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XB130, a New Adaptor Protein, Regulates Expression of Tumor Suppressive MicroRNAs in Cancer Cells  [PDF]
Hiroki Takeshita, Atsushi Shiozaki, Xiao-Hui Bai, Daisuke Iitaka, Hyunhee Kim, Burton B. Yang, Shaf Keshavjee, Mingyao Liu
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059057
Abstract: XB130, a novel adaptor protein, promotes cell growth by controlling expression of many related genes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are frequently mis-expressed in cancer cells, regulate expression of targeted genes. In this present study, we aimed to explore the oncogenic mechanism of XB130 through miRNAs regulation. We analyzed miRNA expression in XB130 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) stably transfected WRO thyroid cancer cells by a miRNA array assay, and 16 miRNAs were up-regulated and 22 miRNAs were down-regulated significantly in these cells, in comparison with non-transfected or negative control shRNA transfected cells. We chose three of the up-regulated miRNAs (miR-33a, miR-149 and miR-193a-3p) and validated them by real-time qRT-PCR. Ectopic overexpression of XB130 suppressed these 3 miRNAs in MRO cells, a cell line with very low expression of XB130. Furthermore, we transfected miR mimics of these 3 miRNAs into WRO cells. They negatively regulated expression of oncogenes (miR-33a: MYC, miR-149: FOSL1, miR-193a-3p: SLC7A5), by targeting their 3′ untranslated region, and reduced cell growth. Our results suggest that XB130 could promote growth of cancer cells by regulating expression of tumor suppressive miRNAs and their targeted genes.
XB130 Mediates Cancer Cell Proliferation and Survival through Multiple Signaling Events Downstream of Akt  [PDF]
Atsushi Shiozaki, Grace Shen-Tu, Xiaohui Bai, Daisuke Iitaka, Valentina De Falco, Massimo Santoro, Shaf Keshavjee, Mingyao Liu
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043646
Abstract: XB130, a novel adaptor protein, mediates RET/PTC chromosome rearrangement-related thyroid cancer cell proliferation and survival through phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Recently, XB130 was found in different cancer cells in the absence of RET/PTC. To determine whether RET/PTC is required of XB130-related cancer cell proliferation and survival, WRO thyroid cancer cells (with RET/PTC mutation) and A549 lung cancer cells (without RET/PTC) were treated with XB130 siRNA, and multiple Akt down-stream signals were examined. Knocking-down of XB130 inhibited G1-S phase progression, and induced spontaneous apoptosis and enhanced intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic stimulus-induced cell death. Knocking-down of XB130 reduced phosphorylation of p21Cip1/WAF1, p27Kip1, FOXO3a and GSK3β, increased p21Cip1/WAF1protein levels and cleavages of caspase-8 and-9. However, the phosphorylation of FOXO1 and the protein levels of p53 were not affected by XB130 siRNA. We also found XB130 can be phosphorylated by multiple protein tyrosine kinases. These results indicate that XB130 is a substrate of multiple protein tyrosine kinases, and it can regulate cell proliferation and survival through modulating selected down-stream signals of PI3K/Akt pathway. XB130 could be involved in growth and survival of different cancer cells.
