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An enumeration of orphans and analysis of the problems and wishes of orphans: the case of Kariba, Zimbabwe
J Mangoma, C Chimbari, E Dhlomo
SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance) , 2008,
Abstract: In southern Africa, HIV and AIDS accounts for the largest proportion of orphans. Very often the orphaned children become destitute, and young girls in particular become more vulnerable to HIV and AIDS as they try to fend for the rest of the family. This paper reports on the number of orphans in Kariba, Zimbabwe, describing their problems, coping strategies and wishes. The study was carried out in Nyamhunga and Mahombekombe high-density residential areas of Kariba, Zimbabwe. All households in the study area were visited, and a semi-structured questionnaire aimed at enumerating orphans and obtaining information regarding general problems of orphans was administered to heads of households present. In additio n, information on the plight, coping strategies and survival wishes of orphans were collected through 15 focus group discussions held with orphans, care givers, community leaders and stakeholders. The prevalence of orphans in Kariba, based on a sample of 3 976 households, was found to be very high (56%) with most of the orphans in the age group 6 - 12 years. The majority of the orphans were paternal and under maternal care. Over 30% of the orphans of schoolgoing age were not in school, and some young girl orphans became involved in commercial sex work. The survival wish list of the orphans included school fees, accommodation, health care provision, adequate food and income-generating projects. However, suggestions on orphan care and needs given by community members were somewhat divergent from the orphans\' wish list, indicating that community interventions may not be sensitive to the wishes of those affected. Although the study did not categorise orphans according to cause of death of parents, there are indications that most of the orphans are accounted for by HIV and AIDS.
Quantifying Orphaned Annotations in Hypothes.is  [PDF]
Mohamed Aturban,Michael L. Nelson,Michele C. Weigle
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Web annotation has been receiving increased attention recently with the organization of the Open Annotation Collaboration and new tools for open annotation, such as Hypothes.is. We investigate the prevalence of orphaned annotations, where neither the live Web page nor an archived copy of the Web page contains the text that had previously been annotated in the Hypothes.is annotation system (containing 20,953 highlighted text annotations). We found that about 22% of highlighted text annotations can no longer be attached to their live Web pages. Unfortunately, only about 12% of these annotations can be reattached using the holdings of current public web archives, leaving the remaining 88% of these annotations orphaned. For those annotations that are still attached, 53% are in danger of becoming orphans if the live Web page changes. This points to the need for archiving the target of an annotation at the time the annotation is created.
Orphaned Protostars  [PDF]
Bo Reipurth,Seppo Mikkola,Michael Connelley,Mauri Valtonen
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/725/1/L56
Abstract: We explore the origin of a population of distant companions (~1000 - 5000 AU) to Class I protostellar sources recently found by Connelley and co-workers, who noted that the companion fraction diminished as the sources evolved. Here we present N-body simulations of unstable triple systems embedded in dense cloud cores. Many companions are ejected into unbound orbits and quickly escape, but others are ejected with insufficient momentum to climb out of the potential well of the cloud core and associated binary. These loosely bound companions reach distances of many thousands of AU before falling back and eventually being ejected into escapes as the cloud cores gradually disappear. We use the term orphans to denote protostellar objects that are dynamically ejected from their placental cloud cores, either escaping or for a time being tenuously bound at large separations. Half of all triple systems are found to disintegrate during the protostellar stage, so if multiple systems are a frequent outcome of the collapse of a cloud core, then orphans should be common. Bound orphans are associated with embedded close protostellar binaries, but escaping orphans can travel as far as ~0.2 pc during the protostellar phase. The steep climb out of a potential well ensures that orphans are not kinematically distinct from young stars born with a less violent pre-history. The identification of orphans outside their heavily extincted cloud cores will allow the detailed study of protostars high up on their Hayashi tracks at near-infrared and in some cases even at optical wavelengths.
Set up to Fail: Inadequate Educational Support for Orphans in Central Kenya  [PDF]
Ginger A. Johnson
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2011.11001
Abstract: In response to Kenya's goal of free and universal primary education for every child by 2015, this paper describes a few of the obstacles that one of the most visible periphery populations in Kenya, orphaned children, face in attempting to reach this objective. The most frequently cited barriers of children and their caretakers to consistent school attendance included: inability to pay school fees, lack of a school uniform, difficulty in providing assis- tance to orphaned children, presence of disease/illness in the family and disruption of education due to political violence. Conducted in a Kikuyu community in the Kinangop District of Central Kenya following the 2007/2008 presidential election riots, this study utilized multiple regression, logistic regression and MANOVA statistical tests to determine if families caring for orphaned children of primary school age differed significantly from families with no orphans in the home. Discriminant function and Mahalanobis testing further revealed differ- ences in types of households, with the presence of orphans in the home (particularly AIDS orphans) significantly increasing the amount of school fees owed per family. Qualitative data obtained from semi-structured interviews with families and open-ended interviews with their primary school aged children contextualized study results and inform policy recommendations.
