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Subtenons infection by Dirofilaria repens  [cached]
Sathyan P,Manikandan P,Bhaskar M,Padma S
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2006,
Abstract: Zoonotic filariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens , a parasite of carnivores occurs mainly in countries surrounding Mediterranean region. The infection occurs in and around eye among animal handlers through vector transmission. We are reporting a case of human Dirofilariasis affecting subtenons region in a 63 year-old woman from Coimbatore, South India. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical course and management of ocular Dirofilariasis.
DIROFILARIA REPENS – CAUSE OF ZOONOSIS  [PDF]
Aleksandar Tasi?,Suzana Tasi?,Nata?a Miladinovi?-Tasi?,Dragan Zdravkovi?
Acta Medica Medianae , 2007,
Abstract: Dirofilariasis is zoonosis caused by genus Dirofilaria. The common couse of this zoonosis is species Dirofolaria repens (D. repens). This species is natural parasites of dogs, but in the last years in our country, sporadic cases of human dirofilariasis coused by D. repens have been described. Pathological and clinical sings in infected dogs are non-characteristic. This species lives in subcutaneous tissue, the space between ligaments and blood vessels, in kidney and lymphatic nodes. In humans, the most common sites are conjuctiva and subcutaneous tissue. Diagnosis of infection in dogs is based on anamnestic data, clinical signs and results of specific diagnostic tests for detection of microfilariae in peripheral blood. The therapy is aimed at destruction of adult forms and microfilariae in the peripheral blood of dogs. Mechanical or chemical methods and drugs can be used as prophylactic measures against filariasis in dogs. With geographical spreading of D. repens infection in dogs, we can inspect more cases of human dirofilariasis. Therefore, we should put an accent on continuous control, follow-up of prevalence and distribution of this infection in dogs, which must be considered as a health problem.
Dirofilaria repens in a cat with acute liver failure : case report  [cached]
E.V. Schwan,D.B. Miller,D. De Kock,A. Van Heerden
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v71i3.713
Abstract: Acute liver failure was diagnosed in a 12-year-old cat. Fine needle aspirate cytology revealed high numbers of unsheathed microfilariae and a hepatocellular reaction with no evidence of bacterial infection. The microfilariae were identified as those of Dirofilaria repens by acid phosphatase staining. The high number of microfilariae seen in both the blood and the liver aspirate samples as well as the favourable response to ivermectin amongst other drugs administered, is suggestive that D. repens was the cause of the liver insult. A positive result obtained with an antigen-capture ELISA (Dirochek (r)) for Dirofilaria immitis antigen was interpreted as false. This is the 1st report of Dirofilaria repens for South Africa.
Ocular dirofilariasis in Dubai, UAE  [cached]
Mittal Mamta,Sathish K,Bhatia Prashant,Chidamber B
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2008,
Abstract: A rare occurrence of ocular subconjunctival dirofilariasis in a 53-year-old healthy Indian male working in Dubai, UAE presenting with an acute red eye is reported. Surgical excision under topical anesthesia was carried out uneventfully in the outpatient clinic. The live worm removed from the subconjunctival space was identified as Dirofilaria repens on the basis of microscopic examination and histopathology. Surgical excision of subconjunctival dirofilariasis is safe in an outpatient setting and curative precluding the need for further systemic antihelminthics.
Human Dirofilaria repens Infection in Romania: A Case Report
Ioana Popescu,Irina Tudose,Paul Racz,Birgit Muntau,Calin Giurcaneanu,Sven Poppert
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/472976
Abstract: Human dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the filarial nematodes of dogs Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis. Depending on the species involved, human infections usually manifest as one cutaneous or visceral larva migrans that forms a painless nodule in the later course of disease. Dirofilariae are endemic in the Mediterranean, particularly in Italy. They are considered as emerging pathogens currently increasing their geographical range. We present one of the few known cases of human dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in Romania. The patient developed unusual and severe clinical manifestations that mimicked pathological conditions like cellulitis or deep venous thrombosis.
