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Maja KO?AR,Stane KAV?I?,Emil ERJAVEC
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2007,
Abstract: This rapid communication presents main results of the analysis of the income impacts of different direct payment policy options after the accession of Slovenia to the EU at the level of agricultural households. By applying static deterministic total income model, different post-accession direct payments policy options were investigated, with special attention given to the 2003 Common agricultural policy (CAP) reform provisions. The main conclusions based on model results are: i) the improved post-accession income situation of analyzed households under all post-accession policy scenarios, ii) standard direct payments scheme estimated as income most benefi cial, followed by basic fl at-rate area payment option (entirely decoupled) and iii) detection of possible redistributive impacts of 2003 CAP reform in favour of agricultural households engaged in extensive agricultural production.
The Criteria for Turkey’s Accession to the EU: Accomplishments and Challenges  [PDF]
Nilgun Arisan Eralp
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2006,
Abstract: In this work, the author gives her view of Turkey’s accomplishments and the challenges it is facing in its process of acceding to the EU. To this end, in the first place, she offers a general overview of Turkey’s position in the process and the adoption of the criteria for accession.Next she makes a brief reference to the political criteria, to focus finally on the economic criteria as well as on the EU acquis, given that these are the principle topics of the negotiations.
Relevance of Copenhagen Criteria in Actual Accession: Principles, Methods and Shortcomings of EU Pre-accession Evaluation  [PDF]
Viljar Veebel
Studies of Transition States and Societies , 2011,
Abstract: This paper will analyse the transparency, impartiality and objectiveness of the European Union’s (EU) pre-accession assessment procedure. The principal aim is to test and analyse whether the EU follows official and objective criteria in its progress reports or if is it dominated by institutional and national interests. The central questions of the paper are:What were the main motivators of the EU’s independent closed assessment system for the pre-accession process and what influence did this have on the accession process during the years 2004–2006?To answer these questions, the paper will compare the European Commission’s (Commission) progress reports on selected candidate countries with the assessments of six other respected research centres: the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, Freedom House, the Bertelsmann Foundation, Transparency International, Fraser Institute and the Heritage Foundation. If the evaluation results of the EU differ significantly or systematically from the calculated average of the other evaluators, then there is a need to analyse the methods, logic and motivation of the European Commission during the pre-accession evaluation, as there is a possibility of subjectivity and politicised evaluation.This analysis covers the main areas of the Copenhagen Criteria. The test cases will be pre-accession progress assessments of Bulgaria, Croatia, FYROM and Romania in 2004–2006. Test areas will consist of: Governance efficiency; Existence and quality of rule of law; Level of corruption and efficiency of anti-corruption activities; Efficiency of legal system, and Economic liberties and freedoms.
Macroeconomic Determinants of Balance of Payments in Namibia
Joel Hinaunye Eita,Mihe Heinrich Gaomab
International Journal of Business and Management , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v7n3p173
Abstract: This paper investigates macroeconomic determinants of the balance of payments in Namibia for the period 1999 to 2009. The investigation was conducted through cointegrated vector autoregression methods. The investigation reveals that fiscal balance, GDP and interest rate are the main determinants of balance of payments in Namibia. Increase in GDP and interest rate causes an improvement in the balance of payments. The positive effect of GDP on balance of payments suggests that expansion of export has a positive impact on current account and the overall balance of payments. More increased export potential through the development of new products and services should be encouraged. The positive impact of interest rate on balance of payments suggests that interest rate can be used as a policy tool to ensure favourable capital account and for improved balance of payments. An improvement in the fiscal balance is also associated with an improvement in the balance of payments. This implies that policymakers need to assess the forecast of SACU receipts in order to ensure readiness proactively when these receipts decline to avoid a possible macroeconomic, fiscal and balance of payments instability.
