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Representations of the Japanese in Contemporary Australian Literature and Film  [PDF]
Erika K Smith
New Voices : A Journal for Emerging Scholars of Japanese Studies in Australia and New Zealand , 2008,
Abstract: The objective of this article is to investigate general contemporary Australian perceptions of the Japanese. I will do this by exploring how Australian contemporary literature (2006-2007) and Australian contemporary film (1997-2007) depicts Japanese characters. By analysing the representation of the Japanese characters in these areas I will attempt to gather a broad understanding of how Australians represent, perceive and identify the Japanese today.
Pan-pan Girls: Humiliating Liberation in Postwar Japanese Literature
Rumi Sakamoto
PORTAL : Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies , 2010,
Abstract: This paper looks at some literary representations of the ‘pan-pan girls’ in postwar Japan. ‘Pan-pan’ is a derogatory term for street prostitutes who (mostly) served the soldiers of the occupying forces. Immediately after World War II, the Japanese government established the RAA (Recreation Amusement Association) and employed several thousand women to provide sexual services for foreign soldiers, ostensibly to protect Japanese women of middle and upper classes from rape and other violence. When the RAA was closed down in 1946 due to the US concern over widespread VD, many of the women who lost their jobs went out on the street and became private and illegal prostitutes – the pan-pan girls. With their red lipstick, cigarettes, nylon stockings and high-heel shoes, often holding onto the arms of tall, uniformed American GIs, the ‘pan-pan girls’ became a symbol of the occupation, and have been textually reproduced throughout the postwar period. This paper analyses the images and representations of the ‘pan-pan girls’ in postwar Japanese literature, to consider how the ‘pan-pan girls’ have functioned as a metaphor for the occupation and contributed to the public memory construction of the occupation. I identify some major codes of representations (victimisation, humiliation, and national trauma; eroticism and decadence; sexual freedom and materialism) and argue that the highly gendered and sexualised bodies of the ‘pan-pan girls’ have continued to allow simplistic and selective remembering of the occupation at the expense of recalling the pivotal role of Japanese patriarchy in the postwar period.
Ethical and Traditional Concerns in Contemporary Japanese Design  [cached]
Parisa Yazdanpanah Abdolmaleki,Ehsan Daneshfar
Asian Culture and History , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ach.v3n1p115
Abstract: Similar to its old history, Japan has a rich traditional and ethical Architecture. Based on these tenets and ethics, different concepts and spaces are formed through the time, as now Japan's ethical and traditional design ideas has its standard principles. Linking the present and the past has always been a momentous criterion in the countries with an old rich Architecture. This fact is indeed important in Japan due to the blend of ethics and religions with peoples` life. Through this idea, three Japanese Architects, Kenzo Tange, Fumihiko Maki and Tadao Ando-who are the only Japanese pritzker prize winners-have well, noticed the need for linking the country's traditional and ethical Architecture criteria with the contemporary Architecture. So, analyzing such projects of these architects prepares a good basis to find out the quality of how traditional and ethical design ideas crystallize in the works of contemporary Japanese architects. The research method for this article is a comparative analysis between the architects` particular projects and Japan's ethical and traditional design ideas, formed through the history of architecture in this country. The contents of this article rely heavily on three bases: 1) study of the historical documents concerning the ethical and traditional design concepts in Japan. 2) The consultancy of leading experts on Asian traditional constructions and ethical architecture specialists from Azad Universities in Tehran. 3) Comparative analysis between the ethical concepts applied in different contemporary works. The results show that the contemporary architects have had good bases for presenting the traditional design concepts as standard principles are all formed in the architecture of Japan today. Meanwhile, it seems that Maki and Ando are more likely to have a conceptual look at Japan's traditions while Tange has a more formal viewpoint. Chronological analysis of the architects` projects shows that despite, all the three architects were impressed by the works of le Corbusier, they were successful to keep contacts with Japan's traditional design concepts.
