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Absence of Musculocutaneous Nerve: Embryological Basis  [PDF]
Arvind Kumar Pankaj, CS Ramesh Babu, Archana Rani, Anita Rani, Jyoti Chopra, Rakesh Kumar Verma, Navneet Kumar, Ajay Kumar Srivastava
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/ajms.v3i2.6626
Abstract: Variation of brachial plexus characterized by the absence of musculocutaneous nerve in right arm was found during routine dissection of a 54 year old male cadaver. After giving lateral pectoral nerve, rest of the lateral cord continued as lateral root of median nerve. An unusual branch was arising from lateral cord which crossed the axillary artery anteriorly and then divided into two branches. One of these branches joined ulnar nerve and other medial root of median nerve. All the muscles of front of arm were supplied by branches of median nerve. These variations are important for the anesthetists, surgeons, neurologists during surgery and for anatomists during dissection in the region of axilla. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajms.v3i2.6626 Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 3(2012) 21-24
An unusual case of asymmetrical formation and distribution of median nerve  [PDF]
Sontakke BR,Tarnekar AM,Waghmare JE,Ingole IV
International Journal of Anatomical Variations , 2011,
Abstract: During routine dissection of upper extremity of a 70-year-old male cadaver, variation was found in the formation and distribution of median nerve on both sides. On right side, median nerve received contribution from lateral cord twice, once in the axilla as lateral root of median nerve-1 and again in the arm as lateral root of median nerve-2. Lateral root of median nerve-1 contributed most of its fibers to ulnar nerve.On left side, median nerve had its two roots as usual, lateral root of median nerve and medial root of median nerve. However the lateral root of median nerve crossed the axillary artery anteriorly and formed the median nerve medial to the axillary artery. There was total absence of musculocutaneous nerve on the left side. The muscles of the anterior aspect of the arm, received nerve supply from the median nerve.
Absence of musculocutaneous nerve and accessory head of biceps brachii: a case report  [cached]
Arora L,Dhingra R
Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery , 2005,
Abstract: During dissection of a 55-year-old female cadaver, we observed that three nerve roots contributed to the formation of Median nerve in her right upper limb. Along with this variation, absence of Musculocutaneous nerve was noticed. The muscles of front of arm i.e. Biceps Brachii, Brachialis and Coracobrachialis received their nerve supply from Median nerve. The Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm was derived from Median nerve. Also an accessory head of Biceps Brachii muscle was present in the right arm of the same cadaver. It is extremely important to be aware of these variations while planning a surgery in the region of axilla or arm as these nerves are more liable to be injured during operations.
Absence of musculocutaneous nerve associated with clinically important variations in theformation, course and distribution of the median nerve – a case report  [PDF]
Nayak S
Neuroanatomy , 2007,
Abstract: Variations in the nerves of the upper limb are not uncommon. We saw the variations in the origin, course anddistribution of the median nerve in the left upper limb. The musculocutaneous nerve was absent. The mediannerve was formed in the upper part of the arm, in front of the brachial artery. The nerve passed deep to thebrachial artery from lateral to medial side. Median nerve supplied the biceps, coracobrachialis and brachialismuscles and gave lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. The third part of the axillary artery was compressedby two abnormal bands connecting medial root of median nerve with its lateral root.
Variation in the termination of musculocutaneous nerve
Thomas HR,Potu BK,Bhat KM,Margaret B
International Journal of Anatomical Variations , 2010,
Abstract: The present report describes a case of variation of the musculocutaneous nerve observed in a middle aged Indian male cadaver during routine educational dissection. We examined a variation in the termination of musculocutaneous nerve in right upper limb. After piercing coracobrachialis muscle musculocutaneous nerve divided into lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm and another branch that joined with median nerve below the insertion of the coracobrachialis. This abnormal branch coming from the musculocutaneous nerve had a very close oblique course over the brachial artery. Precise knowledge of variations of this report may help to plan a surgery in the region of axilla and arm, traumatology of the shoulder joint and plastic and reconstructive repair operations.
Absence of the musculocutaneous nerve: a rare anatomical variation with possible clinical-surgical implications
Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro;Macéa, Maria Inez Marcondes;Pereira, Celina Siqueira Barbosa;Barros, Mirna Duarte;Macéa, José Rafael;
Sao Paulo Medical Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-31802008000500009
Abstract: context: the musculocutaneous nerve is one of the terminal branches of the lateral fasciculus of the brachial plexus, and is responsible for innervation of the flexor musculature of the elbow and for skin sensitivity on the lateral surface of the forearm. its absence has been described previously, but its real prevalence is unknown. case report: a case of absence of the musculocutaneous nerve that was observed during the dissection of the right arm of a male cadaver is described. the area of innervation was supplied by the median nerve. from this, three branches emerged: one to the coracobrachialis muscle, another to the biceps brachii muscle and the third to the brachialis muscle. this last branch continued as a lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve. this is an anatomical variation that has clinical-surgical implications, considering that injury to the median nerve in this case would have caused unexpected paralysis of the flexor musculature of the elbow and hypoesthesia of the lateral surface of the forearm.
