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NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS OF NUTS EXTRACT OF JUGLANS REGIA L.  [cached]
G Raja1, Ivvala Anand Shaker1, Inampudi
International Journal of Bioassays , 2012,
Abstract: Juglans regia L. (Walnut) is the most widespread tree nut in the world. Nuts are used by mankind for food, edible oils, spices, condiments or beverages. They have been an important food source from prehistoric times and are among the most nutritionally concentrated of human foods, high in protein, oil, energy, minerals and vitamins. Nuts that are only rarely used as famine food have been excluded from this present study partly because of the paucity information available but mainly because they are not normally considered edible. Nuts used solely for spices or condiments have also been largely excluded since they are used sparingly, to flavor food and not as a food; traditionally they are considered separately from edible nuts. Nuts that are largely used as commercial sources of edible oil are not discussed in any great detail since they are already adequately dealt with in the literature. Present study is an attempt to determine the amount of biomolecules, mineral and vitamins present in nuts extract of Juglans regia L. The study was set up to determine the quantity of biomolecules, mineral and vitamins present in nuts extract of Juglans regia L. using various analytical models. Total carbohydrates, total protein, alkaloids, phosphorus, Iron, vitamin C, E and catalase activity of nuts extract of Juglans regia L. were determined using various biochemical experimental models. The nutritional analyses of nuts extract of Juglans regia L. were determined in different experimental models and it was observed that presence of the test compounds in all the models.
Antibacterial Potentials of Bark and Leaves Extracts of Juglans Regia against Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria
Saeed Ur Rahman, Abdul Haleem Shah, Zia Ur Rahman, Awan Inayat Gul and Abd Ur Rahaman
International Journal of Advanced Research , 2013,
Abstract: Plant parts were collected from Abbottabad District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Then crude methanolic extract of bark and leaves of Juglans regia were taken. Each methanolic crude extract was diluted in Dimethyle sulphoxide (DMSO) up to the concentration of 60 mg/ml, 90 mg/ml and 120 mg/ml. The plant parts were examined for antibacterial activity against the gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens). Juglans regia bark and leaves show remarkable antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. By comparing the results with the standard antibiotics lincomycine and ceftrixone, both standards have greater zone of inhibition against the gram positive and gram negative bacteria. From both the plant extracts as well as antibiotics, it was found that the gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) was more sensitive than gram negative bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens). Thus, the plant extract of Juglans regia bark was found to have more potent antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, which can be used to treat skin diseases.
Effect of Culture Medium in Callogenesis from Adult Walnut Leaves (Juglans regia L.)
Avilés,Fabiola; Ríos,Darcy; González,Ricardo; Sánchez-Olate,Manuel;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392009000300020
Abstract: to define preliminary aspects of walnut (juglans regia l.) callogenesis in indirect propagation systems, this work analyzed callogenic induction in adult leaves of walnut in broadleaf trees (btm), murashige and skoog (ms) driver kuniyuki walnut (dkw) and woody plant (wpm) media. leaf segments of 1 cm2, previously sterilized, were placed in each culture medium, supplemented with 21.4 μm naphtalene acetic acid (naa) and 8.8 μm 6-benzylaminopurine (bap). a completely random design was used; the experimental unit was a petri dish with six callus explants. each treatment was composed of seven petri dishes. callogenesis (%), nodular calli (%) and histology of calli explants were evaluated at 4 weeks by staining 10 μm slices with safranine-fastgreen. there were no significant differences (α = 0.05) in callogenesis among evaluated media; but nodular calli percentages were significantly higher in btm (75%) and wpm (63%). only in calli obtained in the btm medium did the histology show the presence of meristematic zones, but without external expression. these results indicate that the medium influences the morphogenic characteristics of resultant callus. calli produced in btm presented better morphogenic potential, with meristems at primary stages of organization.
Biological activities of Juglans regia flowers
Nabavi, Seyed Fazel;Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali;Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad;Mahmoudi, Mitra;Rad, Shabnam Keyvani;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000092
Abstract: antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antihypoxic and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of juglans regia l., juglandaceae, flower were investigated. antidepressant activity was examined by forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice. antihypoxic activity was investigated in haemic and circulatory models. the effects were pronounced in both models. it produced statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced edema at nearly all doses, compared to control groups. ic50 for dpph radical-scavenging activity was 674±27.6 μg ml-1. extract showed good fe2+ chelating ability (ic50 43±1.5 μg ml-1). it exhibited low antioxidant activity in linoleic acid peroxidation test. its pharmacological effects may be attributed, in part, to the presence of phenols and issn 0102-695x flavonoids in the extract.
