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The principle of empowerment in the European Union
Ioana Nelly MILITARU
Juridical Tribune , 2011,
Abstract: Delimitation of competences in the EU is governed by the principle of conferral. Based on the content of these provisions work in the first three parts of it, defining and classifying skills appropriate attribution Treaties underlying the European Union (Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union) and the Court of Justice. The next three parts of the paper detailing each classification in hand, highlighting, clear delineation of the Union competences of the Member States carried out by the Lisbon Treaty and the amendments made by this treaty.
The linguistic regime of the European Union. A multilingual union under the aegis of the principle of the new european humanism: unity in diversity
Sorin IVAN
Studii de Stiinta si Cultura , 2012,
Abstract: The European integration is launching a new paradigm of existence to the states and their citizens: unity in diversity. The European Union creates the framework for affirming diversity in an area of common political, social and economic values. Each member state has its own identity, language, spirituality, culture, history, civilization, etc. All this European diversity is governed by the principle of unity. In the spirit of respecting diversity, each Member State language is official language of the European Union. The EU language regime is governed by the principle of multilingualism, regulated in the European treaties. The philosophy of this approach is built on respect for national and for individual identity given by the mother tongue, in the framework of the new humanism that defines the New Europe.
European Union and Southeastern Europe: A clash of the principle of conditionality and the regional approach  [PDF]
Wichmann Nina
Medjunarodni Problemi , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/medjp0401029w
Abstract: The European Union in June 2003 has made it very clear that the principle of conditionality and the regional approach will be the prime instruments of the EU in South East Europe. The author in this article investigates if some of the stipulations about these instruments do hold. The central stipulation is that only in tandem would the principles provide for stability. The author contents that it remains doubtful whether the proclaimed compatibility of the two approaches is given. Rather, competition seems to exist between them. However, if this rivalry is really given and yet the combination of the two principles remains to be the flagship policy of the EU, this may be counter-effective for reaching the desired stabilization and democratization of the region.
Alonso Takahashi
Ideas y Valores , 2006,
Abstract: The paper points out the fascination exerted by Mathematics on some thinkers, ancient and modern, and it poses a possible explanation based on the usefulness of Mathematics, the certainty of its statements, and the elegance of its procedures.
Mark G.L. Sayers
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: The rugby union line-out is a key aspect of game play and involves players from both teams contesting for the ball after it has been thrown in from the side line. Successful lines-out throws require the ball to be delivered accurately to the hands of a jumping and/or lifted team mate (approximately 3-3.5 m off the ground) over distances of between 5- 18 m. Previous research has suggested considerable inter and intra-individual differences in the throwing techniques of international level players. Accordingly, this project investigated the interrelationships between accuracy and the line-out throwing characteristics of three elite international rugby players, and then analyzed whether these changed for throws over increasing length. Three-dimensional (3D) data were developed from video footage (50 Hz) of three elite international subjects for 30 throws over three distances (6 m, 10 m, and 15 m). Results showed notable differences between subjects in many variables at each of the key throw phases. However, several variables such as the degree of trunk flexion at the end of the backswing and at ball release, coupled with elbow flexion angle at ball release remained constant as throw length increased. All subjects exhibited high levels of consistency in movement patterns across all throw lengths. Findings indicated that these high performance line-out throwers shared several common characteristics that will provide useful guides in the development of training programs
Supernovae data: Cosmological Constant or ruling out the Cosmological Principle ?  [PDF]
Marie-No?lle Célérier
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: Analysed in the framework of homogeneous FLRW models, the magnitude-redshift data from high redshift supernovae yield, as a primary result, a strictly positive cosmological constant. Another reading of the currently published measurements does not exclude a possible ruling out of the Cosmological Principle and, thus, also, of the cosmological constant hypothesis. It is shown how shortly coming data can be used to settle this fondamental issue, pertaining to both cosmology and particle physics.
The principle of microreversibility and the fluctuation relations for quantum systems driven out of equilibrium  [PDF]
Hiroshi Matsuoka
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: For classical systems driven out of equilibrium, Crooks derived a relation (the Crooks-Jarzynski relation), whose special cases include a relation (the Crooks relation) equivalent to the Kawasaki non-linear response relation. We derive a quantum extension of the Crooks-Jarzynski relation without explicitly using the principle of microreversibility. Its special cases lead to the Jarzynski equality and the standard linear response theory with a Green-Kubo formula with a canonical correlation function. We also derive a quantum extension of the Crooks relation using the principle of microreversibility. Its special cases lead to the Jarzynski equality, the Crooks transient fluctuation theorem, and the fluctuation theorem for current or shear stress, which leads to a Green-Kubo formula with a symmetrized correlation function. For each quantum Crooks relation, there exists a corresponding quantum Crooks-Jarzynski relation. Using either relation, we can derive the Jarzynski equality, the fluctuation theorems mentioned above, and the standard linear response theory.
Listen, Attend and Spell  [PDF]
William Chan,Navdeep Jaitly,Quoc V. Le,Oriol Vinyals
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: We present Listen, Attend and Spell (LAS), a neural network that learns to transcribe speech utterances to characters. Unlike traditional DNN-HMM models, this model learns all the components of a speech recognizer jointly. Our system has two components: a listener and a speller. The listener is a pyramidal recurrent network encoder that accepts filter bank spectra as inputs. The speller is an attention-based recurrent network decoder that emits characters as outputs. The network produces character sequences without making any independence assumptions between the characters. This is the key improvement of LAS over previous end-to-end CTC models. On a subset of the Google voice search task, LAS achieves a word error rate (WER) of 14.1% without a dictionary or a language model, and 10.3% with language model rescoring over the top 32 beams. By comparison, the state-of-the-art CLDNN-HMM model achieves a WER of 8.0%.
Challenges of the Knowledge Society , 2012,
Abstract: The communication aims to emphasize the context in which the principle of subsidiarity was adopted, clarifying the dilemma about its purpose: is it a legal instrument to protect national sovereignty of the European Union’s Member States or is it a legal instrument which accelerates their federal integration. The document also approaches the problem of the Romanian Parliament in adapting procedures to the Lisbon Treaty, Protocol no. 2 on applying principles of subsidiarity and proportionality. In the described context it shall be discussed the controversial subject regarding the sovereignty transfer whenever the national parliament performs a subsidiarity check on, an EU draft legislative act.
Herbert Simon’s spell on judgment and decision making  [PDF]
Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos,Cherng-Horng (Dan) Lan
Judgment and Decision Making , 2011,
Abstract: How many judgment and decision making (JDM) researchers have not claimed to be building on Herbert Simon's work? We identify two of Simon's goals for JDM research: He sought to understand people's decision processes---the descriptive goal---and studied whether the same processes lead to good decisions---the prescriptive goal. To investigate how recent JDM research relates to these goals, we analyzed the articles published in the Journal of Behavioral Decision Making and in Judgment and Decision Making from 2006 to 2010. Out of 377 articles, 91 cite Simon or we judged them as directly relating to his goals. We asked whether these articles are integrative, in the following sense: For a descriptive article we asked if it contributes to building a theory that reconciles different conceptualizations of cognition such as neural networks and heuristics. For a prescriptive article we asked if it contributes to building a method that combines ideas of other methods such as heuristics and optimization models. Based on our subjective judgments we found that the proportion of integrative articles was 67% of the prescriptive and 52% of the descriptive articles. We offer suggestions for achieving more integration of JDM theories. The article concludes with the thesis that although JDM researchers work under Simon's spell, no one really knows what that spell is.
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