The Situation of the Sunflower Seed Production in Hungary Before the EU Accession
Zsuzsanna Slezák,Nikoletta Fáró,Gy?rgy Széles
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (ACS) , 2003,
Abstract: However, the sunflower seed production was not free of problems in the ′90ies in Hungary; it is unquestionable, that this enterprise suffered the least, The transformation has affected the producers dramatically here, to; especially due to the privatisation of the background industry. After the bottom of the years 1992 and 1993, the sunflower seed production was more or less balanced, which lasted as long as the year 1997, when unfavourable weather and pest control problems occurred. Since that time, a continuous problem in profitability was experienced; and due to its effect on the industry, a harmonic balance typical for the middle of the century cannot have rebuilt, yet. The most serious problems are caused by the cumulative agritechnical lags. One main source of it is the shortage of capital; the other is the lack of sufficient knowledge. Therefore, the lack of necessary plant protection and fertilization, , own produced poor seeds instead of quality seeds are used. The lack of the knowledge can be explained by the too small size of the farms, thus e.g. a necessary crop rotation is not applied in many cases. The competitiveness of the enterprise can only recover more conditions of the production will change at he same time. Not only the yields should increase, but the agritechnical conditions should be improved. By the time of the EU accession, an average yield of 2.0 to 2.2 tons per hectare will have been necessary to reach in order to stay competitive and profitable with increasing input prices. Still before the EU accession and afterwards, much greater changes and conflicts are expected in the agriculture than in the industry. As these changes will start from the basis of the production, information should start to be given to the farmers and producers right now. Only this will help them understand and view the new system and the new conditions. One of the major challenges of the accession is to improve and harmonise the conditions of the agricultural production, not only in legal but economic terms, as well. This means that the Hungarian level should reach that of the EU in terms of producer prices, direct payments, and profitability and even in consumer prices and wages till the accession. After the troubles of the past years, the preparations for the EU accession raise the questions and tasks of modern management, complex development, quality production and competitiveness. According to the planned four to five years of lining up and technical modernisation, the double of the current annual payments and investments is needed. Along with the ov
Annals of the University of Petrosani : Economics , 2006,
Abstract: The countries of Eastern Europe have been confronted for more than 14 years with a complex process consisting of internal transformations during their preparations for EU accession. On the first of May 2004, eight of those countries, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovenia, have become members of European Union.
Public Debt Evolution in the Eurozone and the Need of Policy Coordination
Theoretical and Applied Economics , 2010,
Abstract: The Eurozone sustainability could become a real challenge in the current economical environment, characterized by uncertainty and lack of credibility. The issue of public debts represents a threat for the European financial system, while the coordination process of the economic policies at the Union's level is almost inexistent. The extremely high discrepancies between the budgetary balances of the member states makes the SGP or the strict fiscal rules become an utopia. The discretionary application and lack of credibility induced by SGP have worsened the perceptions on the economic system on European level, and the authorities' answer was not coherent enough, leaving room for interpretation by the Euro-skeptics.
Addressing Asymmetries in the Eurozone  [PDF]
Pyrros Papadimitriou, George Galanos, Thomas Poufinas
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.94051
Abstract: Asymmetries in the Eurozone are high and the whole undertaking is at the crossroads. On one hand, one of its countries, namely Germany, seems to enjoy current account and budget surpluses, mainly as a result of a strong global demand for high quality German exports, an undervalued single currency, low interest rates, domestic wage restraint and a high domestic saving rate. On the other hand, persistent German surpluses associated with the not-as-good performance of the other economies make it harder for the Eurozone as a whole to recover. The European Union (EU) has tried to create a proper economic and banking union after the crisis. This attempt seems to have not been fully successful for some of the countries. At the same time, the attempts to impose austerity measures caused to a large extent an incremental rise inskepticismin Europe. The purpose of this paper is to record the prevailing asymmetries in the Eurozone, to estimate the priorities and the different maximization functions of the member countries and investigate alternative scenarios that can be followed. It is also to understand and possibly interpret the dilemmas of the German economic policy in depth, as it is the strongest economy in the Eurozone and hence anticipation was created that it would play the role of the steam engine—not necessarily within Europe only. The set of decisions that could have been taken is in the spotlight again especially due to the fear that at least the financial markets—if not the economies as a whole—are entering into a declining pattern again.
The Eurozone crisis: Causes and policy  [PDF]
Grbi? Vladimir
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Drustvene Nauke , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/zmsdn1240455g
Abstract: Fiscal instability, the growth of the public debt, current account deficits, especially in countries which are largely on the periphery of the Eurozone: Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece and Spain, the so-called PIIGS countries, have opened numerous questions and provoked various measures for their resolution. The article focuses on the analysis of the causes of the crisis and considers two main approaches to the issue, the anti-crisis measures undertaken now in the Eurozone, but also the evaluation of their performance. The article also identifies the need to construct new, unconventional policies, which should effectively respond to the challenges, so certain measures have been proposed in this direction. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47004]
External Balance Payments – Macroeconomic Analysis Instrument
Madalina Dumbrava
Theoretical and Applied Economics , 2006,
Abstract: The foreign trade activity represents, on one side, the participation of one country to the international economic co-operation, on the basis of the labor international division as well as, on the other side, a factor of economic growth. The sold of the payments balance shows to what extent a country depends on external relationship. The foreign payments balance is conceived as an instrument of economic analysis, reflecting the actual financial flows, which are being established. In the paper we are dealing with the forms in which the payments balance is made, as well as the recording principles for its data. By its own structure, the foreign payment balance emphasizes the debts and the commitments undertaken by a country, within a given period of time. Aspects such as: the equilibrium of the payments balance; tehnicques meant to secure the equilibrium of the payments balance and policies meant to secure the equilibrium of the payments balance are also approached as an attempt to clarify the subject.
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