Human Dirofilaria repens Infection in Romania: A Case Report  [PDF]
Ioana Popescu,Irina Tudose,Paul Racz,Birgit Muntau,Calin Giurcaneanu,Sven Poppert
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/472976
Abstract: Human dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the filarial nematodes of dogs Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis. Depending on the species involved, human infections usually manifest as one cutaneous or visceral larva migrans that forms a painless nodule in the later course of disease. Dirofilariae are endemic in the Mediterranean, particularly in Italy. They are considered as emerging pathogens currently increasing their geographical range. We present one of the few known cases of human dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in Romania. The patient developed unusual and severe clinical manifestations that mimicked pathological conditions like cellulitis or deep venous thrombosis. 1. Introduction Human dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by parasites of the genus Dirofilaria [1–3]. Dirofilariae are a group of filarial nematodes infecting various carnivores as definitive hosts. The adult dirofilariae release microfilaria into the host’s blood, which may be taken up by various mosquitoes that serve as intermediate hosts and transmit the disease. Humans may be infected as aberrant hosts, mainly by Dirofilaria (D.) immitis and D. repens. The definitive hosts of D. repens and D. immitis are dogs, but other animals have also been reported as reservoirs of the disease (cats, wolves, bears, foxes, etc.) [1, 3]. In human infections usually just one larva develops, which does not reach fertility [2, 3]. The larva wanders through the human body and finally forms a nodule. D. repens usually resides subcutaneously, while D. immitis frequently ends up in the human lung. In most cases parasites cause few symptoms. D. immitis infections in particular are therefore frequently detected only incidentally and are initially often confused with malignancies. D. repens has been reported from various regions of the world with warm to moderate climate, but only very rarely from Romania [1, 4]. We report a human D. repens infection from Romania, which produced an atypical and severe clinical picture. 2. Case Presentation A male, 31-years-old patient, with no significant medical history, presented in February 2011 with a cellulitis-like plaque on the right inner thigh (10?cm diameter) that, in about 12 hours, extended to almost the entire thigh. He was living in a Romanian suburban area (near Bucharest) and had a pet dog. The patient denied recent or past travel abroad, except for France (Paris) for a weekend, 4 months earlier (in October). The putative diagnosis at that time was cellulitis, and antibiotic treatment was started with
Molecular xenomonitoring of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in mosquitoes from north-eastern Italy by real-time PCR coupled with melting curve analysis
Maria STEFANIA Latrofa, Fabrizio Montarsi, Silvia Ciocchetta, Giada Annoscia, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Silvia Ravagnan, Gioia Capelli, Domenico Otranto
Parasites & Vectors , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-76
Abstract: The detection of filarioids in mosquitoes for assessing distribution of vectors and/or of pathogens in a given area (also known as “xenomonitoring”), when based on individual dissection of wild-caught female mosquitoes is time consuming and hardly applicable in large epidemiological surveys.Our study aimed to evaluate the recently developed duplex real-time PCR for screening large number of culicids and to assess their positivity for D. immitis and D. repens in an area where both species are endemic.A duplex real-time PCR was used to detect and differentiate D. immitis and D. repens in mosquitoes collected in six provinces of the Veneto region using 43 carbon dioxide-baited traps under the frame of an entomological surveillance program to monitor the vectors of West Nile disease. From early May till October 2010, unfed female mosquitoes (n?=?40,892) were captured in 20 selected sites.Mosquitoes identified as Culex pipiens, Ochlerotatus caspius, Aedes vexans and Culex modestus were grouped into 995 pools according to species, day and site of collection (from minimum of 1 to maximum of 57). Out of 955 pools, 23 (2.41?%) scored positive for Dirofilaria spp. of which, 21 (2.2?%) for D. immitis and two (0.21?%) for D. repens. An overall Estimated Rate of Infection (ERI) of 0.06?% was recorded, being higher in Och. caspius and Ae. vexans (i.e., 0.18?% and 0.14?%, respectively). At least one mosquito pool was positive for Dirofilaria spp. in each province with the highest ERI recorded in Vicenza and Padova provinces (i.e., 0.42% and 0.16?%, respectively). Mosquitoes collected in all provinces were positive for D. immitis whereas, only two (i.e., Padova and Rovigo) provinces scored positive for D. repens. All mosquito species, except for Cx. modestus, were positive for D. immitis, whereas D. repens was only found in Cx. pipiens.The results suggest that both Dirofilaria species are endemic and may occur in sympatry in the examined area. The molecular approach herein used rep
Dog filariosis in the Lazio region (Central Italy): first report on the presence of Dirofilaria repens
Paola Scaramozzino, Simona Gabrielli, Michele Di Paolo, Marcello Sala, Francesco Scholl, Gabriella Cancrini
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-5-75
