in adequate drug delivery, and the lack of therapeutics to offer complete remission in the presently available treatments of IBD. This suggests the need to explore beyond the horizons of conventional approaches in IBD therapeutics. This review examines the arena of the evolving IBD nanomedicine, studied so far in animal and in vitro models, before comprehensive clinical testing in humans. The investigations carried out so far in IBD models have provided substantial evidence of the nanotherapeutic approach as having the potential to overcome some of the current drawbacks to conventional IBD therapy. We analyze the pros and cons of nanotechnology in IBD therapies studied in different models, aimed at different targets and mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis, in an attempt to predict its possible impact in humans.
Modular Hydrogels for Drug Delivery  [PDF]
Susana Sim?es, Ana Figueiras, Francisco Veiga
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.32025
Abstract: The development of novel drug delivery systems is an essential step toward controlled site-specific administration of therapeutics within the body. It is desirable for delivery vehicles to be introduced into the body through minimally invasive means and, these vehicles should be capable of releasing drug to their intended location at a controlled rate. Furthermore, it is desirable to develop drug delivery systems that are capable of in vivo to suffer degradation and to deliver the drug completely, avoiding the need to surgically remove the vehicle at the end of its useful lifetime. Hydrogels are of particular interest for drug delivery applications due to their ability to address these needs in addition to their good biocompatibility, tunable network structure to control the diffusion of drugs and, tunable affinity for drugs. However, hydrogels are also limited for drug delivery applications due to the often quick elution of drug from their highly swollen polymer matrices as well as the difficulty inherent in the injection of macroscopic hydrogels into the body. This paper presents an overview to the advances in hydrogels based drug delivery. Different types of hydrogels can be used for drug delivery to specific sites in the gastrointestinal tract ranging from the oral cavity to the colon. These novel systems exhibit a range of several peculiar properties which make them attractive as controlled drug release formulations. Moreover, such materials are biocompatible and can be formulated to give controlled, pulsed, and triggered drug release profiles in a variety of tissues.
Delivery of Cancer Therapeutics Using Nanotechnology  [PDF]
Eun-Kyung Lim,Eunji Jang,Kwangyeol Lee,Seungjoo Haam,Yong-Min Huh
Pharmaceutics , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics5020294
Abstract: Nanoparticles have been investigated as drug carriers, because they provide a great opportunity due to their advantageous features: (i) various formulations using organic/inorganic materials, (ii) easy modification of targeting molecules, drugs or other molecules on them, (iii) effective delivery to target sites, resulting in high therapeutic efficacy and (iv) controlling drug release by external/internal stimuli. Because of these features, therapeutic efficacy can be improved and unwanted side effects can be reduced. Theranostic nanoparticles have been developed by incorporating imaging agents in drug carriers as all-in-one system, which makes it possible to diagnose and treat cancer by monitoring drug delivery behavior simultaneously. Recently, stimuli-responsive, activatable nanomaterials are being applied that are capable of producing chemical or physical changes by external stimuli. By using these nanoparticles, multiple tasks can be carried out simultaneously, e.g., early and accurate diagnosis, efficient cataloguing of patient groups of personalized therapy and real-time monitoring of disease progress. In this paper, we describe various types of nanoparticles for drug delivery systems, as well as theranostic systems.
Food nanotechnology – an overview
Bhupinder S Sekhon
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications , 2010,
Abstract: Bhupinder S SekhonInstitute of Pharmacy and Department of Biotechnology, Punjab College of Technical Education, Jhande, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity.Keywords: nanotechnology, nanofood, food packaging, nanoparticles, nanoencapsulation
Nanotechnology-Based Therapies for Skin Wound Regeneration
Ilaria Tocco,Barbara Zavan,Franco Bassetto,Vincenzo Vindigni
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/714134
Abstract: The cutting-edge combination of nanotechnology with medicine offers the unprecedented opportunity to create materials and devices at a nanoscale level, holding the potential to revolutionize currently available macroscale therapeutics. Nanotechnology already provides a plethora of advantages to medical care, and the success of nanoparticulate systems suggests that a progressive increase in the exploration of their potential will take place in the near future. An overview on the current applications of nanotechnology to wound healing and wound care is presented.
