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Gendered Language in Recent Short Stories by Japanese Women, and English Translation  [PDF]
Lucy Fraser
New Voices : A Journal for Emerging Scholars of Japanese Studies in Australia and New Zealand , 2008,
Abstract: This article analyses five recent Japanese short stories written by women, with female first person narrators, and the English translations of these stories. I examine how the writers interact with the culturally loaded concept of gendered language to develop characters and themes. The strategies used by translators to render gendered styles into English are also discussed: case-by-case creative solutions appear most effective.‘Feminine’ and other gendered styles are used to index social identity, to highlight the difference between the social and inner self, and different styles are mixed together for impact. Gendered styles, therefore, are of central importance and translators wishing to adhere closely to the source text should pay close attention to them.All the narrators of the stories demonstrate an understanding of ‘social sanction and taboo’. Two accustom themselves to a socially acceptable future, another displays an uneasy attitude to language and convention, while others fall into stereotypes imposed on them or chastise themselves for inappropriate behaviour. The stories illustrate the way in which gendered language styles in Japanese can be manipulated, as both the writers and the characters they create deliberately use different styles for effect.
Conversational elements of online chatting: speaking practice for distance language learners?  [PDF]
Vincenza Tudini
ALSIC : Apprentissage des Langues et Systèmes d'Information et de Communication , 2003, DOI: 10.4000/alsic.2238
Abstract: A critical issue in the delivery of language courses at a distance is to provide adequate scaffolding and monitoring1 of learners to assist them in the development of their interlanguage. As well as being one of the main reasons students enroll in language courses, oral interaction is considered beneficial to interlanguage development since it provides opportunities for negotiation of meaning. In the case of campus-based students, learners' progress in speaking the target language is supported and monitored mainly in the classroom. If non campus-based or online students do not attend face-to-face classes, how do they find opportunities for oral interaction? Using a Conversational Analysis and Second Language Acquisition perspective, the author considers elements which are common to both face-to-face oral interactions and chatting via a computer, with a view to assessing the potential of synchronous text-based communication tools to support the development of the speaking skills and interlanguage of distance language learners. This is done by reviewing findings of previous studies on synchronous text-based communication tools and identifying selected characteristics of oral interaction which are present in the chat sessions of two groups of campus-based intermediate level learners of Italian. In particular, the study focuses on repairs and incorporation of target forms, variety of speech acts, particularly questions and clarification requests, and the presence of discourse markers.
The (In)Sensitivity of Plural -S by Japanese Learners of English  [PDF]
Michael P. Mansbridge, Katsuo Tamaoka
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2018.85017
Abstract: Because the Japanese language does not have a robust plural morpheme system, it is morphologically incongruent with English. As such, L1 Japanese learners of L2 English are argued to be unable to fully acquire English plural morphemes. While previous studies have revealed limitations in L2 processing, recent studies have revealed that advanced-learners are sensitive to incongruent morphology. However, these studies have largely investigated processing within English as a second language context. As such, the present study investigated the sensitivity to inflectional number agreement in English by Japanese learners of English in Japan using the Lexical Maze Task. The results revealed that these learners were sensitive to violations in number agreement for both plural (this *dogs) and null (these *cat) morphemes. However, further analysis revealed that this was modulated by English proficiency. While participants with higher English ability were found to reveal greater sensitivity to ungrammatical morphemes, it was found that this was only the case for the ungrammatical plural (this *dogs). The ungrammatical null (these *cat) was instead revealed to evoke longer responses times by low proficiency learners, and high proficiency learners showed no sensitivity. This might be explained by a greater lexical variability among more advanced learners. Accordingly, this study demonstrates that despite morphological incongruence, non-advanced Japanese learners of English in Japan can acquire the English plural -S morpheme.
The Use of Request Expressions by Turkish Learners of Japanese
Bar?? KAHRAMAN,Derya AKKU?
