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Knowledge Sharing in Workplace: Motivators and Demotivators
Oye.N.D,Mazleena Salleh,Noorminshah.A
International Journal of Managing Information Technology (IJMIT) , 2011,
Abstract: This paper gives an overview of knowledge sharing in workplace. Based on the review of critical literaturesby the authors, they infer that knowledge sharing in workplace can be influenced by motivators anddemotivators. Activities of knowledge sharing in organizations may be on organization level or individuallevel. Knowledge sharing of both levels is critical to the success or failure of knowledge management insideand outside of organizations. Age, culture, and industry were all found to affect knowledge sharing amongworkers. A common stereotype is that older workers hoard knowledge because they are more insecure andfeel threatened by younger workers. Since older workers have more valuable knowledge, younger workersneeded to entice their older colleagues to share their valuable knowledge with them. The paper focus onmotivators and demotivators to sharing Knowledge in workplace. Theories and research pertaining to whyworkers share knowledge are reviewed. While all industry need knowledge and innovation, it is also truethat the pace of change and the need to innovate differs from industry to industry. Technology wasacknowledged to have a high important role in increasing productivity of knowledge sharing. It plays acritical role in creating, storing and distributing explicit knowledge in an accessible and expeditiousmanner.
Organizational Determinants of Workplace Deviant Behaviours: An Empirical Analysis in Nigeria  [cached]
Bamikole. O. Fagbohungbe,Gabriel A. Akinbode,Folusho Ayodeji
International Journal of Business and Management , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v7n5p207
Abstract: This study examines the relationship between employee’s organizational reactions and deviant behaviours in the workplace. Drawing on the organizational climate and workplace deviance literatures, we hypothesize that deviant workplace behaviours of males will be significantly different from that of their female counterpart. Likewise, that there will be a significant positive relationship between employees organisational reactions and various facets of deviant behaviour in the workplace. The study was anchored on Affective Events Theory, Agency Theory and Robinson & Bennett Typology of Deviance behaviour Theory. Six hundred and ninety six employees completed the surveys. The results supported our hypotheses. First, male participants were significantly different from their female counterparts on production deviance, personal aggression, political deviance and property deviance respectively. Specifically, production deviance, personal aggression and political deviance were higher among females than males. Second, multiple regression analysis revealed that organisational reaction variables (supervision, company identification, kinds of work, amount of work, co-workers, physical work conditions and financial rewards) are significant predictors of different facets of workplace deviant behaviours among workers. Finally, mean deviant behaviours of males at both controlled work environment and less controlled work environment was higher and significantly different from that of their female counterparts. Interaction between gender and work environment control was not significant as expected. The results were discussed in the light of extant literature on deviant workplace behavior, and implications for management practices.
Supporting Informal Learning at the Workplace
Heide Karen Lukosch,Pieter de Vries
International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (iJAC) , 2009, DOI: 10.3991/ijac.v2i3.1004
Abstract: In times of rapid technological and socio-economic changes, knowledge sharing and learning have become critical assets for most organizations and companies. New ways of learning and training are needed to cope with the rising demand of information. The Microtraining method developed on basis of recent learning theories and concepts is an answer to the need of flexibility of learning settings related to space and time, the availability of experts and the applicability of what is learned and trained at the workplace. This concept of informal learning comprises short learning sessions with work related topics. These learning occasions facilitate informal learning at the workplace on individual as well as on organizational level, as can be seen from two case studies.
Meta-Structures: The Search of Coherence in Collective Behaviours (without Physics)  [PDF]
Gianfranco Minati,Ignazio Licata,Eliano Pessa
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.4204/EPTCS.130.6
Abstract: This contribution shortly outlines and reviews a theoretical and computational approach for a theory of change concerning systems where it is not possible to apply the laws of motion ab initio. The concept of meta-structure relates to the emergence of forms of spatiotemporal coherences in collective behaviours intended as coherent sequences of multiple structures. The essential difference compared with traditional methods is the role of the cognitive design by the observer when identifying multiple mesoscopic variables. The goal is both to study the "change without physics" of the dynamics of change and to design non-catastrophic interventions having the purpose to induce, change, keep or restore collective behaviours by influencing -at the mesoscopic level -and not prescribing explicit rules and changes.
Collective behaviours in the stock market -- A maximum entropy approach  [PDF]
Thomas Bury
Quantitative Finance , 2014,
Abstract: Scale invariance, collective behaviours and structural reorganization are crucial for portfolio management (portfolio composition, hedging, alternative definition of risk, etc.). This lack of any characteristic scale and such elaborated behaviours find their origin in the theory of complex systems. There are several mechanisms which generate scale invariance but maximum entropy models are able to explain both scale invariance and collective behaviours. The study of the structure and collective modes of financial markets attracts more and more attention. It has been shown that some agent based models are able to reproduce some stylized facts. Despite their partial success, there is still the problem of rules design. In this work, we used a statistical inverse approach to model the structure and co-movements in financial markets. Inverse models restrict the number of assumptions. We found that a pairwise maximum entropy model is consistent with the data and is able to describe the complex structure of financial systems. We considered the existence of a critical state which is linked to how the market processes information, how it responds to exogenous inputs and how its structure changes. The considered data sets did not reveal a persistent critical state but rather oscillations between order and disorder. In this framework, we also showed that the collective modes are mostly dominated by pairwise co-movements and that univariate models are not good candidates to model crashes. The analysis also suggests a genuine adaptive process since both the maximum variance of the log-likelihood and the accuracy of the predictive scheme vary through time. This approach may provide some clue to crash precursors and may provide highlights on how a shock spreads in a financial network and if it will lead to a crash. The natural continuation of the present work could be the study of such a mechanism.
