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Case and Adverbials in Inari Saami and Finnish  [cached]
Diane Nelson
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2003,
Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between case-marked adverbials and event structure in two related languages, Inari Saami and Finnish. New data is presented to show that while oblique case-marked adverbials do not delimit events in either language, the two languages diverge with respect to accusuative adverbials. Finnish shows a one-to-one mapping between case and event delimitation, while in Inari Saami not all accusative adverbials delimit events. These findings lend support to proposals by Arad (1998) and Tenny (1987) that each predicate may contain only one event delimiter.
Norwegian Sociology and the Recognition of the Saami Minority  [PDF]
Hans Petter Sand
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.45017

At a time when the Saami ethnic minority got little attention by the Norwegian public and the political authorities of the country, sociologists did much to raise public awareness about the conditions of this ethnic minority. In the postwar period of the 1950s and 1960s, sociologists of Norway focused to a large degree on social groups that fell outside the emerging welfare state. Norwegian sociology has been characterized by an approach named “problem-oriented empirism” and also by sociologists playing a vital role as public intellectuals. Sociology professor Vilhelm Aubert (1922- 88) coined the term “problem-oriented empirism” to characterize Norwegian sociology from the end of the Second World War to around 1975. Empirism refers to the importance of sociology being close to social reality. Problem-orientation refers to the importance of choosing research questions that are not only scientifically interesting, but also relevant to society. Vilhelm Aubert was also a leading figure among sociologists playing the role of public intellectuals in this period. Problem-oriented empirism and sociologists as public intellectuals have in particular been the case with regard to Saami research.

Developmental Changes in the Role of Different Metalinguistic Awareness Skills in Chinese Reading Acquisition from Preschool to Third Grade  [PDF]
Tong-Qi Wei, Hong-Yan Bi, Bao-Guo Chen, Ying Liu, Xu-Chu Weng, Taeko N. Wydell
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096240
Abstract: The present study investigated the relationship between Chinese reading skills and metalinguistic awareness skills such as phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness for 101 Preschool, 94 Grade-1, 98 Grade-2, and 98 Grade-3 children from two primary schools in Mainland China. The aim of the study was to examine how each of these metalinguistic awareness skills would exert their influence on the success of reading in Chinese with age. The results showed that all three metalinguistic awareness skills significantly predicted reading success. It further revealed that orthographic awareness played a dominant role in the early stages of reading acquisition, and its influence decreased with age, while the opposite was true for the contribution of morphological awareness. The results were in stark contrast with studies in English, where phonological awareness is typically shown as the single most potent metalinguistic awareness factor in literacy acquisition. In order to account for the current data, a three-stage model of reading acquisition in Chinese is discussed.
A research-based strategy for inductively accelerating vocabulary acquisition of at-risk students in Grade 4  [cached]
Vitale, Michael R.,Romance, Nancy R.
International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning , 2012,
Abstract: This study explored the acceleration of vocabulary growth through a multi-part instructional strategy for engendering the inductive, semantic word-family oriented acquisition of vocabulary from context, a difficult task for elementary students. Implemented on a school-wide basis in grade 4 over an 8-week period, the intervention was a four-part enhancement to each of six regular basal reading stories that focused on 17 semantic word families associated with selected words in the stories. Results showed a.) that experimental students inductively generated greater numbers of words with similar meanings that could be substituted for novel words in 3-sentence story-context passages and to word-family pairs; and; b.) that Title 1 experimental students displayed greater achievement than comparable Title I controls on the ITBS Vocabulary Subtest.
Ussi ja siksaki motiivid Soome kaljumaalingutel ja Saami trummidel  [cached]
Eero Autio
M?etagused. Hüperajakiri , 1999,
Abstract: The main problem with the interpretation of Finnish rock paintings is the significance of shamanism. After surveying the most shamanistic motifs in the rock art and Saami drums E. Autio concludes that there are other possibilities besides shamanism for construckting an interpretation of the rock paintings (the votive offer, mythological beings, etc.).
The prevalence of hypertension and the relationship with body composition in Grade 1 learners in the North West Province of South Africa
Chanelle Kemp, Anita E Pienaar, Aletta E Schutte
South African Journal of Sports Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Objective. To determine the prevalence of hypertension in Grade 1 learners in the North West Province of South Africa and to investigate the association between blood pressure (BP) and body composition of these children. Methods. Data were collected by means of a stratified random sampling procedure from 816 Grade 1 learners (419 boys, 397 girls) with a mean age of 6.78±0.49 years (mean±SD), in the NWCHILD-study. Height, weight, skinfolds (subscapular, triceps, calf) and waist circumference were measured. The international recommended cut-off values of Cole et al. (2000) for body mass index (BMI) were used. Hypertension, defined as the average of two separate BP (BP) readings, where the systolic BP and diastolic BP is >95th percentile for age, sex and height, was determined by means of an Omron 705CP-II. Results. The overall prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 8.5% and 24.9%, respectively. Both systolic and diastolic BP was positively associated with BMI, body fat percentage and waist circumference. Boys and girls showed a similar prevalence of hypertension. A higher percentage of black children were hypertensive compared with whites, although the difference in BP of the groups was not significant. A high percentage of children with normal weight also showed increased levels of BP. Conclusions. High prevalences of hypertension were found in Grade 1 learners in the North West Province of South Africa. Small practical significant associations existed between BP and body composition. BP screening is therefore considered important in the paediatric population. Interventions which include physical activity are recommended to reduce potential cardiovascular complications and obesity among children. Other contributing factors to high BP amongst young children should also be investigated. SAJSM, vol 23 No. 4 2011
Disjunctive form and the modal $μ$ alternation hierarchy  [PDF]
Karoliina Lehtinen
Computer Science , 2015, DOI: 10.4204/EPTCS.191.11
Abstract: This paper studies the relationship between disjunctive form, a syntactic normal form for the modal mu calculus, and the alternation hierarchy. First it shows that all disjunctive formulas which have equivalent tableau have the same syntactic alternation depth. However, tableau equivalence only preserves alternation depth for the disjunctive fragment: there are disjunctive formulas with arbitrarily high alternation depth that are tableau equivalent to alternation-free non-disjunctive formulas. Conversely, there are non-disjunctive formulas of arbitrarily high alternation depth that are tableau equivalent to disjunctive formulas without alternations. This answers negatively the so far open question of whether disjunctive form preserves alternation depth. The classes of formulas studied here illustrate a previously undocumented type of avoidable syntactic complexity which may contribute to our understanding of why deciding the alternation hierarchy is still an open problem.
Longitudinal Data on the Relations of Morphological and Phonological Training to Reading Acquisition in First Grade: The Case of Arabic Language  [PDF]
Reem Dallasheh-Khatib, Raphiq Ibrahim, Avi Karni
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.58103

