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The Response of Iraqi buffaloes to standardized diet  [cached]
S.M. Idris,J.M. Khlef
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.s2.579
Abstract: This Experiment was conducted in the Newashi village of Thiqar province in the south of Iraq from 15 October till 31 December 2006. A sample of 50 milking buffaloes in 1st to 7th lactation were randomly choosed in three nearby herds , then divided into two equal groups for the treatment and the control. After 10 days of adaptation, the treated group was fed the standardized diet which was consisted of: Alfa Alfa hay ,12 kg/day, concentrates, 8 kg/day. The concentrate consists of barley grains 37%, maize grain 15%, wheat bran 40%, rice bran 5%,calcium carbonate 2% and food salt 1% .The control group was fed -as it is usual in the region –reed roughages , rice straws, dray bred and some wheat bran. Daily milk yield for the whole sample, cream( ghiamer ) and fat percent rom randomly choosed individuals from each group were measured . Simple linear model was used to detect the effect of the lactation, herd, calf sex and milking time on the traits . Duncan test was used to compare the differences between means . The results obtained showed that the lactation , herd, sex of calf and milking time had significant effect on the traits (p< 0.001). The diet had significantly affected daily milk yield , cream and fat percent ( 8.40 ± 1.75 vis 5.67 ± 1.41,21± 6.6 vis 9.79 3.24, and 12.4.11 vis 5.88±1.95 ) for the treated group vis. the control group (p<0.001).Accordingly, it can be assumed that the Iraqi buffaloes have good potential to produce more milk and fat under standardized feed condition.
Comparative efficacy of different CIDR protocols for the treatment of postpartum anestrous in Iraqi buffaloes
O I Azawi,M D Ali,S A Oday,A Salih
Veterinary World , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of different CIDR protocols including some hormonal preparations for the treatment of postpartum anestrous of Iraqi northern buffaloes. The present study was conducted on 70 anestrous buffaloes suffering from postpartum ovarian inactivity. Buffaloes were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Buffaloes in Treatment 1 (n=20) injected on day 0 of the experiment, GnRH 250 μg and a CIDR was placed in the anterior vagina. On day 7, they were injected with 25 mg of PGF2α and on the following day (day 8) the CIDR were removed. On day 9 a second dose of GnRH (250 μg) was injected. Buffaloes in Treatment 2 (n=20) received on day 0 GnRH (250 μg) and a CIDR were placed in the anterior vagina. On day 7, CIDR were removed and injected with GnRH (250 μg). Treatment 3 (n=20) on day 0 a CIDR were placed in the anterior vagina. On day 6, they were injected with 1000 IU of eCG. CIDR were removed on day 7 and injected with GnRH (250 μg). A control group (n=10) received no treatments. Results showed that in treatment 1 (GnRH+CIDR 8days 7 PGF2α+9 GnRH), 15 out of 20 buffaloes received treatment exhibited estrus within 69.4 ± 8.4 h after CIDR removal. The estrus induction rate was 75%. Total number of buffaloes became pregnant was 4 (26.7%). In treatment 2 (GnRH+CIDR 7 days GnRH), 65% of the buffaloes received treatment exhibited estrus within 77.8 ± 5.6 h after CIDR removal. Total number of buffaloes became pregnant was 4 (26.7%). In treatment 3 (CIDR 7 days 6 eCG+7 GnRH), 100% of the buffaloes received treatment exhibited estrus within 78.3 ± 11.8 h after CIDR removal. In conclusion, our results indicate that the addition of GnRH and eCG to a progesterone-based CIDR protocol substantially improves the estrus induction and pregnancy rates in postpartum anestrous buffaloes. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000): 201-205]
Reproductive and Productive Performance of Iraqi Buffaloes as Influenced by Pre-Mating and Pre-Calving Concentrate Supplementation
Talal Anwer Abdulkareem*, Sawsan Ali Al-Sharifi, Sajeda Mahdi Eidan and R.G. Sasser1
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of pre-mating and pre-calving concentrate supplementation of Iraqi buffaloes on some of the reproductive (estrus, mating, pregnancy and calving rates) and productive (daily milk yield and calves birth weight) traits. This study was carried out in 4 Iraqi South-central governorates using 596 pre-mating and 628 pregnant buffaloes (during the last two months of gestation). Pre-mating buffaloes were divided randomly into 496 concentrate-supplemented buffaloes (Flushing) and 100 control ones. Additionally, pregnant buffaloes were also divided into 528 concentrate- supplemented buffaloes (Steaming up) and 100 controls. Each buffalo within the flushing and steaming up groups were fed daily on 7 Kg of concentrate diet (13% crude protein and 1.70 Mcal of net energy) for 60 days. The control buffaloes were nourished only on low-quality roughages of the area and wheat bran. Higher estrus (+15%, P<0.01), pregnancy (+23.8%, P<0.05) and calving rates (+30.8%, P<0.01) were observed in concentrate-supplemented buffaloes as compared with controls. An obvious increase in (P<0.05) calving rate (+14.7%), daily milk yield (+44.8%) and calf birth weight (+25.6%) were noted in steaming up buffaloes in comparison with control buffaloes. Results indicated that improvement in feeding schedule of Iraqi buffaloes during pre-mating and late gestation periods enhanced the reproductive performance and increased milk production of subsequent lactation and calf birth weight. These improvements increased owner income ($174=209,000 Iraqi dinar /buffalo) from the sale of meat and milk.
