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Protective Effects of Crude Polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllum on Swimming Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat
Changjun Li,Xiaolan Wu,Xiaojuan Lou,Yajun Wu,Ang Li,Haiyan Wang
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.1627.1632
Abstract: The present study examined the effects of crude Polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (PGP) against oxidative stress induced by swimming exercise. Male rats were administered PGP (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1) by gavage every day. After 30 days, swimming exercise of rat was performed in acrylic plastic pool. The results showed that PGP treatment prolonged exhaustive swimming time and improved liver glycogen reserve which suggested that PGP treatment influenced the performance of exhaustive exercise and improved exercise tolerance. Moreover, PGP treatment can promote increases in the activities of Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPH-Px) and reduce lipid per-oxidation which suggest that PGP treatment was beneficial in enhancing the antioxidant status and inhibiting oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise.
The Influence of Polysaccharides from the Roots of Achyranthes bidentata on Biochemical Parameters Related to Oxidative Stress Induced by Exhaustive Exercise of Rats
Jinyang Lin,Zhuoying Zhang
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.4693.4696
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polysaccharides from the roots of Achyranthes bidentata (ABP) on exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress by measuring related biochemical parameters of rats. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 in each group): one control group and three ABP administered groups. The control group was given saline solution and the administered groups were given different doses of ABP (50, 100, 200 mg kg-1) by gavage once a day. After 21 days, the rats performed an exhaustive exercise test on a graded treadmill, along with the determination of related oxidative stress parameters. The results showed that ABP could significantly increase Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px) and Catalase (CAT) activities, decrease Malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in muscle of rats which meant that ABP effectively attenuates oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise.
Ginsenoside-Rg1 Protects the Liver against Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats
Mallikarjuna Korivi,Chien-Wen Hou,Chih-Yang Huang,Shin-Da Lee,Ming-Fen Hsu,Szu-Hsien Yu,Chung-Yu Chen,Yung-Yang Liu,Chia-Hua Kuo
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/932165
Abstract: Despite regular exercise benefits, acute exhaustive exercise elicits oxidative damage in liver. The present study determined the hepatoprotective properties of ginsenoside-Rg1 against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats. Forty rats were assigned into vehicle and ginsenoside-Rg1 groups (0.1 mg/kg bodyweight). After 10-week treatment, ten rats from each group performed exhaustive swimming. Estimated oxidative damage markers, including thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) (67%) and protein carbonyls (56%), were significantly (<0.01) elevated after exhaustive exercise but alleviated in ginsenoside-Rg1 pretreated rats. Furthermore, exhaustive exercise drastically decreased glutathione (GSH) content (~79%) with concurrent decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. However, these changes were attenuated in Rg1 group. Additionally, increased xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) levels after exercise were also inhibited by Rg1 pretreatment. For the first time, our findings provide strong evidence that ginsenoside-Rg1 can protect the liver against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative damage.
Hepatoprotective Effects of Ixora parviflora Extract against Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice  [PDF]
Nai-Wen Kan,Wen-Ching Huang,Wan-Teng Lin,Chih-Yang Huang,Kuo-Ching Wen,Hsiu-Mei Chiang,Chi-Chang Huang,Mei-Chich Hsu
Molecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/molecules180910721
Abstract: Ixora parviflora, a species of the Rubiaceae, is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids, and has been traditionally used as a folk medicine. An I. parviflora extract (IPE) has great antioxidant activity in vitro, including a scavenging effect on superoxide radicals, reducing power, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. However, whether IPE is efficacious against oxidative damage in vivo is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of IPE treatment on hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses after exhaustive exercise in mice. Fifty male C57BL/6 mice (6 week old) were randomly divided into five groups and designated a sedentary control with vehicle (C), and exhaustive exercise with vehicle (IPE0), low dosage (IPE10), medium dosage (IPE50) and high dosage (IPE100) of IPE at 0, 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, respectively. After a single bout of exhaustive swimming exercise challenge, levels of blood ammonia and creatine kinase (CK), and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) protein expression, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS), and gp91 phox, p22 phox, and p47 phox subunits of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase expressions in the IPE0 group were significantly affected compared to those of the C group, but they were all significantly inhibited by the IPE treatments. Results of the present in vivo study in mice indicate that I. parviflora extract possesses antioxidative and hepatoprotective potential following exhaustive exercise.