Pubertal Pathways in Girls Enrolled in a Contemporary British Cohort  [PDF]
Krista Yorita Christensen,Mildred Maisonet,Carol Rubin,Adrianne Holmes,W. Dana Flanders,Jon Heron,Jean Golding,Michael A. McGeehin,Michele Marcus
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/329261
Abstract: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used to describe initiation of secondary sexual characteristic development of girls. Tanner stages of breast and pubic hair and menarche status were self-reported via mailed questionnaires, administered from ages 8–14. Initiation pathway was categorized as breast [thelarche] or pubic hair [pubarche] development alone, or synchronous. Average ages at beginning breast and pubic hair development were estimated using survival analysis. Factors associated with initiation pathway were assessed using logistic regression. Among the 3938 participants, the median ages at beginning breast and pubic hair development were 10.19 (95% CI: 10.14–10.24) and 10.95 (95% CI: 10.90–11.00) years. Synchronous initiation was the most commonly reported pathway (46.3%), followed by thelarche (42.1%). Girls in the pubarche pathway were less likely to be obese or overweight at age 8 or have an overweight or obese mother. Girls in the thelarche pathway were less likely to be of nonwhite race or be the third born or later child. 1. Introduction In females, the first visible signs of pubertal development are breast and pubic hair development [1, 2]. These processes are governed by two separate physiologic systems (the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, resp.), so breast and pubic hair development does not necessarily occur at the same time, or at the same rate of progression. A majority of girls are thought to experience relatively synchronous pubarche and thelarche, with the first appearance of pubic hair and breast budding occurring within a few months of each other (or observed at the same clinic visit). However, some girls will begin pubarche without corresponding thelarche and vice versa [3–6]; this is often referred to as asynchronous development. Different initiation pathways may reflect differential exposures, both external environmental exposures and exposure to endogenous hormones, and timing of pubertal milestones may impact future health outcomes including risk for overweight/obesity and breast cancer [5, 7–9]. Despite the importance of the initiation of puberty, the process and factors which impact pathway and timing have not been well described in a contemporary cohort. Among participants in the Fels longitudinal study in the United States (1948), the majority of girls (85.8%) experienced asynchronous development, with over half of girls entering breast development before pubarche [10]. A Swedish study (1976) found that while 47% of girls experienced synchronous
Are We There Yet? Travelling Toward the Self in Contemporary Japanese Cinema
ILES, Timothy
Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies , 2007,
Abstract: This paper presents the relationship between travel and self-discovery in contemporary Japanese cinema, and suggests that this relationship grows from an existing tradition of literary and poetic travel writing in pre-modern Japan. However, while the pre-modern tradition focussed on travel away from the urban, daily world of the travelling poet, contemporary cinema presents the urban world as the location for travel and its attendant recuperative functions. Urban travel becomes a process by which an alienated individual may overcome his or her social, cultural, and personal alienation.
Importing Human Capital: Contemporary Japanese Attitudes to Immigration
LLEWELYN, James,HIRANO, Junichi
Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies , 2009,
Abstract: The notion that migration is taboo in Japanese society is a long-held view that has arguably kept this important topic out of mainstream political debates for decades. In place of a durable strategic immigration policy, Japan has instead utilized short-term ad-hoc policies to import human capital through a number of 'side door' mechanisms that have allowed its industry to meet demand for unskilled labour at the expense of meaningful debate on the issue of immigration. This paper proposes that public opinion, particularly among the younger generation, is much more open to the issue of importing human capital than is commonly thought; therefore, the time is ripe for a more forthright public debate on immigration that will facilitate greater strategic planning and policymaking more in line with Japan's national interests.
Pubertal Pathways in Girls Enrolled in a Contemporary British Cohort  [PDF]
Krista Yorita Christensen,Mildred Maisonet,Carol Rubin,Adrianne Holmes,W. Dana Flanders,Jon Heron,Jean Golding,Michael A. McGeehin,Michele Marcus
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/329261
Abstract: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used to describe initiation of secondary sexual characteristic development of girls. Tanner stages of breast and pubic hair and menarche status were self-reported via mailed questionnaires, administered from ages 8–14. Initiation pathway was categorized as breast [thelarche] or pubic hair [pubarche] development alone, or synchronous. Average ages at beginning breast and pubic hair development were estimated using survival analysis. Factors associated with initiation pathway were assessed using logistic regression. Among the 3938 participants, the median ages at beginning breast and pubic hair development were 10.19 (95% CI: 10.14–10.24) and 10.95 (95% CI: 10.90–11.00) years. Synchronous initiation was the most commonly reported pathway (46.3%), followed by thelarche (42.1%). Girls in the pubarche pathway were less likely to be obese or overweight at age 8 or have an overweight or obese mother. Girls in the thelarche pathway were less likely to be of nonwhite race or be the third born or later child.
