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Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Saudi Arabia: Description of the first one hundred cases  [cached]
AlMazroa Mohammad,Memish Ziad,AlWadey Ali
Annals of Saudi Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background and Objectives : In April 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared pandemic influenza A (H1N1) "public health emergency of international concern". On June 11, 2009, WHO raised the pandemic alert level to phase 6, indicating a global pandemic. By December 2009, more than 208 countries and territories had reported swine flu cases. The descriptive epidemiology of the first reported 100 cases of this virus in Saudi Arabia are summarized in this report. Methods : Data were collected from 1 June to 3 July, 2009 using a predesigned questionnaire. Questionnaires were filled by Field Epidemiology Training Program residents. Data for the first 100 complete cases of confirmed pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were compiled and analyzed. Results : The age of reported cases was in the range of 1 to 56 years. The highest percentage of cases was in the age group of 20 to 30 years followed by the age group of 1 to 10 years. Females represented 55% of the cases; imported cases represented 47%, 58% of whom had come via the King Khaled Airport. The most common nationalities most were from Saudi Arabia and the Philippines. The main symptoms were fever (56%), cough (54%), and sore throat and the number of cases was seen to peak from the 27 to 29 June. Conclusion : Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) is still a threat to Saudi Arabia. Thus, comprehensive and effective measures for surveillance and prevention of the disease are needed to control its spread.
Toxoplasmosis in Goats in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
S.I. Al-Mufarrej,M.F. Hussein,R.S. Aljumaah,A.R. Gar ElNabi
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.2779.2782
Abstract: During an outbreak of caprine abortion in a farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, serum samples from 57 Aardi goats with recent history of abortion and stillbirths (herd 1) along with samples from 30 control goats without abortion history (herd 2) were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) tests. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected by ELISA in 63.2% of the goats in herd 1 and 50% of the control goats (herd 2). About >80% of the former goats had ELISA percent optical densities (O.D.%) ≥100 while >86% of the control goats were weakly positive with ELISA O.D. s (%) <100. IHA tests were positive in 51.7% of herd 1 versus 30% of control goats. About 78% of all IHA positive goats in herd 1 had antibody titers ranging between 1:640-1:2560 including nearly 30% with titers ranging between 1:1280-1:2560. By contrast, all IHA positive goats in herd 2 had titers ranging only between 1:80-1:160, except one goat with a titer of 1:640 and none with higher titers. IHA tests for IgM antibodies using 2-mercaptoethanol treated sera revealed IgM antibodies in 16 (28%) goats with abortion history (herd 1) and none in control goats (herd 2). Focal pathological changes were observed in the fetal brain and the placenta of some of the aborted goats. These findings strongly suggest T. gondii as the cause of abortion in herd 1.
Puberty Onset Among Boys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Ibrahim Al Alwan, Naila Felimban, Yasmin Altwaijri, Hani Tamim, Angham Al Mutair, Mohamed Shoukri and Waleed Tamimi
Clinical Medicine Insights: Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/CMPed.S4610
Abstract: Background: The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors; however, due to lack of country-specific norms, clinicians in Saudi Arabia use Western estimates as standards of reference for local children. Aims: The aim of the Riyadh Puberty Study was to provide data on pubertal development to determine the average age of onset of pubertal characteristics among Saudi boys. Methods: Cross-sectional study among male school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2006, 542 schoolboys, aged 6 to 16 years old, from diverse socioeconomic levels were selected into the sample using a cluster sample design. Tanner stages were ascertained during physical examination by pediatric endocrine consultants, and also trained pediatric residents and fellows. Results: The mean age (standard deviation) at Tanner Stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 for pubic hair development of Saudi boys was 11.4 (1.6), 13.3 (1.3), 14.4 (1.0) and 15.1 (0.8) years old, respectively. For gonadal development, the mean age (standard deviation) at stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 11.4 (1.5), 13.3 (1.2), 14.3 (1.1) and 15.0 (0.9) years old, respectively. Conclusion: The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics, based on gonadal development, among Saudi boys are comparable to those reported in Western populations.
New additions to the scorpion fauna of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia
Al-Asmari, AK;Al-Saief, AA;Abdo, NM;Al-Moutaery, KR;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992009000400003
Abstract: in this work, we present additional morphological data about the scorpion fauna of saudi arabia. this investigation was carried out in the central region (riyadh) of the country and identified existing and newly discovered scorpion species for taxonomic documentation while determining the medically important ones. the survey covered the entire riyadh region, including all major districts, and collected a total of 4,164 specimens. morphological identification of collected animals was based on identification keys. there were two species (one with a subspecies) that belonged to the family scorpionidae, namely scorpio maurus kruglovi (0.02%) and hemiscorpius arabicus (0.05%). the latter, currently, is part of the hemiscorpiidae family that had been upgraded from a subfamily. eight more species from the buthidae family were found: leiurus quinquestriatus (7.20%), androctonus crassicauda (17.24%), androctonus bicolor (64.60%), compsobuthus arabicus (3.84%), compsobuthus werneri (0.94%), buthacusyotvatensis nigroaculeatus (2.31%), buthacusleptochelys (3.24%) and orthochirus innesi (0.55%). the major locations of collection were the outskirts of riyadh city and the airport vicinity. the specimens were transported from all central region areas in 124 short trips.
Adnan Agha,Abdul Qader Alrawi,Abdelhaleem Bella,Mohammed S. AlAyed
Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.4084/mjhid.2012.
