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Exploring Differentially Expressed Genes by RNA-Seq in Cashmere Goat (Capra hircus) Skin during Hair Follicle Development and Cycling  [PDF]
Rongqing Geng, Chao Yuan, Yulin Chen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062704
Abstract: Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) hair follicle development and cycling can be divided into three stages: anagen, catagen and telogen. To elucidate the genes involved in hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats, transcriptome profiling of skin was carried out by analysing samples from three hair follicle developmental stages using RNA-Seq. The RNA-Seq analysis generated 8487344, 8142514 and 7345335 clean reads in anagen, catagen and telogen stages, respectively, which provided abundant data for further analysis. A total of 1332 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, providing evidence that the development of hair follicles among the three distinct stages changed considerably. A total of 683 genes with significant differential expression were detected between anagen and catagen, 530 DEGs were identified between anagen and telogen, and 119 DEGs were identified between catagen and telogen. A large number of DEGs were predominantly related to cellular process, cell & cell part, binding, biological regulation and metabolic process among the different stages of hair follicle development. In addition, the Wnt, Shh, TGF-β and Notch signaling pathways may be involved in hair follicle development and the identified DEGs may play important roles in these signaling pathways. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats and provide a foundation for future studies.
Seromonitoring of Peste Des Petits ruminants (PPR) in goats (Capra hircus) of Parbhani region of Maharashtra  [cached]
V. V. Chavan,S. U. Digraskar,S. N. Dhonde and S. N. Bedarkar
Veterinary World , 2009,
Abstract: Investigations were carried out on seroprevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in goats (Capra hircus) of Parbhani region of Maharashtra. Seroprevalence of PPR in goats was determined by employing c-ELISA test on random sera samples collected from different places of Parbhani district of Maharashtra State. Among 854 sera samples collected from different places, 393 showed positive titres indicating an overall per cent seroprevalence as 46.01, with range of 42.30 to 52.94 at different places. [Vet World 2009; 2(8.000): 299-300]
Cloned goats (Capra hircus) from adult ear cells
Guo Jitong,An Zhixing,Li Yu,Li Xuefeng,Li Yuqiang,Guo Zekun,Zhang Yong
Science China Life Sciences , 2002, DOI: 10.1360/02yc9029
Abstract: The average number of available oocytes recovered per ovary collected during the breeding season in dairy goats was 5.5 (1815/330). 66.17% (1201/1815) of oocytes extruded the first polar body after maturation in vitro for 20 h. 75.44% (906/1201) of matured oocytes with membrane evagination around the M II chromosomes were enucleated. Ear skin fibroblast cells were derived from an adult female Jining Grey goat (C. hircus). The cells were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen after passage 2. Thawed cells were further cultured for 3–6 passages and were subjected to serum starvation by 0.5% FBS for 2–10 d, then used as donor cells for nuclear transfer. 98.12% (889/906) of the enucleated oocytes were reconstructed by intracytoplasmic injection of karyoplast. The reconstructed embryos were activated by 5 μmol/L ionomycin for 4.5 min and further activated by culturing with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) for 3 h. After 36 h of culture in mCR1aaBF, 76.69% (645/841) of the cloned embryos cleaved. There were no significant differences in development in vitro between the cloned embryos derived from donor cells precooled at 4°C for 24 h and nonprecooled donor cells. The cleavage rates, 4-cell development, and blastocyst development of reconstructed embryos were 72.48% (79/109), 53.16% (42/79), and 19.05% (8/42) in precooled group; 68.5% (211/308), 59.72% (126/211), and 17.46% (22/126) in nonprecooled group, respectively. Eighteen cloned 4-cell embryos derived from precooled donor cells were transferred and one cloned kid was born. Eighty-four cloned 4-cell embryos derived from nonprecooled donor cells were transferred and no offspring were produced. Of 18 cloned morale from nonprecooled donor cells transferred, one kid was born. The results of microsatellite DNA analyses indicated that the two cloned kids were from the same donor fibroblast cell line derived from an adult goat ear skin.
SEROLOGICAL SURVEY FOR BRUCELLA OVIS DISSEMINATION AMONG GOATS (Capra aegagrus hircus)  [PDF]
Atanas ARNAUDOV
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2012, DOI: 10.5513/jcea01/13.1.1033
Abstract: By complement fixation test 230 blood samples from goats and he goats were examined for presence of antibodies against Brucella ovis. 134 blood samples were from goats (23 of them were from slipping goats) and 96- from he goats. The animals come from private farms in the Plovdiv and Pazardzhik regions (Southern Bulgaria). 10.87% of all tested blood samples contain antibodies against Brucella ovis. Differences in the percentage of the positive reagents of different goat categories were found. The highest percentage was among slipping goats (39.13% towards to 11.71% among the healthy goats and 3.13% among he goats). It can be concluded that goats play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. The greatest risk is slipping goats bred together with sheep flocks.
