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Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Balanites aegyptiaca in experimental animal models  [cached]
Gaur Kalpesh,Nema R,Kori M,Sharma C
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2008,
Abstract: The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca were evaluated in experimental animals. We have determined the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of dried aerial parts of Balanites aegyptiaca by oral administration at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg/day of body weight to healthy animals. The extracts were studied for their anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats and the paw volume was measured plethysmometrically at 0 and 3h after injection. The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts were also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and tail-flick method in albino rats. The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, significantly (P< 0.05) reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by Eddy′s hot plate method and tail-flick method in albino mice. The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts showed a greater anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect comparative to the standard drugs, indomethacin and diclofenac sodium respectively. The present results indicated the ethanolic extract of Balanites aegyptiaca exhibited more significant activity than petroleum ether in the treatment of pain and inflammation.
Balanites aegyptiaca Oil Synthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Characterization and Antibacterial Activity  [PDF]
Hind Baballa Gasmalla, Ahmed Mahmoud Idris, Mahgoub Ibrahim Shinger, Dongdong Qin, Duoliang Shan, Xiaoquan Lu
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2016.73016
Abstract: Antibacterial activity of iron oxide nanoparticles, an employing B. aegyptiaca oil (L.) Del., was used as natural stabilizer by modifying a co-precipitation method. In this work, we chose B. aegyptiaca oil as the new surfactant coating agent, and synthesized B. aegyptiaca oil coating with iron oxide nanoparticles which were characterized with a variety of methods, including Gas Chromatography (GC) to determine the fatty acids composition of the seeds oil, Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Powder Diffractometer (XRD) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). In antibacterial studies, disk diffusion susceptibility test was used to measure efficacy of iron oxide nanoparticles against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) in terms of zone inhibition. The B. aegyptiaca coated on the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles; its particle size was found to be nanoscale below 50 nm, and the magnetization (δ
Sedative and Anticonvulsant Properties of the Decoction of Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae)
Elisabeth Ngo Bum,Neteydji Sidiki,Taiwe,Paul Fasutin Seke Etet,Frededic Maidawa,Silvere Vincent Rakotonirina,Alice Rakotonirina
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The decoction of Balanites aegyptiaca, a plant used in traditional medicine in Africa for many diseases, possesses anticonvulsant and sedative activity in mice. This decoction protected mice against strychnine- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. But Balanites aegyptiaca decoction had no effect against picrotoxin-induced seizures. In the other side, the decoction of Balanites aegyptiaca potentiated sleep-induced by diazepam. The total sleep time of the control group was multiply by 4 in the presence of the decoction at a dose of 1000 mg /kg (from 12 to 59 min). With these effects, the decoction of Balanites aegyptiaca L. seem to posses sedative and anticonvulsant properties that might explain its use as a traditional medicine for epilepsy in Africa.
Use and Management of Balanites aegyptiaca in Drylands of Uganda
Clement Akais Okia,Jacob Godfrey Agea,James Munga Kimondo,Refaat Atalla Ahmed Abohassan,Paul Okiror,Joseph Obua,Zewge Teklehaimanot
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjbsci.2011.15.24
Abstract: There is strong evidence across the drylands of Africa that local communities have utilized Indigenous Fruit Trees (IFTs) including Balanites for generations. IFTs have however, received limited recognition from research and development community. It is now widely accepted that IFTs research needs to embrace local knowledge since this can be a useful resource in solving local problems and contribute to meaningful development. This study explored local use and management of the Balanites aegyptiaca among two contrasting dryland communities in Uganda. A survey involving 150 respondents was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted to capture detailed information on various aspects of Balanites use and management. The results revealed a wealth of information on local use and management of B. aegyptiaca tree and its products. Besides being a market commodity, several uses of the tree products were reported, especially among women and children. Contrary to its early reference as famine food, B. aegyptiaca products were used by most households. The young leaves and ripe fruits were regarded as dependable dry season food sources in both years of food scarcity and plentiful harvest. However, institutional arrangements for management of Balanites and other IFTs are weak and trees are increasingly being cut for fuelwood. There is a need to build on the local peoples knowledge, especially on processing of products so as to realise increased contribution of Balanites to rural livelihoods in the drylands of Uganda and other areas where the species grows.
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA LINN. DELILE. STEM BARK  [PDF]
Gupta Satish Chand,Shenoy Sumanth,Kotecha Mita
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Various pharmacognostical parameters including macroscopy, microscopy, Physiochemical and behavior of powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents were studied on the stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile. (Family- Balanitaceae).The successive extraction of plant bark was undertaken by using various solvents of increasing polarity and the extracts thus obtained were subjected for phytochemical analysis. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds mainly. These preliminary data may be helpful in developing the standardization parameters of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile stem bark.
Nematocidal Compounds from the Seeds of Balanites aegyptiaca Isolation and Structure Elucidation  [PDF]
C. Gnoula,P. Guissou,P. Duez,M. Frederich
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2007,
Abstract: The research aims are to characterize this anthelmintic activity and to isolate the main nematocidal agent of Balanties aegyptiaca plant. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated in vitro by means of an original anthelmintic assay using Caenorhabditis elegans as a biological model. Fluorescence microscopy was used for the determination of the percentage of worms death. The structure elucidation was based on NMR, mass spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. A bioassay-directed fractionation of the aqueous extract of Balanites aegyptiaca led to the isolation of balanitin-7 (also named diosgenin 3β-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside), as being the principal nematicidal agent. These data indicate that balanitin-7 has an appreciable nematocidal activity, which is not mediated by inducing an anti-acetylcholinesterase activity.