Silencing of XB130 Is Associated with Both the Prognosis and Chemosensitivity of Gastric Cancer  [PDF]
Min Shi, Weizhen Huang, Li Lin, Dayong Zheng, Qiang Zuo, Lin Wang, Nina Wang, Yajun Wu, Yulin Liao, Wangjun Liao
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041660
Abstract: XB130 is a newly characterized adaptor protein that was reported to promote thyroid tumor growth, but its role in the progression of other kinds of cancer such as gastric cancer (GC) remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated the association between XB130 expression and the prognosis of GC patients. The subjects were 411 patients with GC in stages I to IV. XB130 expression was examined in surgical specimens of GC. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the prognostic significance of XB130 for survival and recurrence. Moreover, GC cells stably transfected with XB130 short hairpin RNA were established to analyze the effect of XB130 on sensitivity of chemotherapy. The results show that both XB130 mRNA and protein expression were detectable in normal gastric tissues. The overall survival time of stage IV patients and the disease-free period after radical resection of GC in stage I–III patients were significantly shorter when immunohistochemical staining for XB130 was low than when staining was high (both p<0.05). XB130 expression also predicted tumor sensitivity to several chemotherapy agents. Viability of both XB130-silenced SGC7901 cells and wild-type cells was suppressed by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cisplatin, and irinotecan in a dose-dependent way, but cisplatin and irinotecan were more sensitive against sXB130-silenced GC cells and 5-FU showed higher sensitivity to wild-type cells. When treated by 5-FU, patients with high expression of XB130 tumors had a higher survival rate than those with low expression tumors. These findings indicate that reduced XB130 protein expression is a prognostic biomarker for shorter survival and a higher recurrence rate in patients with GC, as well as for the response to chemotherapy.
Novel isoform of adaptor protein ITSN1 forms homodimers via its C-terminus  [PDF]
Dergai M. V.,Dergai O. V.,Tsyba L. O.,Novokhatska O. V.
Biopolymers and Cell , 2011,
Abstract: Aim. Previously we have identified a novel isoform of endocytic adaptor protein ITSN1 designated as ITSN122a. Western blot revealed two immunoreactive bands of 120 and 250 kDa that corresponded to ITSN1-22a. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of dimer formation by the novel isoform. Methods. Dimerization ability of ITSN1-22a was tested by immunoprecipitation and subsequent Western blot analysis. To specify the region responsible for dimerization, site-directed mutagenesis and truncation analysis were carried out. Inhibition of endocytosis by potassium depletion and EGF stimulation of HEK293 were performed. Results. We have found that ITSN1-22a forms dimers in HEK293 cells. The dimerization of ITSN1-22a was mediated by C-terminal domain. We showed that cysteines C1016 and C1019 were involved in homodimerization. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and mitogen stimulation did not affect ITSN1-22a dimer formation. Conclusions. ITSN1-22a is the only one known ITSN1 isoform, which is capable to form homodimers via disulphide bonds. This could be important for the formation of protein complexes containing ITSN1 molecules.
The Fifth Adaptor Protein Complex  [PDF]
Jennifer Hirst,Lael D. Barlow,Gabriel Casey Francisco,Daniela A. Sahlender,Matthew N. J. Seaman,Joel B. Dacks,Margaret S. Robinson
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001170
Abstract: Adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort cargo into vesicles for transport from one membrane compartment of the cell to another. Four distinct AP complexes have been identified, which are present in most eukaryotes. We report the existence of a fifth AP complex, AP-5. Tagged AP-5 localises to a late endosomal compartment in HeLa cells. AP-5 does not associate with clathrin and is insensitive to brefeldin A. Knocking down AP-5 subunits interferes with the trafficking of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and causes the cell to form swollen endosomal structures with emanating tubules. AP-5 subunits can be found in all five eukaryotic supergroups, but they have been co-ordinately lost in many organisms. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis provides robust resolution, for the first time, into the evolutionary order of emergence of the adaptor subunit families, showing AP-3 as the basal complex, followed by AP-5, AP-4, and AP-1 and AP-2. Thus, AP-5 is an evolutionarily ancient complex, which is involved in endosomal sorting, and which has links with hereditary spastic paraplegia.