Cloned goats (Capra hircus) from adult ear cells
Cloned goats(Capra hircus)from adult ear cells

Guo Jitong,An Zhixing,Li Yu,Li Xuefeng,Li Yuqiang,Guo Zekun,Zhang Yong,
郭继彤
,安志兴,李煜,李雪峰,李裕强,郭泽坤,张涌

中国科学C辑(英文版) , 2002,
Abstract: The average number of available oocytes recovered per ovary collected during the breeding season in dairy goats was 5.5 (1815/330). 66.17% (1201/1815) of oocytes extruded the first polar body after maturation in vitro for 20 h. 75.44% (906/1201) of matured oocytes with membrane evagination around the M II chromosomes were enucleated. Ear skin fibroblast cells were derived from an adult female Jining Grey goat (C. hircus). The cells were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen after passage 2. Thawed cells were further cultured for 3-6 passages and were subjected to serum starvation by 0.5% FBS for 2-10 d, then used as donor cells for nuclear transfer. 98.12% (889/906) of the enucleated oocytes were reconstructed by intracytoplasmic injection of karyoplast. The reconstructed embryos were activated by 5 mumol/L ionomycin for 4.5 min and further activated by culturing with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) for 3 h. After 36 h of culture in mCR1aaBF, 76.69% (645/841) of the cloned embryos cleaved. There were no significant differences in development in vitro between the cloned embryos derived from donor cells precooled at 4 degrees C for 24 h and nonprecooled donor cells. The cleavage rates, 4-cell development, and blastocyst development of reconstructed embryos were 72.48% (79/109), 53.16% (42/79), and 19.05% (8/42) in precooled group; 68.5% (211/308), 59.72% (126/211), and 17.46% (22/126) in nonprecooled group, respectively. Eighteen cloned 4-cell embryos derived from precooled donor cells were transferred and one cloned kid was born. Eighty-four cloned 4-cell embryos derived from nonprecooled donor cells were transferred and no offspring were produced. Of 18 cloned morale from nonprecooled donor cells transferred, one kid was born. The results of microsatellite DNA analyses indicated that the two cloned kids were from the same donor fibroblast cell line derived from an adult goat ear skin.
ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION WITH MEDROXYPROGESTERONE ACETATE IMPREGNATED SPONGES IN GOATS (CAPRA HIRCUS)  [PDF]
R. KAUSAR, S. A. KHANUM, M. HUSSAIN AND M. S. SHAH
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2009,
Abstract: An experiment was performed to synchronize estrus in goats by locally prepared progesterone-impregnated sponges and to determine the time of onset and duration of estrus alongwith subsequent fertility rate. The study was conducted from May to December, 2007 at NIAB (Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology), Faisalabad. Polyurethane sponges were prepared with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP: 60 mg) and inserted intra-vaginally in a lot of 8 female postpartum goats (Beetal x Dwarf). Two goats were kept as control and were treated with sponges without MAP. Sponges were removed on 17th day of insertion and goats were examined for the signs of estrus at 6 h intervals. A buck was introduced in the herd for breeding, one day after removal of sponges. Estrus was further confirmed by determining serum estradiol levels using radioimmunoassay (RIA). All the experimental goats exhibited estrus within 21-100 h of removal of sponges, whereas one control animal also showed estrus. The average time from sponge withdrawal to the onset of estrus was 65.4 ± 24.0 h and duration of estrus was 29.8 ± 6.7 hours in experimental group. The control animal showed estrus after 22.0 h of sponge removal with estrus duration of 36 h. Estradiol concentrations in experimental lot were in the range of 2.2-15.0 pg/ml during estrus. Animals were observed for reversal towards estrus after 21 days. Only one experimental animal exhibited 2nd estrus. Pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound after 60 days of sponge removal. The gestation period of 150.4 ± 3.4 days, a litter size of 1.3 ± 0.5 and a fertility rate of 87.5% were observed in the experimental lot. The control doe produced a male kid after 150.0 days of gestation. It is evident from this experiment that estrus can be synchronized in goats (Beetal x Dwarf) by locally prepared progesterone sponges with good fertility rate.
Morphological studies on rumen development in West African Dwarf goats (Capra hircus)
IC Nwaogu, DN Ezeasor
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: We studied the gross and light microscopic structures of rumen in fetal, neonatal and adult West African Dwarf (WAD) goats obtained from Nsukka and Igboeze South Local Government Areas (L.G.A) of Enugu State. After euthanasia the rumen was ligated, dissected out and the volume determined by flotation and displacement method. For histological studies pieces of rumen were fixed in Bouin`s fluid for 24hrs, processed and routinely stained with H & E. The volume of rumen was 7.25 ± 1.62, 14.3 ± 2.1, 211.6 ± 36.0 and 1620.3 ± 46.5 ml for gestation day 87, full term fetuses, neonates and adult goats respectively. The rumen volume body mass indices were 18.03 ± 3.45, 10.75 ± 4.29, 87.08 ± 6.50 and 108.02 ± 10.65 for gestation day 87, full term fetuses, neonates and adults respectively. Grossly, the mucosal surface was smooth and beige in fetuses, velvety and greenish brown in neonates and adults. Microscopically, the mucosa was lined by stratified squamous epithelium which was divided into larger lighter luminal and darker basal zones in fetuses and early neonates. The dark basal zone had finger-like projections into the lighter zone- proprial papillae. The papillae were tiny and covered by thin keratin layer in 4- week-old neonates. They were very tall especially in the ventral ruminal sac and the epithelium covered by thick keratin in adult goats. These results provide baseline data on rumen development in WAD goats.