Influence of Tartary Buckwheat Extracts Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Induced by Acute Exhaustive Exercise in Rats  [PDF]
Yan Fei-Wei,Fang Fang,Jin Hong-Mei,Jin Ye
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2012,
Abstract: Tartary Buckwheat Extracts (TBE) has been reported to be a potential antioxidant that may affect health and exercise performance. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of TBE supplementation on oxidative stress induced by acute exhaustive exercise in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, each consisting of ten rats. The first group designated as control group was administered with distilled water by gavage every day for 28 days. The other three groups designated as TBE supplementation groups were administered with TBE of 60, 120 and 240 mg kg-1 body weight (b.wt.), respectively, by gavage every day for 28 days. After acute exhaustive exercise, the antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. The data showed that TBE at the dose 60, 120 and 240 mg kg-1 b.wt. increased Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) activities in liver tissue of rats significantly by 28.13, 34.65 and 45.95%, respectively, increased catalase (CAT) activities significantly by 29.49, 41.63 and 59.30%, respectively and decreased MDA levels significantly by 31.21, 51.12 and 45.68%, respectively. TBE at the dose 120 and 240 mg kg-1 b.wt. increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities significantly by 21.33 and 28.22%, respectively. TBE at the dose 240 mg kg-1 b.wt. increased Glutathione Reductase (GR) activities significantly by 31.58%. These results suggested that TBE supplementation has a protective effect on oxidative stress induced by acute exhaustive exercise.
Changes in Oxidative Stress Markers and Biological Markers of Muscle Injury with Aging at Rest and in Response to an Exhaustive Exercise  [PDF]
Mohamed Amine Bouzid, Omar Hammouda, Regis Matran, Sophie Robin, Claudine Fabre
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090420
Abstract: Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative stress markers and biomarkers of muscle injury would be affected by aging at rest and in response to an incremental exhaustive exercise. Methods Fifteen young (20.3±2.8 years) and fifteen older adults (65.1±3.5 years) performed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion. Before and after exercise, oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbic acid, α-Tocopherol, malondialdehyde (MDA)] and muscle injury [creatine kinase (CK), lactate deshydrogenase (LDH)] biomarkers were assessed. Results At rest, there was no difference in oxidative stress markers and LDH level between the groups, however CK was significantly higher in the young group than the elderly group (p<0.05). During recovery, in comparison with resting values, a significant increase in SOD (1092±145.9 vs. 1243±98 U/g Hb), GPX (67.4±12.7 vs. 79.2±15.6 U/g Hb) and GR (6.5±0.9 vs. 7.7±0.5 U/g Hb) activities were observed only in the young group (p<0.05). MDA has increased only in the older group (0.54±0.2 vs. 0.79±0.2 μmol/l) (p<0.01). CK increased in both groups (young group: 122.5±22.2 vs. 161.9±18.7 UI/l; older group: 88.8±34.1 vs. 111.1±25.9 UI/l) (p<0.01), however LDH has increased only in the young group (400.5±22.2 vs. 485±18.7 UI/l) (p<0.01) without alteration in the older group (382.8±34.1 vs. 418.5±25.9 UI/l). Conclusions These findings indicate that aging is associated with a decrease in antioxidant efficiency and an increase in oxidative stress damage. Furthermore, older adults would not more susceptible to exercise-induced muscle injury than young people.