Biological activities of Juglans regia flowers  [cached]
Seyed Fazel Nabavi,Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh,Seyed Mohammad Nabavi,Mitra Mahmoudi
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2011,
Abstract: Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antihypoxic and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of Juglans regia L., Juglandaceae, flower were investigated. Antidepressant activity was examined by forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice. Antihypoxic activity was investigated in haemic and circulatory models. The effects were pronounced in both models. It produced statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced edema at nearly all doses, compared to control groups. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 674±27.6 μg mL-1. Extract showed good Fe2+ chelating ability (IC50 43±1.5 μg mL-1). It exhibited low antioxidant activity in linoleic acid peroxidation test. Its pharmacological effects may be attributed, in part, to the presence of phenols and ISSN 0102-695X flavonoids in the extract.
Effect of Culture Medium in Callogenesis from Adult Walnut Leaves (Juglans regia L.) Efecto del Medio de Cultivo en la Callogénesis de Nogal (Juglans regia L.) a Partir de Hojas Adultas  [cached]
Fabiola Avilés,Darcy Ríos,Ricardo González,Manuel Sánchez-Olate
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research , 2009,
Abstract: To define preliminary aspects of walnut (Juglans regia L.) callogenesis in indirect propagation systems, this work analyzed callogenic induction in adult leaves of walnut in broadleaf trees (BTM), Murashige and Skoog (MS) Driver Kuniyuki Walnut (DKW) and Woody Plant (WPM) media. Leaf segments of 1 cm2, previously sterilized, were placed in each culture medium, supplemented with 21.4 μM naphtalene acetic acid (NAA) and 8.8 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). A completely random design was used; the experimental unit was a Petri dish with six callus explants. Each treatment was composed of seven Petri dishes. Callogenesis (%), nodular calli (%) and histology of calli explants were evaluated at 4 weeks by staining 10 μm slices with safranine-fastgreen. There were no significant differences (α = 0.05) in callogenesis among evaluated media; but nodular calli percentages were significantly higher in BTM (75%) and WPM (63%). Only in calli obtained in the BTM medium did the histology show the presence of meristematic zones, but without external expression. These results indicate that the medium influences the morphogenic characteristics of resultant callus. Calli produced in BTM presented better morphogenic potential, with meristems at primary stages of organization. Con el objeto de definir aspectos preliminares de la callogénesis de nogal(Juglans regia L.), para establecer, sistemas de propagación vegetativa vía indirecta, este trabajo analizó la inducción callogénica en hojas adultas de nogal, utilizando los medios de cultivo broadleaves tree (BTM), Murashige y Skoog (MS), Driver Kuniyuki Walnut (DKW) y Woody Plant (WPM). Se utilizaron segmentos foliares de 1 cm2 previamente esterilizados fueron dispuestos en cada medio de cultivo suplementado con 21,4 μM de ácido naftalén acético (ANA) y 8,8 μM de 6-bencilaminopurina (BAP). Se utilizó un dise o completamente aleatorio, la unidad experimental correspondió a una placa Petri con seis segmentos foliares. Cada tratamiento estuvo compuesto por siete repeticiones. A las 4 semanas de cultivo se evaluó la callogénesis (%), callos nodulares (%), e histología de macizos callosos, para los que se obtuvieron cortes de 10 μm a los cuales se realizó tinción con safranina-fastgreen. No se registraron diferencias significativas en la inducción de callogénesis entre los medios evaluados (α = 0,05); pero el porcentaje de callos nodulares fue significativamente mayor en los medios BTM (75%) y WPM (63%). Sólo en el medio BTM, la histología mostró presencia de zonas meristemáticas en el interior del macizo, sin que se observara expres
Water Extract of Juglans Regia L. And Diabetes Mellitus in Iranian Traditional Medicine
Sarahroodi S.,Rasekh H.R.,Kamali-Nejad M.,Safaeian L.
Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: There are many reports about the glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants in animal models. There are a some reports in Iranian traditional medicine about glucose lowering effect of septum water extract of Juglans Regia L. In the present study, effect of aqueous extract of the septum of Juglans Regia L. on plasma glucose is assessed. Methods: After preparing the water extract of Juglans Regia L. and concentrating of it the lyophilized extract, was tested in diabetic (ip injection of streptozocin) and normal rats. Comparison between groups was made by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the differences between the means assessed using student’s t test. Results: In an oral glucose tolerance test (OGGT), a single oral administration of the water extract at doses of 50, 250 and 750 mg/kg body weight didn’t lowered the plasma glucose level in the normal rats. Although that insulin administration (5IU/kg) caused a reduction of serum glucose(P<0.001), none of the extract doses (1000, 750, 500, 250mg/Kg) could cause a significant reduction in such level (P>0.005). Conclusion: These results demonstrated that the water extract of the septum of Juglans regia's fruit didn’t have a significant hypoglycemic effect in rats.Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Juglans Regia L.; Rat.
Water Extract of Juglans Regia L. And Diabetes Mellitus in Iranian Traditional Medicine  [cached]
S Sarahroodi
Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: There are many reports about the glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants in animal models. There are a some reports in Iranian traditional medicine about glucose lowering effect of septum water extract of Juglans Regia L. In the present study, effect of aqueous extract of the septum of Juglans Regia L. on plasma glucose is assessed. Methods: After preparing the water extract of Juglans Regia L. and concentrating of it the lyophilized extract, was tested in diabetic (ip injection of streptozocin) and normal rats. Comparison between groups was made by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the differences between the means assessed using student’s t test. Results: In an oral glucose tolerance test (OGGT), a single oral administration of the water extract at doses of 50, 250 and 750 mg/kg body weight didn’t lowered the plasma glucose level in the normal rats. Although that insulin administration (5IU/kg) caused a reduction of serum glucose(P<0.001), none of the extract doses (1000, 750, 500, 250mg/Kg) could cause a significant reduction in such level (P>0.005). Conclusion: These results demonstrated that the water extract of the septum of Juglans regia's fruit didn’t have a significant hypoglycemic effect in rats.
Juglans regia L. tree plantations for wood production in mining area of S. Barbara (AR). Evaluation of N-fixing accessory trees effect
Tani A,Maltoni A,Mariotti B,Buresti Lattes E
Forest@ , 2006,
Abstract: The study was carried out in experimental plots located in the Arno valley (Cavriglia, province of Arezzo - Italy). The experimental plots, walnut (Juglans regia L.) plantations both pure and mixed to accessory trees (Alnus cordata Loisel., Corylus avellana L., Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L.), were established in 1986 and 1989. Data on grown and architectural characteristics were collected in different periods on trees aged 9, 13 and 16. Walnut trees grown with accessory trees showed the best performances, especially if associated with N-fixing species. These positive effects are probably due to many co-occuring favourable causes, a remarkable aspect of which is the higher availability of N. To better investigate the above effect, N concentration in the soil and in walnut leaves was measured in plantations both pure and mixed with Italian alder (Alnus cordata) or black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), and N concentration values were compared with growth characteristics. The results showed that Juglans regia trees associated with Italian alder grow faster, with straighter stems and better stem shapes for qualified wood production. Even if walnut trees growing in plantations with black locust show similar N concentration values, growth performances are worse.
Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Expression of the Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene from Juglans regia  [PDF]
Feng Xu,Guang Deng,Shuiyuan Cheng,Weiwei Zhang,Xiaohua Huang,Linling Li,Hua Cheng,Xiaofeng Rong,Jinbao Li
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17077810
Abstract: Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first key enzyme of the phenypropanoid pathway. A full-length cDNA of PAL gene was isolated from Juglans regia for the first time, and designated as JrPAL. The full-length cDNA of the JrPAL gene contained a 1935bp open reading frame encoding a 645-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 70.4 kD and isoelectric point (pI) of 6.7. The deduced JrPAL protein showed high identities with other plant PALs. Molecular modeling of JrPAL showed that the 3D model of JrPAL was similar to that of PAL protein from Petroselinum crispum (PcPAL), implying that JrPAL may have similar functions with PcPAL. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that JrPAL shared the same evolutionary ancestor of other PALs and had a closer relationship with other angiosperm species. Transcription analysis revealed that JrPAL was expressed in all tested tissues including roots, stems, and leaves, with the highest transcription level being found in roots. Expression profiling analyses by real-time PCR revealed that JrPAL expression was induced by a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, including UV-B, wounding, cold, abscisic acid and salicylic acid.
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