Abstract: Background Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged and spread globally in the spring of 2009. We describe the clinical features of the patients who were hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 influenza July 2009 to June 2010 in a tertiary care hospital in Khamis Mushyt, Saudi Arabia. We analyzed the clinical and laboratory variables in order to determine predictors of poor outcome Methods We performed a prospective study in all patients who were hospitalized for at least 48 hours and with a positive test for 2009 H1N1 virus through RT-PCR(real time polymerase chain reaction). Their epidemiological, clinical, biochemical characteristics were collected and the hospital course of the patients with eventual outcome (discharge or death) was observed. We applied a logistic regression analysis to determine the best predictor of death.
Anemia and Iron Intake of Adult Saudis in Riyadh City-Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Abdullah H. Al-Assaf
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate iron deficiency anemia among adult healthy Saudi males and adult healthy non-pregnant Saudi females in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. 234 healthy adults were recruited of which, 102 were females and 132 were males. Male subjects were reclassified to cigarette smokers (n = 52) and non-smokers (n = 80). Anemia was assessed by dietary iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Iron intake was measured by analyzing the intake of three consecutive days. The results showed that iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in males compared to females. Mean iron intake of males (13.6±3.1 mg/day) was adequate compared to DRI recommendation. Mean concentrations of hemoglobin (15.89±0.95 g/dL) and hematocrit (47.7±3.6%) for males were normal. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers, but both were normal, which suggested that iron deficiency anemia is not found among adult Saudi males. Mean iron intake of females (10.2±2.8 mg/day) was inadequate compared to DRI recommendation. Mean hemoglobin level (13.68±0.83 g/gL) and mean hematocrit level (38.9±3.2%) of females were lower than cutoff values for determining iron deficiency anemia. Based on hemoglobin and hematocrit values, 21.6% and 20.6% of female participants, respectively were anemic. Based on iron intake, 95.1% of female participants had intake lower than the recommendation. Results of this study illustrated that iron deficiency anemia is highly prevalent among adult Saudi women in Riyadh City and suggests actions to eradicate iron deficiency anemia. These actions include increasing nutritional awareness and education for the purpose of changing inappropriate consumption patterns as well as fortification of certain foods in combination with additional intakes of iron from supplements.
Radon Awareness among Saudi People in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Abdulaziz S. Alaamer
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2012.24025
Abstract: People should be aware of sources of health hazards, such as radon gas; and efforts should be made to educate them. Radon awareness among people is important for monitoring its level in their residential houses to reduce the risk of ad-verse health effects. Furthermore, radon awareness among public would support and facilitate researchers working for such surveys during the field work. In the present study, a public survey was conducted to investigate radon awareness level among Saudi people in Riyadh. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among 2297 persons of various educational background. It was found that about 82% of the Saudi public in Riyadh were ignorant of radon and its associated health risks. It was also found that only ~18% of educated public knew about radon. It was concluded that Saudi public needs to be educated in this respect properly.
Knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco smoking by medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  [cached]
Al-Haqwi Ali,Tamim Hani,Asery Ali
Annals of Thoracic Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students′ attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19%) indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001) and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001). About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20%) thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
Aluminum, Cadmium and Microorganisms in Female Hair and Nails from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
A.R. Hashem,K.F. Abed
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Mineral analysis from hair and nails may be useful in knowing the elemental concentration in body tissue. This study was conducted to ascertain levels of aluminum, cadmium and microorganisms in hair and nails from 20 adult Saudi women aged between 20-25 years old from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between December 2005 and January 2006. Metal analysis were carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) using Electrothermal atomization (Pye Unican Sp9) and done according to Ellis, Ramirez, Buchanan and Gibbons methodology. The levels of aluminum was 5.23±1.31 to 26.02±3.65 μg g-1 and cadmium was 0.04±0.01 to 0.014±0.002 μg g-1 in hair and nail samples. Aluminum is more significantly concentrated in the nails than hair (p<0.0001). Cadmium levels were significantly higher in hair than in nails (p<0.0001). However, levels of aluminum are higher in both hair and nail samples compared to cadmium (p<0.0001). These levels are much lower compared to reports from other countries like Spain, Germany, Norway and USA. Microbial isolates revealed Microsporum, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. Fungal isolates included Penicillium, Trichophyton and Aspergillus. These are all known bacterial and fungal isolates from the soil. Despite lower level findings of aluminum and cadmium compared to other countries, further information is needed on concentrations of elements in the hair of individuals with known exposures to trace elements. Our levels are within the worldwide range for normal occupationally exposed population despite the booming economic growth and rapid industrialization of Saudi Arabia.
Knowledge and practice of spirometry among pediatricians in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  [cached]
Al-Saadi Muslim
Annals of Thoracic Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Background: Spirometry is the most basic, widely used and effort-dependent pulmonary function test. It assesses the lung volumes and flows, and is ideally suited to describe the effects of restriction or obstruction on lung function. Therefore, keeping in view the clinical applications of spirometry, this study attempts to explore the knowledge and practice about spirometry among pediatricians. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted across multiple centers in various hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The structured questionnaire, based upon knowledge and practice of spirometry, was distributed to 150 pediatricians in the various tertiary care hospitals in the metropolitan area of Riyadh. Results: Ninety-four percent of 113 pediatricians agreed that spirometry is a valuable tool in pediatric clinical practice. However, knowledge relating to spirometry was lacking among pediatricians, and about 86% of the study population did not demonstrate up-to-date knowledge of spirometry in pediatrics. Only 11% of pediatricians were very confident in interpreting spirometry results. No statistically significant association was observed between the distribution of responses relating to knowledge and practice of spirometry and the study variables including academic position, duration of practicing experience and number of patients attended daily. Conclusion: The results indicated that pediatricians in Riyadh were lacking adequate knowledge about the clinical applications of spirometry in their daily clinical practice. Hence, it was suggested that pediatricians should attend periodical training, workshops and continuous medical education programmes to enhance their knowledge. This should especially be performed during their pediatric residency training programmes, as spirometry is one of the essential components in clinical practice.
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