Cancer nanotechnology: Recent trends and developments
HR Mody
Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL , 2011,
Abstract: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Deaths from cancer are continuously rising worldwide with a projection of about 12 million deaths from cancer in 2030. Hence, over the past few years, tremendous attention has been given to the cancer related research and there has been an outstanding progress in the basic cancer biology. The present article deals with the recent developments in cancer nanotechnologies and its potential application in cancer therapeutics. Nanotechnology is one of the most rapidly growing fields in the 21st century. It may be defined as the creation of materials, drugs and devices that are used to manipulate matter of size in the range of 1-100nm. Nanotechnology has found its applications in many fields related to medicine including novel drug delivery systems, biotechnology to name a few. Many different types of nanosystems have been utilized in diagnostics and therapeutics of various diseases. To subside the disadvantages of conventional cancer therapeutics, nanotechnology has been given considerable attention. In this paper, the current nanotechnologies that can be utilized in oncological interventions will be discussed. These mainly include arrays of nanocantilevers, nanotubes and nanowires for multiplexing detection, multifunctional injectable nanovectors for therapeutics and diagnostics.
CANCER NANOTECHNOLOGY: RECENT TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS  [PDF]
Mr. Hardik R Mody, B.Pharm
Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL , 2011,
Abstract: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Deaths from cancer are continuously rising worldwide with a projection of about 12 million deaths from cancer in 2030. Hence, over the past few years, tremendous attention has been given to the cancer related research and there has been an outstanding progress in the basic cancer biology. The present article deals with the recent developments in cancer nanotechnologies and its potential application in cancer therapeutics. Nanotechnology is one of the most rapidly growing fields in the 21st century. It may be defined as the creation of materials, drugs and devices that are used to manipulate matter of size in the range of 1-100nm. Nanotechnology has found its applications in many fields related to medicine including novel drug delivery systems, biotechnology to name a few. Many different types of nanosystems have been utilized in diagnostics and therapeutics of various diseases. To subside the disadvantages of conventional cancer therapeutics, nanotechnology has been given considerable attention. In this paper, the current nanotechnologies that can be utilized in oncological interventions will be discussed. These mainly include arrays of nanocantilevers, nanotubes and nanowires for multiplexing detection, multifunctional injectable nanovectors for therapeutics and diagnostics.
Food nanotechnology – an overview
Bhupinder S Sekhon
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSA.S8677
Abstract: od nanotechnology – an overview Review (25310) Total Article Views Authors: Bhupinder S Sekhon Published Date May 2010 Volume 2010:3 Pages 1 - 15 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSA.S8677 Bhupinder S Sekhon Institute of Pharmacy and Department of Biotechnology, Punjab College of Technical Education, Jhande, Ludhiana, India Abstract: Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity.
PRAGMATIC HYDROGELS
Patil S.A.,Rane B.R.,Bakliwal S.R.,Pawar S.P.
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Man has always been plagued with many ailments and diseases. The field of pharmaceutical science has today become more invaluable in helping to keep us healthy and prevent disease. The availability of large molecular weight protein and peptide-based drugs due to the recent advances has given us a new ways to treat a number of diseases. I wish to present new and promising techniques for the production of drug and protein delivery formulations that have been developed that is Hydrogel. These are presently under investigation as a delivery system for bioactive molecules as having similar physical properties as that of living tissue, which is due to their high water content, soft and rubbery consistency and low interfacial tension with water and biological fluids. Hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks capable of imbibing large amounts of water or biological fluids. The networks are composed of homopolymers or copolymers, and are insoluble due to the presence of chemical crosslink (tie-points, junctions) or physical crosslink, such as entanglements or crystallite. The latter provide the network structure and physical integrity. These hydrogels exhibit a thermodynamic compatibility with water which allows them to swell in aqueous media. The nature of the degradation product can be tailored by a rational and proper selection of building blocks. The soft and rubbery nature of hydrogels minimizes irritation to surrounding tissues. In general, hydrogels possess good biocompatibility and biodegradability.
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