Psychosocial factors associated with smoking and drinking among Japanese early adolescent boys and girls: Cross-sectional study
Mikayo Ando, Takashi Asakura, Shinichiro Ando, Bruce G Simons-Morton
BioPsychoSocial Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0759-1-13
Abstract: Junior high school students from seventh to ninth grades (N = 2,923) completed a self-reported questionnaire between December 2002 and March 2003. Relationships between psychosocial variables (i.e., self-assertive efficacy to resist peer pressure, parental involvement, school adjustment, and deviant peer influence) and smoking and drinking were investigated using logistic regression analyses and path analyses.Smoking in the last six months was significantly more prevalent in boys (7.9%) than girls (5.1%). The prevalence of drinking in the last six months was similar in boys (23.7%) and girls (21.8%). Self-efficacy to resist peer pressure was negatively associated with both smoking and drinking among both boys and girls and provided both direct and indirect effects through deviant peer influence. Parental involvement showed indirect effects through school adjustment and/or deviant peer influence to both smoking among both boys and girls and drinking among girls, although parental involvement showed direct effects on smoking only for boys. School adjustment was negatively associated with smoking among both boys and girls and drinking among girls.These findings suggest that self-assertive efficacy to resist peer pressure, parental involvement, school adjustment and deviant peer influence are potentially important factors that could be addressed by programs to prevent smoking and/or drinking among early adolescent boys and girls in Japan.Adolescent smoking and drinking are serious national concerns in Japan [1]. Early experimentation with tobacco and alcohol is associated with both immediate and lasting threats to healthful youth development, including abuse and dependence, which can result in long-term health and social consequences [2].Among Japanese junior high school students, 58.2–76.0% reported having tried alcohol and 17.7–45.0% reported having tried tobacco [3-5]. Smoking (41.8%) and drinking (3.4%) have also been listed as causes for protective police custody o
Top Girls: Implications of Predominance, Wealth, and Reputation of Women
Zahra Khozaei Ravari,Sivabala Naidu
Canadian Social Science , 2011,
Abstract: : The present study intends to concentrate on the intersection between class, gender, capitalism and patriarchy in order to shape a patriarchal-capitalist ideology. In such an ideology working class women suffer as a result of their economic problems in patriarchal-capitalist society in Top Girls (1982) a famous play of by caryl Churchill, the contemporary British playwright. In this sense, The aim of this study is to show the issues of the equality of and difference among women, the social discrimination through class hierarchies among women and the capitalist forces over marginalized groups. In this regard, Marxist feminism, which focused on class in relation to capitalism, will be taken into consideration. Keywords: Oppression; Patriarchy; Capitalism; Inequality; Marxist feminism; Class hierarchies Résumé: La présente étude a l’intention de se concentrer sur l'intersection entre la classe, le sexe, le capitalisme et le patriarcat en vue de former une idéologie de patriarcale-capitaliste. Dans une telle ideologie, la classe ouvriere souffre a la suite de leurs problèmes économiques en société patriarcale- capitaliste dans Top Girls (1982) une pièce de théatre célèbre par Caryl Churchill, l’auteur dramatique britannique contemporain. En ce sens, le but de cette étude est de montrer les enjeux de l'égalité et les différence parmis les femmes, la discrimination sociale à travers des hiérarchies de classe entre les femmes et les forces capitalistes sur les groupes marginalisés. à cet égard, le féminisme marxiste, qui a porté sur la classe par rapport au capitalisme, seront prises en considération. Mots clés: L'oppression; Le patriarcat; Le capitalisme; L'inégalité; Le féminisme marxiste; Des hiérarchies de classes
Mihaela Frunza, Ideology and Feminism  [cached]
Ana Elena Ilinca
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2004,
Abstract: Mihaela Frunza, Ideology and Feminism Ed. Limes, Cluj Napoca, 2004
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