The purpose of this study was to examine the development of morphological and phonological awareness and their impact on later reading skills. Two training programs (morphological and phonological awareness) were conducted in kindergarten and were compared to no-intervention control group. Phonological and morphological tests and other general abilities were measured for 90 children at kindergarten as pre and post intervention tests. Tests in reading and spelling were carried out at the middle of grade 1. Results showed that the morphological and the phonological intervention programs enhanced both phonological and morphological awareness, in comparison to the control group, with a small advantage for the morphological group. In grade 1, no significant differences were found between the intervention groups and the control group in reading and spelling measures. Altogether the results of the current study suggest that the intervention programs were less effective than expected in the first graders compared to results of Carlisle (1995) and Lyster (2002), but support former findings found by Ibrahim et al. (2007). This result may relate in part to the additional visual complexity of Arabic orthography. The psycholinguistic implications of these findings including a gender effect are discussed.

Sexually transmitted Human Papillomavirus type variations resulting in high grade cervical dysplasia in North-East North Dakota and North-West Minnesota
Lata Balakrishnan, Ryan Clauson, Timothy Weiland, Michelle Bianco, Barry Milavetz
Virology Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-3-46
Abstract: To identify the different types of HPV present in patient populations showing high-grade dysplasia in Grand Forks, ND and Roseau, MN.Formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissue samples were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the presence of HPV type 16, 18 and 31.Our studies showed that 41 % of samples from Roseau were triply infected with HPV serotypes 16, 18 and 31 in comparison to 12 % from Grand Forks.Due to the small sample size we were unable to prove the study to be statistically significant. However, our results suggest that the presence of HPV 16, 18 and 31 in triply infected samples may be the cause of the higher percentage of high-grade dysplasia in Roseau, MN when compared to Grand Forks, ND.Human Papillomavirus (HPV), a member of the papovavirus family, is a small circular double stranded DNA virus with a genome of approximately 8 Kb. HPV causes the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the U.S. with at least 5.5 million new infections each year and an actively infected population of approximately 20 million people [1]. There are more than 100 different genotypes of HPV, which are known to cause a wide range of infections including common warts, genital warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Fifteen HPV types are classified as high-risk types {16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 73, and 82} and twelve are classified as low-risk types {6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, 70, 72, 81, and CP6108} [2]. HPV has been found in 99.7 % of cervical carcinomas worldwide with HPV 16 and 18 the predominant genotype in these carcinomas. [3]. The virus has been postulated to gain entry into the body through microscopic abrasions of the surface epithelium most often followed by integration of the viral genomes of the high-risk types into basal cells late in infection and subsequent transformation of the basal cells.During an analysis of the severity of cervical dysplasia
Elections, Protest, and Alternation of Power  [PDF]
Andrew T. Little,Joshua A. Tucker,Tom LaGatta
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Despite many examples to the contrary, most models of elections assume that rules determining the winner will be followed. We present a model where elections are solely a public signal of the incumbent popularity, and citizens can protests against leaders that do not step down from power. In this minimal setup, rule-based alternation of power as well as "semi-democratic" alternation of power independent of electoral rules can both arise in equilibrium. Compliance with electoral rules requires there to be multiple equilibria in the protest game, where the electoral rule serves as a focal point spurring protest against losers that do not step down voluntarily. Such multiplicity is possible when elections are informative and citizens not too polarized. Extensions to the model are consistent with the facts that protests often center around accusations of electoral fraud and that in the democratic case turnover is peaceful while semi-democratic turnover often requires citizens to actually take to the streets.
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