The Fifth Adaptor Protein Complex  [PDF]
Jennifer Hirst,Lael D. Barlow,Gabriel Casey Francisco,Daniela A. Sahlender,Matthew N. J. Seaman,Joel B. Dacks ,Margaret S. Robinson
PLOS Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001170
Abstract: Adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort cargo into vesicles for transport from one membrane compartment of the cell to another. Four distinct AP complexes have been identified, which are present in most eukaryotes. We report the existence of a fifth AP complex, AP-5. Tagged AP-5 localises to a late endosomal compartment in HeLa cells. AP-5 does not associate with clathrin and is insensitive to brefeldin A. Knocking down AP-5 subunits interferes with the trafficking of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and causes the cell to form swollen endosomal structures with emanating tubules. AP-5 subunits can be found in all five eukaryotic supergroups, but they have been co-ordinately lost in many organisms. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis provides robust resolution, for the first time, into the evolutionary order of emergence of the adaptor subunit families, showing AP-3 as the basal complex, followed by AP-5, AP-4, and AP-1 and AP-2. Thus, AP-5 is an evolutionarily ancient complex, which is involved in endosomal sorting, and which has links with hereditary spastic paraplegia.
Podocalyxin Is a Novel Polysialylated Neural Adhesion Protein with Multiple Roles in Neural Development and Synapse Formation  [PDF]
Nathalia Vitureira,Rosa Andrés,Esther Pérez-Martínez,Albert Martínez,Ana Bribián,Juan Blasi,Shierley Chelliah,Guillermo López-Doménech,Fernando De Castro,Ferran Burgaya,Kelly McNagny,Eduardo Soriano
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012003
Abstract: Neural development and plasticity are regulated by neural adhesion proteins, including the polysialylated form of NCAM (PSA-NCAM). Podocalyxin (PC) is a renal PSA-containing protein that has been reported to function as an anti-adhesin in kidney podocytes. Here we show that PC is widely expressed in neurons during neural development. Neural PC interacts with the ERM protein family, and with NHERF1/2 and RhoA/G. Experiments in vitro and phenotypic analyses of podxl-deficient mice indicate that PC is involved in neurite growth, branching and axonal fasciculation, and that PC loss-of-function reduces the number of synapses in the CNS and in the neuromuscular system. We also show that whereas some of the brain PC functions require PSA, others depend on PC per se. Our results show that PC, the second highly sialylated neural adhesion protein, plays multiple roles in neural development.
Evidence against roles for phorbol binding protein Munc13-1, ADAM adaptor Eve-1, or vesicle trafficking phosphoproteins Munc18 or NSF as phospho-state-sensitive modulators of phorbol/PKC-activated Alzheimer APP ectodomain shedding
Annat F Ikin, Mirsada Causevic, Steve Pedrini, Lyndsey S Benson, Joseph D Buxbaum, Toshiharu Suzuki, Simon Lovestone, Shigeki Higashiyama, Tomas Mustelin, Robert D Burgoyne, Sam Gandy
Molecular Neurodegeneration , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1326-2-23
Abstract: Overexpression of either phorbol-sensitive wildtype Munc13-1 or phorbol-insensitive Munc13-1 H567K resulted in increased basal APP ectodomain shedding. However, in contrast to the report of Ro?ner et al (2004), phorbol ester-dependent APP ectodomain shedding from cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 wildtype was indistinguishable from that observed following application of phorbol to cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 H567K mutant. This pattern of similar effects on basal and stimulated APP shedding was also observed for Munc18 and NSF. Eve-1, an ADAM adaptor protein reported to be essential for PKC-regulated shedding of pro-EGF, was found to play no obvious role in regulated shedding of sAPPα.Our results indicate that, in the HEK293 system, Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and EVE-1 fail to meet essential criteria for identity as PMES for APP.The main constituent of cerebral and cerebrovascular amyloid found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients is the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). Aβ is derived from a 695/751/770 amino acid precursor, termed the amyloid precursor protein (APP) via a potentially amyloidogenic pathway (for review, see [1]). In this pathway, APP is first cleaved by BACE (beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme) or β-secretase, that releases a large, extracellular portion called soluble APP or sAPPβ, followed by cleavage by a second enzyme, γ-secretase, that releases Aβ peptide and the cytoplasmic APP remnant called "AICD" (APP intracellular domain). An alternative APP processing pathway – the non-amyloidogenic pathway of APP proteolysis – precludes the production of the neurotoxic Aβ peptide. In this pathway, the enzyme α-secretase cleaves APP between residues K16 and L17 within the Aβ domain. This event releases a large, soluble extracellular fragment or sAPPα leaving a short, carboxyl-terminal fragment consisting of 83 amino acids (C83) associated with the cell membrane. γ-secretase then cleaves C83 generating a non-amyloidogenic, 3-kDa fragment called p3.Protei