Journal of Theory and Practice in Education , 2007,
Abstract: This study investigates the use of Japanese request expressions by Turkish learners of Japanese (TLJ). Data were collected through discourse completion test (DCT) making use of two different situations. 82 undergraduate students, studying at the Department of Japanese Language Teaching, Faculty of Education, anakkale Onsekiz Mart University and whose ages range from 18 to 27 years old, participated in the DCT. Since they consist of 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students, their Japanese proficiency can be characterized as lower intermediate to advanced. Error analysis was applied to analyze data. The incorrect and inappropriate expressions were classified as lexical errors, grammatical errors, lexico semantic errors, grammatical semantic errors and pragmatic failures. As a result, it was found that although TLJ made some lexical and grammatical errors, they are capable of requesting from their teachers in Japanese. However, they are unable to request from their close friends appropriately due to pragmatic failure. In conclusion, it is argued that the results are closely related with learning contexts and textbook contents. Overall, this study puts forward some suggestions to enrich the use of Japanese request expressions by TLJ.Keywords: Japanese, Turkish Japanese learners (TLJ), speech acts, request expressions, second language acquisition (SLA)This study investigates the use of Japanese request expressions by Turkish learners of Japanese (TLJ). Data were collected through discourse completion test (DCT) making use of two different situations. 82 undergraduate students, studying at the Department of Japanese Language Teaching, Faculty of Education, anakkale Onsekiz Mart University and whose ages range from 18 to 27 years old, participated in the DCT. Since they consist of 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students, their Japanese proficiency can be characterized as lower intermediate to advanced. Error analysis was applied to analyze data. The incorrect and inappropriate expressions were classified as lexical errors, grammatical errors, lexico semantic errors, grammatical semantic errors and pragmatic failures. As a result, it was found that although TLJ made some lexical and grammatical errors, they are capable of requesting from their teachers in Japanese. However, they are unable to request from their close friends appropriately due to pragmatic failure. In conclusion, it is argued that the results are closely related with learning contexts and textbook contents. Overall, this study puts forward some suggestions to enrich the use of Japanese request expressi
CONSTRUCTION OF THE CHINESE LEARNERS' PARALLEL CORPUS OF JAPANESE AND ITS PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS
Masaaki Shimizu,Fenggang Du,Masatake Dantsuji
K@ta : a Biannual Publication on the Study of Language and Literature , 2004,
Abstract: This study aims to introduce the project to construct the Chinese learners' corpus (LC) of Japanese at Dalian University of Technology (DUT), and detail the LC construction, development of DUT Corpus Linguistics Tools, and contribution to the education of Japanese as a second language. The outstanding characteristic of the LC is its parallel form with learners' Japanese texts and their Chinese translation, which enables us to make comprehensive analysis of the influence of Chinese (L1) to Japanese (L2). We have made a preliminary analysis of the errors contained.
Characteristics of Japanese Language Learners and Their Perceptions of Error Feedback  [cached]
Noriko Fujioka-Ito
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.3.3.331-345
Abstract: The studies in this article attempted to establish cross-validation of learners’ perceptions of error feedback in both writing and oral activities by integrating educational psychological theories. Various factors could influence the effectiveness of error feedback in second language learning environments. Although the mode of feedback (i.e., oral or written) is also one of the factors influencing the effectiveness of error feedback, considerable research of both a descriptive and experimental nature has been done to examine the effects of error feedback on oral production (Russell & Spada, 2006). Therefore, this article reports the statistical analysis results of an examination of the relationship between characteristics of learners and their perceptions of error feedback during both oral and writing activities, from social and individual learning perspectives. The study’s findings could help teachers of Japanese as a second language develop appropriate methods of error feedback from students with different characteristics.
