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Are large distance Heegaard splittings generic ?  [PDF]
Martin Lustig,Yoav Moriah
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: In a previous paper we introduced a notion of "genericity" for countable sets of curves in the curve complex of a surface S, based on the Lebesgue measure on the space of projective measured laminations in S. With this definition we prove that for each fixed g > 1 the set of irreducible genus g Heegaard splittings of high distance is generic, in the set of all irreducible Heegaard splittings. Our definition of "genericity" is different and more intrinsic then the one given via random walks.
Distance's Quantification Algorithm in AODV Protocol  [PDF]
Meryem Saadoune,Abdelmajid Hajami,Hakim Allali
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Mobility is one of the basic features that define an ad hoc network, an asset that leaves the field free for the nodes to move. The most important aspect of this kind of network turns into a great disadvantage when it comes to commercial applications, take as an example: the automotive networks that allow communication between a groups of vehicles. The ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol, designed for mobile ad hoc networks, has two main functions. First, it enables route establishment between a source and a destination node by initiating a route discovery process. Second, it maintains the active routes, which means finding alternative routes in a case of a link failure and deleting routes when they are no longer desired. In a highly mobile network those are demanding tasks to be performed efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we focused in the first point to enhance the local decision of each node in the network by the quantification of the mobility of their neighbours. Quantification is made around RSSI algorithm a well known distance estimation method.
Sample Complexity for Winner Prediction in Elections  [PDF]
Arnab Bhattacharyya,Palash Dey
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Predicting the winner of an election is a favorite problem both for news media pundits and computational social choice theorists. Since it is often infeasible to elicit the preferences of all the voters in a typical prediction scenario, a common algorithm used for winner prediction is to run the election on a small sample of randomly chosen votes and output the winner as the prediction. We analyze the performance of this algorithm for many common voting rules. More formally, we introduce the $(\epsilon, \delta)$-winner determination problem, where given an election on $n$ voters and $m$ candidates in which the margin of victory is at least $\epsilon n$ votes, the goal is to determine the winner with probability at least $1-\delta$. The margin of victory of an election is the smallest number of votes that need to be modified in order to change the election winner. We show interesting lower and upper bounds on the number of samples needed to solve the $(\epsilon, \delta)$-winner determination problem for many common voting rules, including scoring rules, approval, maximin, Copeland, Bucklin, plurality with runoff, and single transferable vote. Moreover, the lower and upper bounds match for many common voting rules in a wide range of practically appealing scenarios.
Winner-relaxing and winner-enhancing Kohonen maps: Maximal mutual information from enhancing the winner  [PDF]
Jens Christian Claussen
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1002/cplx.10084
Abstract: The magnification behaviour of a generalized family of self-organizing feature maps, the Winner Relaxing and Winner Enhancing Kohonen algorithms is analyzed by the magnification law in the one-dimensional case, which can be obtained analytically. The Winner-Enhancing case allows to acheive a magnification exponent of one and therefore provides optimal mapping in the sense of information theory. A numerical verification of the magnification law is included, and the ordering behaviour is analyzed. Compared to the original Self-Organizing Map and some other approaches, the generalized Winner Enforcing Algorithm requires minimal extra computations per learning step and is conveniently easy to implement.
The Adjusted Winner Procedure: Characterizations and Equilibria  [PDF]
Haris Aziz,Simina Branzei,Aris Filos-Ratsikas,S?ren Kristoffer Stiil Frederiksen
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: The Adjusted Winner procedure is an important mechanism proposed by Brams and Taylor for fairly allocating goods between two agents. It has been used in practice for divorce settlements and analyzing political disputes. Assuming truthful declaration of the valuations, it computes an allocation that is envy-free, equitable and Pareto optimal. We show that Adjusted Winner admits several elegant characterizations, which further shed light on the outcomes reached with strategic agents. We find that the procedure may not admit pure Nash equilibria in either the discrete or continuous variants, but is guaranteed to have $\epsilon$-Nash equilibria for each $\epsilon$ > 0. Moreover, under informed tie-breaking, exact pure Nash equilibria always exist, are Pareto optimal, and their social welfare is at least 3/4 of the optimal.
Entre/vista a Langdon Winner  [cached]
Andrés Lome?a
Teknokultura : Revista de Cultura Digital y Movimientos Sociales , 2011,
Abstract: La ballena y el reactor: Una búsqueda de los límites en la era de la alta tecnología se reeditó en 2008 con un prólogo de Javier Bustamante. Su autor, el politólogo Langdon Winner, ha sido uno de los pioneros en criticar la fascinación tecnológica de Occidente y en reflexionar sobre las consecuencias políticas, sociales y filosóficas de la tecnología. Su preocupación se ha centrado en cómo casi todos los aspectos de la vida humana han quedado sometidos a consideraciones de coste-beneficio. Esto le llevó a escribir un libro cuyo título nace de la epifanía que le hizo entender los problemas más acuciantes de las sociedades altamente tecnologizadas. Winner cuestionó tempranamente el dogma de la neutralidad tecnológica y expuso cómo los artefactos pueden tener intencionalidad política. Para ello usó varios y poderosos ejemplos: los pasos elevados de Long Island, denunciando los propósitos segregacionistas del planeamiento urbano en Nueva York, o la cosechadora mecánica de tomates, que alteró drásticamente la distribución del poder de la agricultura californiana. Si Lewis Mumford puede considerarse el antecesor directo de Winner, muchos otros autores han sido deudores indirectos de sus escritos. Los estudios de la ciencia (con la teoría del actor-red a la cabeza) han heredado esa concepción de la tecnología como algo inherentemente político, no como un actor pasivo, frío e imparcial.