The Protection of Salidroside of the Heart against Acute Exhaustive Injury and Molecular Mechanism in Rat  [PDF]
Yunru Wang,Peng Xu,Yang Wang,Haiyan Liu,Yuwen Zhou,Xuebin Cao
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/507832
Abstract: Objective. To investigate the protection of salidroside of the heart against acute exhaustive injury and its mechanism of antioxidative stress and MAPKs signal transduction. Method. Adult male SD rats were divided into four groups randomly. Cardiomyocytes ultrastructure was observed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The contents of CK, CK-MB, LDH, MDA, and SOD were determined by ELISA method, and the phosphorylation degrees of ERK and p38 MAPK were assayed by Western blotting. Cardiac function of isolated rat heart ischemia/reperfusion was detected by Langendorff technique. Results. Salidroside reduced the myocardium ultrastructure injury caused by exhaustive swimming, decreased the contents of CK, CK-MB, and LDH, improved the LVDP, ±LV? / under the basic condition, reduced the content of MDA and the phosphorylation degree of p38 MAPK, and increased the content of SOD and the phosphorylation degree of ERK in acute exhaustive rats. Conclusion. Salidroside has the protection of the heart against acute exhaustive injury. The cardioprotection is mainly mediated by antioxidative stress and MAPKs signal transduction through reducing the content of MDA, increasing the content of SOD, and increasing p-ERK and decreasing p-p38 protein expressions in rat myocardium, which might be the mechanisms of the cardioprotective effect of salidroside. 1. Introduction Exhaustive exercise is a pathological state of multiple organ dysfunction due to the strong and durable exercise load which is beyond the bearing ability of the body. It will increase the oxygen consumption of cardiomyocytes, which may produce an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, inducing oxidative stress as a result of increased ROS production [1–3] and damage to cardiac structure, metabolism, and function [4, 5]. More specifically, oxidative stress is the imbalance between oxidation and antioxidation system. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is one of the important enzymes to eliminate ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) is the terminal product of the membrane lipid peroxidation; the changes of their contents can reflect the degree of oxidative stress of cardiomyocytes. Exhaustive exercise can destroy the balance of antagonism between atrial natriuretic peptide and endothelin, which will cause sustained contraction of coronary artery, making the blood supply of coronary artery unable to satisfy the demand of cardiomyocytes for blood and oxygen and then induce continuous ischemia-hypoxia of myocardium and the damage factor will increase at the same time; both of
Effects of vitamin E supplementation on renal non-enzymatic antioxidants in young rats submitted to exhaustive exercise stress
Sérvio A Bucioli, Luiz de Abreu, Vitor E Valenti, Claudio Leone, Helio Vannucchi
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-133
Abstract: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: 1) control group; 2) exercise stress group and; 3) exercise stress + Vitamin E group. Rats from the group 3 were treated with gavage administration of 1 mL of Vitamin E (5 mg/kg) for seven consecutive days. Animals from groups 2 and 3 were submitted to a bout of swimming exhaustive exercise stress. Kidney samples were analyzed for Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances to (TBARS) by malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamin-E levels.The group treated with vitamin E and submitted to exercise stress presented the lowest levels of renal MDA (1: 0.16+0.02 mmmol/mgprot vs. 2: 0.34+0.07 mmmol/mgprot vs. 3: 0.1+0.01 mmmol/mgprot; p < 0.0001), the highest levels of renal GSH (1: 23+4 μmol/gprot vs. 2: 23+2 μmol/gprot vs. 3: 58+9 μmol/gprot; p < 0.0001) and the highest levels of renal vitamin E (1: 24+6 μM/gtissue vs. 2: 28+2 μM/gtissue vs. 3: 43+4 μM/gtissue; p < 0.001).Vitamin E supplementation improved non-enzymatic antioxidant activity in young rats submitted to exhaustive exercise stress.During exercise stress, free radicals may be produced in excess of the body's natural defense. Strenuous exercise increases the whole body and tissue oxygen consumption up to 20 fold, which then elevates electron leakage from the mitochondrial transport system and disturbs the intracellular pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis [1]. There have been many reports showing that exercise causes oxidative stress, e.g., the direct detection of free radical generation in rat skeletal muscle [2] and kidney [3] increases in oxidative damage biomarkers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances.The protective capacity of the antioxidant defense system of sedentary individuals may therefore be more easily exceeded under conditions of acute physical exercise. Exogenous antioxidants, primarily obtained as nutrients or nutritional supplements, may help to counteract the oxidative stress of exercise in such subjects unaccustomed to