Faithful entanglement sharing for quantum communication against collective noise  [PDF]
Hui-Chong Niu,Bao-Cang Ren,Tie-Jun Wang,Ming Hua,Fu-Guo Deng
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s10773-012-1113-y
Abstract: We present an economical setup for faithful entanglement sharing against collective noise. It is composed of polarizing beam splitters, half wave plates, polarization independent wavelength division multiplexers, and frequency shifters. An arbitrary qubit error on the polarization state of each photon in a multi-photon system caused by the noisy channel can be rejected, without resorting to additional qubits, fast polarization modulators, and nondestructive quantum nondemolition detectors. Its success probability is in principle 100%, which is independent of the noise parameters, and it can be applied directly in any one-way quantum communication protocol based on entanglement.
Systematic review of beliefs, behaviours and influencing factors associated with disclosure of a mental health problem in the workplace
Elaine Brohan, Claire Henderson, Kay Wheat, Estelle Malcolm, Sarah Clement, Elizabeth A Barley, Mike Slade, Graham Thornicroft
BMC Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-12-11
Abstract: A systematic review was conducted for the period 1990-2010, using eight bibliographic databases. Meta-ethnography was used to provide a thematic understanding of the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of individuals with mental health problem.The searches yielded 8,971 items which was systematically reduced to 48 included studies. Sixteen qualitative, one mixed methods and seven quantitative studies were located containing evidence on the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem, and the factors associated with these beliefs and behaviours. In the meta-ethnography four super-ordinate themes were generated: 1) expectations and experiences of discrimination; 2) other reasons for non-disclosure; 3) reasons for disclosure; and 4) disclosure dimensions. Two qualitative, one mixed methods and 22 quantitative studies provided data to address the remaining two questions on the employers perspective.By presenting evidence from the perspective of individuals on both sides of the employment interaction, this review provides integrated perspective on the impact of disclosure of a mental health problem on employment outcomes.Disclosure or self-disclosure can be defined as the process of communicating information about oneself verbally to another person [1]. Mental health services users face difficulties in deciding whether to disclose a mental health problem in the employment context [2]. The recent (limited) restriction on pre-employment questionnaires by section 60 of the Equality Act 2010, has been a positive step in recognising that people with a mental health problem experience stigma and discrimination in finding work e.g.[3,4]. Furthermore, Sections 6, 15 and 20 of the Equality Act 2010 (re-enacting most of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995) prohibit unjustifiable less favourable treatment of those with a mental disability and requires an employer to make reasonable adjustments for them (in other jurisdictions often referred to as "acco
Research on Collective Learning Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Industrial Cluster Innovation Network  [cached]
Lan Wang
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: This study attempts to contribute to the cluster innovation literature by adding the collective learning perspective and propose an analytical framework on collective learning of cluster. Industrial cluster is viewed as a prevalent mode for technology innovation in knowledge-based economy. Collective learning outlines how local innovation network and spatial proximity between actors influence the sharing and creation of skills and knowledge in cluster. Firstly, this study discusses the structure and character of innovation network within industrial cluster. Secondly, it analyzes the collective learning mechanism of industrial cluster, which is involves in three dimensions: horizontal learning, vertical learning and multi-angle learning. Then, it focuses on some influencing factors of collective learning within innovation network. Finally, this study analyzes the role of global-local linkages in the dynamic capability of cluster innovation network.
Applying Participatory Methods to Address Motivational Aspects in Informal Workplace  [cached]
Teresa Holocher,Barbara Kieslinger,Claudia Magdalena Fabian
International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (iJAC) , 2011, DOI: 10.3991/ijac.v4i1.1412
Abstract: Motivational aspects are core to successful knowledge sharing and collaborative learning experiences. However, it still remains one of the great challenges to overcome motivational barriers when it comes to introducing information systems for collaborative learning at the workplace. In the context of an international research project we have taken motivational aspects into account during the design phase and started a participatory process involving researchers, end-users, managers, designers and developers. As initial findings show, a continuous dialogue with end-users may contribute to creating a sense of ownership amongst them and become a motivational driver for the future use of the system.
Interpersonal bullying behaviours in the workplace  [cached]
Charlotte Pietersen
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 2007, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v33i1.256
Abstract: In this paper employing a phenomenological method to explicate seven informants’ experience of interpersonal bullying behaviors in a South African work context, I demarcated four general themes namely: lack of recognition, discrimination, obstructionism, and isolation. Moreover, I found that perpetrators (male and female managers) predominantly used verbal and indirect negative acts to bully subordinates. Finally, racial tensions contributed to bullying behavior. While a phenomenological approach shows promise to explore local bullying behavior more research is needed to broaden our understanding of the phenomenon, including explicating bullying through the eyes of bystanders and alleged bullies.
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