Morphometric Evaluation of Blood Pressure Regulating Organs in Teddy Goats (Capra hircus) in Relation to Age and Sex
M. Shah, A. S. Qureshi*1, S. Rehan1 and R. Hussain1
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2010,
Abstract: In this study the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands of 36 teddy goats (Capra hircus) of both sexes, divided in 3 age groups viz. kids (6-12 months), adults (13-21 months) and old (22-24 months) were collected after slaughter. Immediately after collection, absolute and relative weights, length, width, thickness, circumference and volume of all organs were recorded. Shape of the heart was cone like and the coronary groove was filled with fat. None of the anatomical parameters of the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands differed between male and female goats, except that absolute weight of the right kidney and volume of right and left kidneys were higher in males than in females (P<0.05). Absolute and relative weights of the heart, volume, length, circumference, right atrial wall thickness and right ventricle wall thickness were higher in old than in kids or adult animals (P<0.05). No difference was seen in various anatomical parameters between the right and the left kidneys. However, values of most of the anatomical parameters were higher in old than in kids or adult goats (P<0.05), except relative weight of the organ and thickness of medulla, which did not differ among animals of three age groups. For adrenals, the absolute weight and length of the left organ were higher than the right (P<0.05). Similarly, absolute weight, length and width were higher in old than in kids (P<0.05). It is conceivable from these findings that goat has a stable cardiovascular system. The development of heart, kidneys and adrenals showed an increase parallel to the advancing age to adjust with the increasing blood pressure due to physiological development process. Sex, however, played a secondary role.
Effects of Haemorrhage on Thermoregulation, Heart Rate and Blood Constituents in Goats (Capra hircus)  [PDF]
Selma E. Abdalla,Abdalla M. Abdelatif
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The effects of two levels of bleeding (15 and 30%) on physiological responses were evaluated in adult goats. The magnitude of haemorrhage was expressed as percentage of initial total blood volume after plasma volume determination by dye dilution. The groups subjected to haemorrhage had higher rectal temperature, respiration rate and heart rate compared to the control; the responses were more marked with the higher level of bleeding. The treated groups had lower Packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and Total Leucocyte Count (TLC) compared to the control; they were significantly lower with high level of bleeding compared to the control. The ratio of lymphocytes decreased, whereas the neutrophil ratio increased in treated groups compared to the control. The treated groups had lower serum total protein and albumin concentrations compared to the control. The plasma glucose level was higher in treated groups compared to the control and it increased with the increase of bleeding level. The treated groups had lower serum Na, Ca and Mg concentrations compared to the control. The levels of these minerals decreased with increase of bleeding level. The 15% bleeding group returned to normal values within 2 weeks, whereas the 30% bleeding group recovered within 5 weeks.
PROGESTERONE AND ESTRADIOL PROFILES DURING ESTROUS CYCLE AND GESTATION IN DWARF GOATS (CAPRA HIRCUS)  [PDF]
S. A. KHANUM, M. HUSSAIN AND R. KAUSAR
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Serum progesterone and estradiol profiles during estrous cycle, gestation and parturition in four Dwarf goat females (Capra hircus) were monitored. Blood sampling was carried out daily during estrous cycle and on alternate days during gestation till parturition. Observations regarding length of estrous cycle, gestation length, litter size and birth weight of kids were recorded. With the initiation of cyclicity, estradiol attained higher levels (7.7 ± 1.7 pg/ml) at estrus phase and dropped down to the lower levels within 3 to 4 days post-estrus. Concomitantly, progesterone started to increase from the mean basal value of 0.1 ± 0.03 ng/ml on day-0 to 3.0 ± 0.9 ng/ml on day-6 of estrous cycle and reached the peak value of 7.7 ± 0.6 ng/ml on day-12. From day-15, a decline was observed in progesterone values till the end of the cycle. A second estradiol rise of 14.0 ± 1.2pg/ml was observed on day-18 of the cycle. The mean estrous cycle length was 18.2 ± 2.1 days. During gestation, higher progesterone levels were maintained in the range of 4.3–11.0 ng/ml. Estradiol remained at lower concentrations for 30-50 days of gestation, then gradually increased and reached 270 ± 13.0 pg/ml a few days before parturition. It dropped again to basal values within 1-2 days postpartum. The mean gestation length in Dwarf goats was 144.8 ± 3.9 days and the litter size was 1.8 ± 0.5. It was concluded that Dwarf goat is a prolific breed, having a short gestation length with multiple births being common.
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