Oral Rg1 supplementation strengthens antioxidant defense system against exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat skeletal muscles
Szu-Hsien Yu, Hui-Yu Huang, Mallikarjuna Korivi, Ming-Fen Hsu, Chih-Yang Huang, Chien-Wen Hou, Chung-Yu Chen, Chung-Lan Kao, Ru-Ping Lee, Shin-Da Lee, Chia-Hua Kuo
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-9-23
Abstract: Forty weight-matched rats were evenly divided into control (N?=?20) and Rg1 (N?=?20) groups. Rg1 was orally administered at the dose of 0.1?mg/kg bodyweight per day for 10-week. After this long-term Rg1 administration, ten rats from each group performed an exhaustive swimming, and remaining rats considered as non-exercise control. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were surgically collected immediately after exercise along with non-exercise rats.Exhaustive exercise significantly (p<0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation of control group, as evidenced by elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The increased oxidative stress after exercise was also confirmed by decreased reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG ratio) in control rats. However, these changes were completely eliminated in Rg1 group. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased by Rg1 in non-exercise rats, while no significant change after exercise. Nevertheless, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly increased after exercise in Rg1 group.This study provide compelling evidences that Rg1 supplementation can strengthen antioxidant defense system in skeletal muscle and completely attenuate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise. Our findings suggest that Rg1 can use as a nutraceutical supplement to buffer the exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.
High-Fat Diet with Acyl-Ghrelin Treatment Leads to Weight Gain with Low Inflammation, High Oxidative Capacity and Normal Triglycerides in Rat Muscle  [PDF]
Rocco Barazzoni, Michela Zanetti, Annamaria Semolic, Maria Rosa Cattin, Alessia Pirulli, Luigi Cattin, Gianfranco Guarnieri
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026224
Abstract: Obesity is associated with muscle lipid accumulation. Experimental models suggest that inflammatory cytokines, low mitochondrial oxidative capacity and paradoxically high insulin signaling activation favor this alteration. The gastric orexigenic hormone acylated ghrelin (A-Ghr) has antiinflammatory effects in vitro and it lowers muscle triglycerides while modulating mitochondrial oxidative capacity in lean rodents. We tested the hypothesis that A-Ghr treatment in high-fat feeding results in a model of weight gain characterized by low muscle inflammation and triglycerides with high muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity. A-Ghr at a non-orexigenic dose (HFG: twice-daily 200-μg s.c.) or saline (HF) were administered for 4 days to rats fed a high-fat diet for one month. Compared to lean control (C) HF had higher body weight and plasma free fatty acids (FFA), and HFG partially prevented FFA elevation (P<0.05). HFG also had the lowest muscle inflammation (nuclear NFkB, tissue TNF-alpha) with mitochondrial enzyme activities higher than C (P<0.05 vs C, P = NS vs HF). Under these conditions HFG prevented the HF-associated muscle triglyceride accumulation (P<0.05). The above effects were independent of changes in redox state (total-oxidized glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity) and were not associated with changes in phosphorylation of AKT and selected AKT targets. Ghrelin administration following high-fat feeding results in a novel model of weight gain with low inflammation, high mitochondrial enzyme activities and normalized triglycerides in skeletal muscle. These effects are independent of changes in tissue redox state and insulin signaling, and they suggest a potential positive metabolic impact of ghrelin in fat-induced obesity.
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