Novel Roles of cAMP Receptor Protein (CRP) in Regulation of Transport and Metabolism of Carbon Sources  [PDF]
Tomohiro Shimada, Nobuyuki Fujita, Kaneyoshi Yamamoto, Akira Ishihama
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020081
Abstract: CRP (cAMP receptor protein), the global regulator of genes for carbon source utilization in the absence of glucose, is the best-studied prokaryotic transcription factor. A total of 195 target promoters on the Escherichia coli genome have been proposed to be under the control of cAMP-bound CRP. Using the newly developed Genomic SELEX screening system of transcription factor-binding sequences, however, we have identified a total of at least 254 CRP-binding sites. Based on their location on the E. coli genome, we predict a total of at least 183 novel regulation target operons, altogether with the 195 hitherto known targets, reaching to the minimum of 378 promoters as the regulation targets of cAMP-CRP. All the promoters selected from the newly identified targets and examined by using the lacZ reporter assay were found to be under the control of CRP, indicating that the Genomic SELEX screening allowed to identify the CRP targets with high accuracy. Based on the functions of novel target genes, we conclude that CRP plays a key regulatory role in the whole processes from the selective transport of carbon sources, the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis switching to the metabolisms downstream of glycolysis, including tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) pathway and aerobic respiration. One unique regulation mode is that a single and the same CRP molecule bound within intergenic regions often regulates both of divergently transcribed operons.
CARMA3: A novel scaffold protein in regulation of NF-κB activation and diseases  [cached]
Jiyuan Sun
World Journal of Biological Chemistry , 2010,
Abstract: CARD recruited membrane associated protein 3 (CARMA3) is a novel scaffold protein. It belongs to the CARMA protein family, and is known to activate nuclear factor (NF)-κB. However, it is still unknown which receptor functions upstream of CARMA3 to trigger NF-κB activation. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that CARMA3 serves as an indispensable adaptor protein in NF-κB signaling under some G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor and angiotensin (Ang) II receptor. Mechanistically, CARMA3 recruits its essential downstream molecules Bcl10 and MALT1 to form the CBM (CARMA3-Bcl10-MALT1) signalosome whereby it triggers NF-κB activation. GPCRs and NF-κB play pivotal roles in the regulation of various cellular functions, therefore, aberrant regulation of the GPCR/NF-κB signaling axis leads to the development of many types of diseases, such as cancer and atherogenesis. Recently, the GPCR/CARMA3/NF-κB signaling axis has been confirmed in these specific diseases and it plays crucial roles in the pathogenesis of disease progression. In ovarian cancer cell lines, knockdown of CARMA3 abolishes LPA receptor-induced NF-κB activation, and reduces LPA-induced ovarian cancer invasion. In vascular smooth cells, downregulation of CARMA3 substantially impairs Ang-II-receptor-induced NF-κB activation, and in vivo studies have confirmed that Bcl10-deficient mice are protected from developing Ang-II-receptor-induced atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysms. In this review, we summarize the biology of CARMA3, describe the role of the GPCR/CARMA3/NF-κB signaling axis in ovarian cancer and atherogenesis, and speculate about the potential roles of this signaling axis in other types of cancer and diseases. With a significant increase in the identification of LPA- and Ang-II-like ligands, such as endothelin-1, which also activates NF-κB via CARMA3 and contributes to the development of many diseases, CARMA3 is emerging as a novel therapeutic target for various types of cancer and other diseases.
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