Inverse association of natural mentoring relationship with distress mental health in children orphaned by AIDS
Francis N Onuoha, Tsunetsugu Munakata
BMC Psychiatry , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-10-6
Abstract: 952 children, mean age about 14 years, from local community schools and child-care centers in Kampala (Uganda) and Mafikeng/Klerksdorp (South Africa) towns participated in the study. The design has AIDS-orphaned group (n = 373) and two control groups: Other-causes orphaned (n = 287) and non-orphaned (n = 290) children. We use measures of child abuse, depression, social discrimination, anxiety, parental/foster care, self-esteem, and social support to estimate mental health. Natural mentoring care is measured with the Ragins and McFarlin (1990) Mentor Role Instrument as adapted.AIDS-orphaned children having a natural mentor showed significant decreased distress mental health factors. Similar evidence was not observed in the control groups. Also being in a natural mentoring relationship inversely related to distress mental health factors in the AIDS-orphaned group, in particular. AIDS-orphaned children who scored high mentoring relationship showed significant lowest distress mental health factors that did those who scored moderate and low mentoring relationship.Natural mentoring care seems more beneficial to ameliorate distress mental health in AIDS-orphaned children (many of whom are double-orphans, having no biological parents) than in children in the control groups.Orphan children tend to manifest more depression [1], personality disorder [2], and anxiety/insomnia [3] tendencies than do non-orphans. These orphan children may present psychosomatic symptoms [3] and health worries [4] that may impede positive mental health. Material and emotional supports from parents during childhood may have enduring psychosocial health benefits [5]. These parental supports, which the orphan child may lack, fulfill the affective function of the family to its members [6,7]. Orphans may encounter hopelessness, and frustration [8] often owing to their new circumstance that may require them to not only fend for themselves but also for their younger ones, in some cases. However, Abebe and
The experiences of family caregivers concerning their care of HIV/AIDS orphans
KE Hlabyago, GA Ogunbanjo
South African Family Practice , 2009,
Abstract: Introduction: The HIV/AIDS pandemic is reducing life expectancy and raising mortality. An increasing orphan population is perhaps the most tragic and long-term legacy of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. By 2010 sub-Saharan Africa is expected to have an estimated 50 million orphans and it will be staggered by this challenge. By the middle of 2006, 1.5 million children under the age of 18 years were maternal orphans in South Africa, and 66% of these children had been orphaned as a result of HIV/AIDS. Although government and non-government organisations have responded by building orphanages, most of Africa’s orphans have been absorbed into extended family networks. Many of these extended family caregivers are ageing and often impoverished grandparents. Methods: This was a descriptive, qualitative study using the free attitude interview technique. All family caregivers who consulted at the Hoekfontein Clinic, North West Province, South Africa between March and June 2006 formed the study population. A total of nine one-on-one interviews had been conducted by the time saturation of data was reached. Results: All nine caregivers were women, mostly grandmothers (67%), and the orphans were between the ages of 5 and 20 years. Emergent themes were: poverty and lack of money; bureaucratic difficulties and lack of assistance from the social support services; lack of support (financial, physical and emotional) from other family members; frustrations of coping with rebellious orphans; pain of caring for the terminally ill family members; feelings of despondency (hopelessness); conflicts in the family; and the rejection of orphans by their fathers. Conclusions: The study showed that the family caregivers experienced a lack of welfare and family/emotional support in their care of HIV/AIDS orphans. It is recommended that health care workers, including social workers and home-based caregivers be trained on available social support from government and non-governmental organisations for caregivers of HIV/AIDS orphans.