The effect of mature elephant bull introductions on ranging patterns of resident bulls: Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa
Heleen Druce,K. Pretorius,D. Druce,R. Slotow
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2006, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v49i2.115
Abstract: Increasing popularity of wildlife viewing has resulted in a rapid increase in small, enclosed reserves in South Africa. The African elephant is one of the many species that has been reintroduced into these reserves for eco-tourism. These elephant populations were established as young (smaller that 10 years old) orphans from prior Kruger National Park culling operations. Consequently, this abnormal sex and age structure of these introduced populations has influenced their behavioural and spatial ecology. In Pilanesberg National Park, this abnormal behaviour was corrected by introducing older bulls and culling certain problem elephants. In July 2003, three older bulls (29–41 years old) were introduced into Phinda Private Game Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in order to normalise the bull age structure. These introduced bulls were monitored intensively after release, as was the resident bull population, both before and after introduction of the older bulls. The introduced bulls settled into restricted ranges separate from the family groups. All the resident bulls decreased their home ranges at first, with most increasing their home ranges a year later. The resident bulls’ change in ranging patterns was due more to ecological factors than to the influence of the mature bull introduction. This study indicates that the introduction of older male elephants into small populations does not pose major risks or animal welfare concerns.
Ultrasound Imaging of Testes and Epididymides of Normal and Infertile Breeding Bulls
Khalid Mahmood Ali, Nazir Ahmad*, Nafees Akhtar, Shujait Ali, Maqbool Ahmad and Muhammad Younis1
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Echotexture of testes and epididymides from 10 slaughtered male buffaloes was studied. Diameter of testis and mediastinum testis was measured by ultrasound and compared with respective values taken by calipers. Testes and epididymides of another 10 fertile and 10 infertile breeding bulls were examined in vivo through manual palpation and ultrasound imaging. Semen quality of these bulls was also monitored. There were significant (P<0.01) positive correlations between ultrasound and calipers values of all parameters. The testicular parenchyma of fertile bulls was uniformly homogeneous and moderately echogenic. Epididymal tail was more heterogeneous and less echogenic, while epididymal head was homogeneous and less echogenic, than the testicular parenchyma. The epididymal body appeared as hypoechoic structure with echogenic margin. Among 10 infertile bulls, nine had poor semen quality, while one bull failed to give any ejaculate. On ultrasonography, six bulls showed abnormalities in their scrotal echotexture. Among these, one had an abundance of hyperechoic areas scattered in the testicular parenchyma, some of these showed acoustic shadowing, showing testicular degenerations with mineralization. The second bull showed many anechoic areas in the testes and epididymal head, demarcated from the rest of the organ by well defined margins. In the third bull, three-fourth of the right testis showed hyperechoic areas, suspected of testicular degeneration with mineralization. The fourth bull had two anechoic areas in one testis assumed to represent dilated blood vessel. The fifth bull showed small hyperechoic areas within the testicular parenchyma. The sixth bull showed an anechoic area with distinct hyperechogenic margin below the testicular tunics. The remaining four bulls had normal echogenicity of testes and epididymides in spite of poor semen quality. In conclusion, diagnostic ultrasound may be included in breeding soundness examination of breeding bulls.