Condorcet Winner Probabilities - A Statistical Perspective  [PDF]
M. S. Krishnamoorthy,M. Raghavachari
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: A Condorcet voting scheme chooses a winning candidate as one who defeats all others in pairwise majority rule. We provide a review which includes the rigorous mathematical treatment for calculating the limiting probability of a Condorcet winner for any number of candidates and value of $n$ odd or even and with arbitrary ran k order probabilities, when the voters are independent. We provide a compact and complete Table for the limiting probability of a Condorcet winner with three candidates and arbitrary rank order probabilities. We present a simple proof of a result of May to show the limiting probability of a Condorcet winner tends to zero as the number of candidates tends to infinity. We show for the first time that the limiting probability of a Condorcet winner for any given number of candidates $m$ is monotone decreasing in $m$ for the equally likely case. This, in turn, settles the conjectures of Kelly and Buckley and Westen for the case $n \to \infty$. We prove the validity of Gillett's conjecture on the minimum value of the probability of a Condorcet winner for $m=3$ and any $n$. We generalize this result for any $m$ and $n$ and obtain the minimum solution and the minimum probability of a Condorcet winner.
Exact Complexity of the Winner Problem for Young Elections  [PDF]
J?rg Rothe,Holger Spakowski,J?rg Vogel
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: In 1977, Young proposed a voting scheme that extends the Condorcet Principle based on the fewest possible number of voters whose removal yields a Condorcet winner. We prove that both the winner and the ranking problem for Young elections is complete for the class of problems solvable in polynomial time by parallel access to NP. Analogous results for Lewis Carroll's 1876 voting scheme were recently established by Hemaspaandra et al. In contrast, we prove that the winner and ranking problems in Fishburn's homogeneous variant of Carroll's voting scheme can be solved efficiently by linear programming.
And the winner is...
William Wells
Genome Biology , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20001229-02
Internally Controlled, Generic Real-Time PCR for Quantification and Multiplex Real-Time PCR with Serotype-Specific Probes for Serotyping of Dengue Virus Infections  [PDF]
Sandra Menting,Khoa T. D. Thai,Tran T. T. Nga,Hoang L. Phuong,Paul Klatser,Katja C. Wolthers,Tran Q. Binh,Peter J. de Vries,Marcel Beld
Advances in Virology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/514681
Abstract: Dengue has become a global public health problem and a sensitive diagnostic test for early phase detection can be life saving. An internally controlled, generic real-time PCR was developed and validated by testing serial dilutions of a DENV positive control RNA in the presence of a fixed amount of IC with results showing a good linearity ( ) and a LOD of at least ?copies/mL. Application of the generic PCR on 136 patient samples revealed a sensitivity of 95.8% and specificity of 100%. A newly developed multiplex real-time PCR with serotype-specific probes allowed the serotyping of DENV for 80 out of 92 (87%) generic real-time PCR positive patients. Combined these real-time PCRs offer a convenient diagnostic tool for the sensitive and specific quantification of DENV in clinical specimens with the possibility for serotyping. 1. Introduction Mosquito-borne flavivirus infections such as dengue have rapidly spread and are the most significant and dreaded infectious diseases in the world, in terms of morbidity and mortality [1, 2]. Recent estimates indicate that over 3.5 billion people (~55%) of the world population live in areas at risk for dengue [3]. Worldwide there are 50–100 million cases of dengue infections per year, which result in 25,000 deaths. Dengue has become a major international public health problem due to the expanding geographic distribution of the vector in tropical and subtropical countries [1]. Increased international travel accompanied with increasing transmission or re-emergence and changing epidemiology of dengue in various (sub) tropical countries contribute to a steady rise in confirmed dengue among ill-returned travelers [4]. Dengue is caused by an RNA virus (DENV). DENV is primarily transmitted through bites of the infected Aedes aegypti mosquito vector. The majority of DENV infections, with any of the four different virus serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), are mildly asymptomatic and often difficult to recognize in the early phase of infection because signs and symptoms are nonspecific and resemble other febrile illnesses. Only a small number of DENV infections (~5%) will result in severe forms of the disease [5, 6]. The most used diagnostic tools for confirmation of DENV infections are based on detection of antibodies (Ab) or, recently, NS1 antigen (Ag) detection [7]. However, both Ab and Ag detection methods do not distinguish the respective DENV serotypes. Tests based on detection and serotyping of dengue virus offer the possibility to look better at the association between complications of the life threatening DHF
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