Unilateral variant origin of musculocutaneous nerve  [PDF]
Sontakke YA,Fulzele RR,Tamgire DW,Joshi M
International Journal of Anatomical Variations , 2010,
Abstract: Musculocutaneous nerve branch out from lateral cord of brachial plexus. It innervates coracobrachialis, biceps brachii and brachialis muscles and continues as the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm without exhibiting any communication with median nerve or any other nerve. Here, unilateral variant origin of musculocutaneous nerve is reported. In an adult male cadaver, a branch of median nerve represents musculocutaneous nerve which supplies coracobrachialis, biceps brachii and brachialis muscles and continues as lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm. This branch does not pass through coracobrachialis muscle. Such several variations surgeons should keep in mind while performing surgeries of axilla and upper arm.
An accessory branch of musculocutaneous nerve joining median nerve  [PDF]
Kocabiyik N,Yalcin B,Yazar F,Ozan H
Neuroanatomy , 2005,
Abstract: During the educational gross anatomy dissections of the axilla and brachium of a 50-year-old male cadaver in our laboratory, we encountered a neuroanatomical variation. The lateral cord of brachial plexus and its branches, had a different configuration. The nerves forming the letter ‘M’ was normal right under the pectoralis minor muscle. The musculocutaneous nerve passed through the coracobrachialis muscle, and gave branches to biceps brachii and brachialis muscles. The anomalous branch of the musculocutaneous nerve originated approximately at the mid point level of the brachial region, and 2.8 cm above the distal end of deltoid tuberosity. It coursed inferiorly between the biceps and brachialis muscles about 12.6 cm and joined the median nerve 5.6 cm superior to the interepicondillary line. Giving its accessory branch and the nerve to the biceps brachii and brachialis muscle, the musculocutaneus nerve coursed normally as a lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve. This variation has clinical importance in median nerve lesions and its distinctive diagnosis. Lesions of the median nerve, If lesion was proximal to this accessory branches, muscles and cutaneous innervations related to this branch was normal.
Variant median nerve and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve associated with anomalous brachial vein: case report  [PDF]
Vollala VR,Potu BK,Gorantla VR,Reddy S
Neuroanatomy , 2008,
Abstract: During educational dissections some rare anatomic variations were encountered in the left upper limb of ahuman adult male cadaver. The variations were unilateral and included the median nerve presenting threeroots, two from the lateral and one from the medial cord of the brachial plexus, communication betweenmedian nerve and musculocutaneous nerve in the distal half of the arm, the lateral antebrachial cutaneousnerve showing a loop and the brachial vein passing between the medial and lateral roots of median nerve todrain into the axillary vein. The abnormal root of median nerve coming from the lateral cord had a very closeoblique course over the distal part of the axillary artery. These kinds of variations are more prone to injuryin radical neck dissections and in other surgical operations of the axilla. The very close course of the unusualbranch with the axillary artery may lessen the blood supply of the upper extremity by compressing the vesselThe communicating branch from median nerve to the musculocutaneous nerve can be explained on the basis ofits embryologic development. Injury to such a variant median nerve in the proximal arm may lead to paresthesiaalong the preaxial border of the forearm, weakness of elbow flexion, in addition to other manifestations ofmedian nerve injury. The clinical implications as well as the possible clinical symptoms resulting from theseanomalies are discussed.
Absence of musculocutanous nerve and its distribution taken over by the lateral cord of brachial plexus, median nerve and radial nerve
Mohandas KG Rao,Nagabhooshana Somayaji,Narendiran Krishnasamy
Acta Medica Saliniana , 2012, DOI: 10.5457/ams.167.10
Abstract: Variations in the musculocutaneous nerve are very common. But, the absence of the nerve is rare. One such case of absence of musculocutaneous nerve which was observed in a male cadaver during routine dissection is reported here. In the present case there was total absence of a normal musculocutaneous nerve. The coracobrachialis which is normally supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve was innervated by a direct branch of lateral cord of brachial plexus, whereas biceps brachii and brachialis are supplied by branches from the lateral aspect of median nerve. Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm was arising from the lateral aspect of median nerve in common with nerve to brachialis and was partly supplying the area of innervation of a normal lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm. The remaining of its area was supplied by the posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm, a branch of radial nerve. Further, a detailed literature review about the case was done and the surgical and clinical importance of the case was discussed.
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