Preliminary Study on the Effect of Halofantrine Hydrochloride on the Testes of Mature Wistar Rats
B C Didia, P S Gbigbi,, D Dapper, P. C VOFOJEKWU, I S EZENWAKA, W O ALEGBELEYE
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2002,
Abstract: Halofantrine hydrochloride is a phenantrine methanol antimalarial, which is schizonticidal with a high degree of activity against the asexual erythrocytic stage of malaria parasites. It is indicated for the treatment of acute malaria caused by single or mixed infections of Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax. Fifteen male adult rats of Wistar strain (Rattus Norvegicus) weighing between 200-300g were divided into three groups of five rats each were used for the study. The first group (Group A) was given 0. 05ml of drug/100g of animal body weight; the second group (Group B) was given 0. 1ml of drug/100g of animal body weight while the third group (Group C; control) was given 0.05ml of physiological saline/ 100g of animal body weight. The drug/physiological saline was given in three doses at six hourly intervals. The rats were all sacrificed on the fifth day following treatment and the testes examined morphologically and histologically after fixing with 10% formaldehyde. Result obtained showed no statistical gross morphological differences between all the three rat groups with respect to testicular weights and lengths (p>0. 05). There were however, significant differences between the groups in terms of the testicular width (p<0.05). Histologically, there was increased cellularity with immature spermatocytes in the testes of the experimental rats. These changes apparently were dose dependent.It is therefore concluded that the drug apparently increases spermatogenesis and could cause degenerative changes at higher doses. Whether these changes are reversible is yet to be determined. (Journal of Applied Sciences & Environmental Management: 2002 6(1): 45-48)
Discovery of Potential piRNAs from Next Generation Sequences of the Sexually Mature Porcine Testes  [PDF]
Gang Liu, Bin Lei, Yan Li, Keya Tong, Yi Ding, Lifan Luo, Xuanyan Xia, Siwen Jiang, Changyan Deng, Yuanzhu Xiong, Fenge Li
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034770
Abstract: Piwi- interacting RNAs (piRNAs), a new class of small RNAs discovered from mammalian testes, are involved in transcriptional silencing of retrotransposons and other genetic elements in germ line cells. In order to identify a full transcriptome set of piRNAs expressed in the sexually mature porcine testes, small RNA fractions were extracted and were subjected to a Solexa deep sequencing. We cloned 6,913,561 clean reads of Sus Scrofa small RNAs (18–30 nt) and performed functional characterization. Sus Scrofa small RNAs showed a bimodal length distribution with two peaks at 21 nt and 29 nt. Then from 938,328 deep-sequenced small RNAs (26–30 nt), 375,195 piRNAs were identified by a k-mer scheme and 326 piRNAs were identified by homology searches. All piRNAs predicted by the k-mer scheme were then mapped to swine genome by Short Oligonucleotide Analysis Package (SOAP), and 81.61% of all uniquely mapping piRNAs (197,673) were located to 1124 defined genomic regions (5.85 Mb). Within these regions, 536 and 501 piRNA clusters generally distributed across only minus or plus genomic strand, 48 piRNA clusters distributed on two strands but in a divergent manner, and 39 piRNA clusters distributed on two strands in an overlapping manner. Furthermore, expression pattern of 7 piRNAs identified by homology searches showed 5 piRNAs displayed a ubiquitous expression pattern, although 2 piRNAs were specifically expressed in the testes. Overall, our results provide new information of porcine piRNAs and their specific expression pattern in porcine testes suggests that piRNAs have a role in regulating spermatogenesis.
IRAQI BUFFALO NOW  [cached]
J. Kh. ALsaedy
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.s2.1234
Abstract: Buffaloes in Iraq represent the most productive animal since its domestication in Mesopotamia about pre-historic era recently, domesticated buffaloes all over country go through drastic factors from (1980_2006), such as (gulf wars, marsh drainage, rinder pest plaque, economic blockade ) which are attributed to widely changes in animal environment ,geographical sites, and dangerous decline in buffalo population accompanied by reduced fertility and feed shortage, resulted in switch of buffalo raising and started to work on another easy jobs .lastly American war in 2003 lead to marsh return and finally ethnic-fighting release, so thousands of buffalo breeders (Madan) started a big mass moving from hot-spot area around Baghdad countryside villages nearer to conflicting sectors in Anbar and sallah aldin provinces towards southern marshes (natural habitats before along time). This new theater encouraged Iraqi government represented by Ministry of agriculture through three involved companies to put strategic plane for buffalo development in future.
Reduction of the bull: cow ratio in the Brazilian Pantanal
Sereno, José Robson Bezerra;Costa e Silva, Eliane Vianna da;Mores, Cristiano Mougenot;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2002001200019
Abstract: this work was conducted to study alternatives for reduction of the bull:cow ratio in the brazilian lowland and, therefore, lower the production costs for the local beef cattle industry. the ratios 1:10, 1:25, and 1:40 were used in native pastures with a mean stocking rate of 0.27 mature animal unit per hectare over two consecutive breeding seasons. statistical analysis did not show any effect (p>0.05) of year (p = 0.2097), animal category (p = 0.0773), bull:cow ratio (0.8134) on reproductive performance. however, the pregnancy rate in a multiple bull system was higher (p = 0.0228) than in the individual bull system. an evaluation of the economic impact of this management system in the extensive lowland herds showed that at the ratio of 1:10 the bulls were sub utilized.
Reduction of the bull: cow ratio in the Brazilian Pantanal
Sereno José Robson Bezerra,Costa e Silva Eliane Vianna da,Mores Cristiano Mougenot
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2002,
Abstract: This work was conducted to study alternatives for reduction of the bull:cow ratio in the Brazilian lowland and, therefore, lower the production costs for the local beef cattle industry. The ratios 1:10, 1:25, and 1:40 were used in native pastures with a mean stocking rate of 0.27 mature animal unit per hectare over two consecutive breeding seasons. Statistical analysis did not show any effect (P>0.05) of year (P = 0.2097), animal category (P = 0.0773), bull:cow ratio (0.8134) on reproductive performance. However, the pregnancy rate in a multiple bull system was higher (P = 0.0228) than in the individual bull system. An evaluation of the economic impact of this management system in the extensive Lowland herds showed that at the ratio of 1:10 the bulls were sub utilized.
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