Abstract: Since August 2001 to June 2003, a total of 972 canine blood samples, collected in public kennels and from private owners animals of the 5 Provinces of the Region, were tested. The presence of filarial parasites was evaluated by microscopy and bio-molecular techniques; the species identification was performed by means of the same diagnostic tools.A total of 17/972 (1.75%; 95%CI 1.06%–2.85%) blood samples were parasitized by D. repens,13 out them drawn by dogs resident in the Province of Roma, and 4 in the other provinces. Multivariate analysis was performed in order to evaluate the association between filariosis and risk factors. The origin from coastal territories seems to be a significant risk factor to acquire the infection.This is the first report of canine filariosis in the Lazio Region, where D. repens was before reported only in foxes. The risk of human zoonotic infection is stressed, and the absence of other filarial species is discussedFilarial nematodes described in dogs are: Dirofilaria immitis, D. repens, Acanthocheilonema reconditum, A. dracunculoides and Cercopitifilaria grassi (Order: Spirurida, Superfamily: Filarioidea, Family: Onchocercidae). The most prevalent species are D. immitis, D. repens, and A. reconditum, that show a different geographical distribution: cosmopolitan for A. reconditum and D. immitis, restricted to the Europe, Middle East, Asia and Africa for D. repens. D. immitis is responsible for heartworm disease, whereas the other species produce subcutaneous or splanchnic infections. Furthermore, in areas where dog filarioses are endemic, at least D. immitis and D. repens are recognized as etiological agent of zoonotic infections in humans.Canine heartworm disease is regarded as one of the most dangerous threat for the dog health, but it is an emerging sanitary problem also for cats. This dirofilariosis is endemic-hyperendemic in the Northern Italy (the Po Valley is the largest endemic area), with prevalence rates ranging from 22 to 68%
A First Human Case of Ocular Dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria repens in Northeastern France  [PDF]
Nicolas Argy,Marcela Sabou,Alain Billing,Christian Hermsdorff,Ermanno Candolfi,Ahmed Abou-Bacar
Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/698647
Abstract: We report the first case of ocular dirofilariasis to be diagnosed in northeast France (Alsace region), in a man who presented with a suborbital mass after a journey to Senegal. Microscopic examination of the surgical specimen identified Dirofilaria repens. 1. Introduction Dirofilariasis is a zoonosis occasionally associated with orbital floor infection. The natural definitive hosts are dogs and, more rarely, cats [1–3]. The adult female nematode usually lives in the heart or subcutaneous tissues and sheds microfilariae into the bloodstream [2–4]. The microfilariae are then transmitted by Culex, Aedes, or Anopheles mosquitoes, which are also intermediate hosts [1, 2, 4]. Humans are a dead-end host for this nematode, which can cause pulmonary, ocular, or subcutaneous lesions [2, 5–8]. Human orbital dirofilariasis is uncommon. Such patients may present with cysts resembling benign or malignant eye tumors [3, 9]. We report the first case of ocular dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens to be diagnosed in Alsace, France. The patient presented with an inflammatory periorbital tumor-like lesion. 2. Case Report A 60-year-old man living in Rosheim, Alsace (northeast France) presented with a nodule on the left orbital floor on 8 July 2008. His only recent travel was to Casamance, southern Senegal, in April 2008. Physical examination showed a palpable nodular lesion of the left orbital floor, while magnetic resonance imaging showed an inflammatory nodular lesion. Inflammatory cholangioma, eyelid lymphoedema, or allergies were considered as possible diagnoses. Antibiotic and steroid therapy had no impact on his symptoms, and the nodule was surgically removed in September 2008. It measured 5?cm along its longest axis. Microscopically, it consisted of polymorphic inflammatory granuloma tissue containing plasmocytes and eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cells, with an epitheliogigantocellular granuloma surrounding a nematode cross-section (Figure 1(a)). The surgical specimen was transferred to our laboratory (Laboratoire de Parasitologie et Mycologie Médicale de Strasbourg) for precise identification of the parasite. The nematode cross-section was composed of a thick laminated cuticle with external longitudinal ridges. A polymyarian muscle fiber was visible, surrounded by a pseudocoelomic cavity. Lateral chords and male gonads were visible in some other sections (Figure 1(b)). Ocular infection by an immature male Dirofilaria repens nematode was diagnosed. The patient made a full recovery after surgery, and no further treatment was required. Figure 1: (a) Inflammatory
Human Subcutaneous Dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens: Clinically Suspected as Cutaneous Fascioliasis
K Ashrafi,J Golchai,S Geranmayeh
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2010,
Abstract: "nBackground: The significant increase in the number of human subcutaneous dirofilariasis in recent years, suggests the appear-ance of a new health problem in the old world with most cases reported from Mediterranean countries. Besides the pre-sent case, eleven cases of human subcutaneous dirofilariasis have been detected in Iran, three of which belong to Gilan Prov-ince, northern Iran."nMethods: We present an autochthonous case of subcutaneous Dirofilaria repens infection in a 39-year-old woman from Kouches-fahan district of Gilan Province, manifest as an itching and highly erythmatous subcutaneous tender nodule on her right thigh. The nodule was excised by a dermatologist as a suspected case of cutaneous fascioliasis."nResults: Microscopic examination of the excised nodule revealed the presence of D. repens."nConclusion: Since Gilan Province is the endemic region for human fascioliasis and several cases of cutaneous fascioliasis have been detected in the province during last two decades, we propose the physicians and pathologists to take in to account sub-cutaneous dirofilariasis as an emergent zoonosis causing dermal and visceral lesions which may sometimes misdiagnose as malignant tumors, and also as differential diagnosis of cutaneous fascioliasis.
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