Nutritional status of HIV/AIDS orphaned children in households headed by the elderly in Rakai District, South Western Uganda
Joyce K Kikafunda, Hanifa K Namusoke
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2006,
Abstract: Although a lot of research has been conducted on the role of good nutrition in mitigating the effects of HIV/AIDS, little is known about the health and nutritional status of HIV/AIDS orphaned children who mostly live with their elderly grand parents. The major objective of this study was therefore to assess the nutritional status of HIV/AIDS orphaned children (<10 years) living with their elderly relatives in Rakai District, Uganda; compared to non-orphaned children living with both parents in ordinary homes. The study was a cross-sectional comparative survey that employed both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. A questionnaire was administered to 100 caretakers of the orphaned children and 50 caretakers of non-orphaned children, which explored the effect of socio-demographic factors on the nutritional status of the children. The children's nutritional status was assessed anthropometrically using the weight for age nutritional indicator. Key information was sought from those with authority in the area. The results revealed high levels of malnutrition among orphaned children as almost half of them (47 %) were found to be underweight. This level of underweight was significantly (p <0.05) higher than the figure of 28 % found in the children with both parents. In addition, whereas the usual situation is for the under-nutrition to decline as the child grows older, for the AIDS orphans, it was the opposite with levels of underweight rising from 7 % through 16 % to 24 % in the 0 - 24, 25 – 60, and above 60-month age groups, respectively. Underweight prevalence among the orphans was twice that found in the general population for under-five children, ie, 47 % in the AIDS orphans compared to 23 % of the children in the general population. More than half of the elderly care-takers (59 %) had no formal education, making adoption of improved child rearing practices a challenge. The findings show that malnutrition in Rakai District is a big problem resulting from a number of factors among them poverty, illiteracy, big family sizes, and the effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Homes visited did not have enough of both material and psychological support to sufficiently care for their families. Overall, the study findings reveal that HIV/AIDS orphaned children living with their elderly relatives have poor nutritional status and recommends that the extent of support to meet the needs of these children and their elderly caretakers be increased.
The oral hygiene status of institution dwelling orphans in Benin City, Nigeria
PI Ojahanon, O Akionbare, AO Umoh
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: Orphans like other vulnerable children face a number of challenges including limited or no access to basic health care including oral health care, which is one of their unmet health care needs. Neglected oral health care is associated with the development and progression of periodontal diseases among others. Objective: To determine the oral hygiene status of institution dwelling orphans. Materials and Methods: Thirty eight orphans from four orphanages in Benin City, Edo State of Nigeria were clinically examined and their oral hygiene status determined using the simplified oral hygiene index of Greene and Vermillion (OHI-S). Results: Seventy-three percent of the orphans were found to have fair oral hygiene comprising mostly of those aged 6-13 years. More females were in this category while more males presented with poor oral hygiene status. Conclusion: More orphans presented with fair oral hygiene that indicated inadequate oral care. There was poor oral health education and limited access to services. There is need for these to be improved as a solution to poor oral health status of these vulnerable children.
The psychological well-being of children orphaned by AIDS in Cape Town, South Africa
Lucie Cluver, Frances Gardner
Annals of General Psychiatry , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1744-859x-5-8
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate mental health outcomes for urban children living in deprived settlements in Cape Town. 30 orphaned children and 30 matched controls were compared using standardised questionnaires (SDQ) on emotional and behavioural problems, peer and attention difficulties, and prosocial behaviour. The orphan group completed a modified version of a standardised questionnaire (IES-8), measuring Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms. Group differences were tested using t-tests and Pearson's chi-square.Both groups scored highly for peer problems, emotional problems and total scores. However, orphans were more likely to view themselves as having no good friends (p = .002), to have marked concentration difficulties (p = .03), and to report frequent somatic symptoms (p = .05), but were less likely to display anger through loss of temper (p = .03). Orphans were more likely to have constant nightmares (p = .01), and 73% scored above the cut-off for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.Findings suggest important areas for larger-scale research for parentally-bereaved children.An estimated 24.8% of South Africa's population are HIV+, with 4.7 million infected by 2001 [1]. Numbers of children parentally bereaved by AIDS in South Africa are expected to rise from 1.1 million in 2003, to 3.1 million by 2010 [2], peaking at 5.7 million in 2015. Even with the proposed full administration of anti-retroviral therapy, estimates remain at 1.15 million maternal orphans by 2015 [3].Orphaned children in South Africa have traditionally been cared for within the extended family [4], often by elderly grandparents [5]. There are concerns that this support system is weakening as orphan numbers and HIV prevalence increase [6]. There are few reliable data on numbers of orphans living in non-kin fostering arrangements, institutions, child-headed households and as streetchildren [7].Most work on orphans concentrates on basic needs. This is understandable as AIDS-affected households are character
Orphans in Forests of Linear Fractional Transformations  [PDF]
Sandie Han,Ariane M. Masuda,Satyanand Singh,Johann Thiel
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: This paper studies the set of orphans in certain Calkin-Wilf trees generated by linear fractional transformations.
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