Reproductive biology in Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., a semi-arid forest tree
Mansor Ndoye, Isma la Diallo, Yaye Kène Gassama/Dia
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2004,
Abstract: Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) is an important tree in the semi-arid ecosystem with beneficial attributes. However, very little information is available in its reproductive biology. In order to better control the reproduction system of B. aegyptiaca, three experimental approaches are used: floral morpholgy, fluorochromatic procedure and hand pollination. The floral morphology shows that B. aegyptiaca flowers are hermaphrodite and gathered in several types of inflorescence (clusters, fascicles or glomerules). They blossomed asynchronically and nectar is exuded by the flowers. Top ovary holds five anatropous ovules. The second approach consisting in fluorochromatic procedure reveals a pollen with 3 apertures and a viability rate of 92%. This viability decrease down to 50% after a storage at -5°C for 7 days. Finally, the hand pollination proves that B. aegyptiaca is a partially auto-compatible plant and the main vectors of pollination are Halictidae (Hymenopterae) and Dipterae. Key Words: Balanites aegyptiaca, fluorochromatic test, pollen, pollination, auto-compatible. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(1) 2004: 30-46
Enhancing the Chemical Composition of Balanites aegyptiaca Seeds through Ethanol Extraction for Use as a Protein Source in Feed Formulation  [cached]
Lohlum S. A.,Forcados E. G.,Agida O. G.,Ozele N.
Sustainable Agriculture Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/sar.v1n2p251
Abstract: Over dependence on conventional feedstuff has contributed to a continuous rise in the prices of feeds. Balanites aegyptiaca is a perennial tree and its seeds, if properly processed could be a cheaper alternative source of protein for livestock feed formulation. In this study, Balanites aegyptiaca seeds were subjected to ethanol extraction, to examine the effect on the nutrient, phytochemical, organoleptic as well as textural properties of the seed kernel. The result showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in lipid content from 37.11% to 9.98% and a significant (P<0.05) increase in protein content from 31.73% to 37.68%. There was a reduction in the level of tannin from 0.0690 to 0.0043 mg/100g, phytic acid 108.65 to 36.65 mg/100g and oxalate 30.01 to 15.03 mg/100g. The results show that ethanol extraction is an effective processing technique for enhancing the suitability of Balanites aegyptiaca seed kernel as an alternative protein source in animal feeding.
Effect of Seed Pre-Treatment and Sowing Orientation on Germination of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. Seeds
A.A. Elfeel
Agricultural Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/aj.2012.191.193
Abstract: Seeds of Balanites aegyptiaca stored for 1 year were germinated using cold and boiling water pre-treatments and different sowing orientations. Whole fruits were soaked in cold water for (18, 24 and 48 h, respectively) while extracted sun dried seeds were immersed in boiling water for 7 min. Seeds of each treatment were sown in three orientations (seeds laid vertically with stalk end downwards, seeds laid horizontally and seeds laid vertically with stalk end upwards). The study recommend germinating Balanites seeds after extraction of seed by soaking of fruits for 18 h and sowing without germination pre-treatment in horizontal orientation.
Harvesting and Processing of Balanites aegyptiaca Leaves and Fruits for Local Consumption by Rural Communities in Uganda
Clement Akais Okia,Jacob Godfrey Agea,James Munga Kimondo,Refaat Atalla Ahmed Abohassan,Joseph Obua,Zewge Teklehaimanot
Journal of Food Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/jftech.2011.83.90
Abstract: Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. commonly known as desert date is an important multipurpose tree found in most African countries. Like in many parts of dryland Africa, Balanites leaves and fruits provide livelihood support to many rural households in the drylands of Uganda where other options are limited. The young succulent leaves are a dependable dry season vegetable while the seed kernel obtained after cracking the nut is a valuable oil source. Local methods for harvesting and processing of Balanites products were examined as a step towards promoting their wide use and development of improved processing methods. Harvesting and preparation of Balanites leaves in Katakwi district and fruits/nuts collection and oil extraction in Adjumani district, Uganda were documented. The results revealed that Balanites leaf harvesting involves cutting the young branches and twigs and plucking leaves under the tree. Leaves are boiled within 24 h after collection to avoid loss of taste and to shorten boiling time. Boiled leaves have a shelf life of 2 days only. On the other hand, Balanites oil production starts from the fruits or nuts mainly collected from beneath the parent trees. Oil processing entails cracking the nuts to extract seed kernels followed by pounding and roasting of kernels and oil extraction by hot water floatation method. Cracking the hard nuts to obtain seed kernels is a major challenge in oil extraction process. Oil produced is too little to meet the demand. Processing of Balanites oil is a promising option for improving rural livelihoods in the dryland areas of Uganda where Balanites trees grow naturally and are abundant. However, appropriate tools for cracking the hard Balanites nuts are required to increase oil production. Ways of increasing the shelf life of processed Balanites leaves should also be explored.
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