Conversational Moves in Talking about Body-image in all Female Interactions
Rui HUANG
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2008, DOI: 10.3968/694
Abstract: This paper examines the extracts taken from daily conversations as well as from a serial TV play respectively involving female postgraduate students and professional women. The aim of this research is to see whether Guendouzi’s (2004) conversational moves in talking about body-size can be generalized. The extracts are analyzed based on Guendouzi’s model and Brown and Levinson’s (1987) face threat theory. It is found that Guendouzi’s model is only applicable in the circumstance when the speaker exposes herself to face threat. A new model, which fits the situation when the speaker exposes the hearer to face threat, has been tentatively noted based on the analysis of data. Key words: body-image, face threat, politeness, conversational moves Résumé: Le présent article examine des extraits des conversations quotidiennes ainsi que ceux d’un feuilleton télévisuel qui concernent respectivement les étudiantes chercheuses et les femmes professionnelles. Le but de cette étude est de vérifier si le mouvement conversationnel de Guendouzi (2004) dans la discussion sur la taille du corps peut être généralisé. Les extraits sont analysés sur la base du modèle de Guendouzi et la théorie d’affronter le menace de Brown et Levinson (1987). On trouve que le modèle de Guendouzi n’est applicable qu’à la circonstance dans laquelle l’orateur expose lui-même au menace. Un nouveau modèle, qui convient à la situation dans laquelle l’orateur expose l’auditeur au menace, a été expérimentalement marqué sur la base de l’analyse des données. Mots-Clés: image du corps, affronter le menace, politesse, mouvement conversationnel 摘 要:本文以 Guendouzi在 2004年提出的話步模式和 Levinson在 1987年提出的威脅面子理論位框架對語料進行分析,研究發現 Guendouzi提出的話步只適用於說話人把自己的面子暴露在外的境況,本文根據對語料的分析嘗試性地提出了說話人把聽話人的面子暴露出來的話步。 關鍵詞:身體形象;威脅面子;禮貌;話步
A Study of Social Networking Sites for Learners of Japanese
Fusako Ota
New Voices : A Journal for Emerging Scholars of Japanese Studies in Australia and New Zealand , 2011,
Abstract: Social Networking Sites (SNSs) such as “Facebook” and “MySpace” have been used by many people from different countries around the world, and they have recently been applied to second language (L2) learning, both inside and outside classrooms. A number of researchers have investigated the utility of SNSs, and some language researchers have studied the use of SNSs for L2 learning in language classrooms. However, the study of the usage of SNSs for L2 learning outside the classroom has not yet been studied thoroughly, despite the fact that many communities and groups exist for users who are interested in learning L2 on such sites.This article examines the nature and extent of SNS communities available specifically for L2 learners of Japanese, and describes the usage which is being made of these communities in particular on the SNSs, “mixi” and “Facebook”. Furthermore, the beneficial aspects of using such sites for L2 learning will be discussed.
Female Voices, Male Words: Problems of Communication, Identity and Gendered Social Construction in Contemporary Japanese Cinema  [cached]
ILES, Timothy
Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies , 2005,
Abstract:
Measurement and correlates of empathy among female Japanese physicians
Hitomi U Kataoka, Norio Koide, Mohammadreza Hojat, Joseph S Gonnella
BMC Medical Education , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-48
Abstract: The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) was translated into Japanese by using the back-translation procedure, and was administered to 285 female Japanese physicians. We designed this study to examine the psychometrics of the JSE and group differences among female Japanese physicians.The item-total score correlations of the JSE were all positive and statistically significant, ranging from .20 to .54, with a median of .41. The Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was .81. Female physicians who were practicing in “people-oriented” specialties obtained a significantly higher mean empathy score than their counterparts in “procedure-” or “technology-oriented” specialties. In addition, physicians who reported living with their parents in an extended family or living close to their parents, scored higher on the JSE than those who were living alone or in a nuclear family.Our results provide support for the measurement property and reliability of the JSE in a sample of female Japanese physicians. The observed group differences associated with specialties and living arrangement may have implications for sustaining empathy. In addition, recognizing these factors that reinforce physicians’ empathy may help physicians to avoid career burnout.
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