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Usage of "smart" glass panels in commercial and residential buildings  [PDF]
Gavrilovi? Dragan J.,Stoji? Jasmina
Facta Universitatis Series : Architecture and Civil Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/fuace1102261g
Abstract: This paper examines specific conceptual approach to the implementation of new "smart" materials having phase-changing own characteristics and maximum potential for their installation and exploitation of their performance in the commercial and residential buildings architecture. Such approach somewhat changes the usual traditional practice of installing "classical" materials, i.e. installable components into the architectural structure. The immeasurably superior performance of new elements installed in the architectural system is thus utilized, to the total energy benefit of the structural system. Using new "smart" components would result in energy cost-effective impact, reflected in the reduced the overall energy consumption of a given structure as well as in better effect sustainability of buildings in bioclimatic terms at the micro and macro levels in comparisonto the usual performance of traditionally constructed buildings.
A Conceptual Review on Residential Thermal Comfort in the Humid Tropics
Djamila Harimi,Chi Chu Ming,Sivakumar Kumaresan
International Journal of Engineering Innovations and Research , 2012,
Abstract: In the era of increasingly expensive fuel and with the theoretical complication and the limitation of comfort prediction in naturally ventilated buildings based on thermal balance approach, researchers were motivated to go beyond heat balance approach to predict occupants’ thermal comfort using statistical approach known by adaptive models. The most established recognized model was developed mostly from the worldwide database recorded in office buildings. This poses validity problem when the model is applied for residential buildings. From a practical point of view using this model for the determination of neutral temperature in residences is likely to leads to errors in prediction which in turns are likely to have detrimental effect on occupants’ satisfaction, not to mention the potential effect in terms of energy consumption. This paper presents a conceptual review on indoor thermal comfort based on heat balance and adaptive models. The validity of international thermal comfort standards for residential buildings for neutral temperature prediction specifically in the hot-humid tropics is addressed. The need of database from field studies in residential buildings is emphasized.
Dragoslav ?umarac,Maja Todorovi?,Maja Djurovi? - Petrovi?,Nata?a Tri?ovi?
Thermal Science , 2010, DOI: tsci100430017s
Abstract: In this paper, presented is the state of the art of Energy Efficiency (EE) of residential buildings in Serbia. Special attention is paid to energy efficiency in already existing buildings. The average energy consumption in residential buildings in Serbia is over 150 kWh/m2 per year, while in developed European countries it is about 50 kWh/m2 per year. In this paper examined is the contribution of ventilation losses, through the windows of low quality, regardless whether they are poorly made, or made from bad materials, or with no adequate glass. Besides ventilation losses, which are of major importance in our buildings, special attention is paid to transmission losses, which are consequence of the quality and energy efficiency of the facade. All of the above statements are proved by measurements obtained on a representative building of the Block 34 in New Belgrade, built in the eighties of the last century. In addition to measurements performed the calculation of energy consumption for heating during winter has been made. The results of two different methods of calculation of energy consumption for heating are compared with the values obtained by measuring.
The Thermal Performance of Traditional Residential Buildings in Kathmandu Valley  [PDF]
Sushil B. Bajracharya
Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/jie.v10i1.10898
Abstract: This paper seeks to investigate into the aspects of thermal performance of traditional residential buildings in traditional settlements of Kathmandu valley. This study proceeds to analyze the detailed field data collected, with a view to identify the indoor thermal environment with respect to outdoor thermal environment in different seasons. This paper also compares the thermal performance of traditional buildings with modern residential buildings of traditional settlements of the valley. There is a regression analysis to obtain information about the thermal environment of different traditional and modern residential buildings with different conditions. The paper concludes that, thermal performance of traditional residential building, adapted in various ways to the changing thermal regime for thermal comfort is better than that of contemporary buildings. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jie.v10i1.10898 Journal of the Institute of Engineering , Vol. 10, No. 1, 2014, ?pp. 172–183
Overall Thermal Transfer Value of Residential Buildings in Malaysia  [PDF]
R. Saidur,M. Hasanuzzaman,M.M. Hasan,H.H. Masjuki
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This study presents the Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) and the energy consumption of room air conditioners of the residential buildings in Malaysia. A survey has been conducted to investigate the OTTV and the energy consumption of room air conditioners of the residential buildings in Malaysia. OTTV calculation, energy consumption and effect of the building parameters on energy consumption have been investigated. It is found that OTTV of the residential buildings in Malaysia varied from 35 to 65 W m-2 with a mean value of 41.7 W m-2. The sensitivities of several parameters such as window to wall ratio (WWR), Shading Coefficient (SC), U-value for wall (Uw) and solar absorption (α) are provided to design and optimize the thermal performance of residential buildings. It is found that U and α influence more on OTTV compared to other parameters. The analysis shows that about 14, 10 and 5% of residential building air conditioners have annual electricity consumption in the ranges 500 to 1000 kWh, 1000 to 2000 kWh and 7500 to 10000 kWh, respectively. The maximum, minimum and average annual electricity consumption of the air conditioner of residential buildings is 22055.5, 136.1 and 3708.8 kWh, respectively.
Price Responsiveness in District Heating: Single Houses and Residential Buildings—a Cross-Sectional Analysis  [PDF]
Stefan Hellmer
ISRN Economics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/324127
Abstract: Price responsiveness is argued to be one important factor determining the possibility for a natural monopoly such as a district heating company to exercise its monopoly power. Increased price responsiveness, measured, for example, by the own price elasticity, reduces monopoly power, as consumers increasingly reduce demand as a response to a price increase. However, consumers in single houses having individual metering have presumably higher price responsiveness compared to consumers in residential buildings using collective metering. One major question raised in this paper is thus whether single houses show larger price responsiveness compared to residential buildings. Using cross-sectional data for 187 networks in Sweden for the year 2007 indicates that even if single houses have higher price responsiveness, district heating reveals in general a very inelastic behavior. 1. Introduction The Swedish energy markets were reregulated in 1996 and this had a significant influence on the market for district heating. The district heating market consists of many local vertically integrated natural monopolists that produce and distribute hot water to end consumers. Before the reregulation these companies were run as regulated municipal companies, regulated through the municipal nonprofit law. After the reregulation the district heating plants is expected to operate in a businesslike manner (Electricity Act, SFS 1997:857). The reregulation also led to substantial shifts in ownership with many district heating plants being sold to private actors or turned into joint-stock companies. That district heating that constitutes a natural monopoly; that is, the average cost of production is decreasing as production increases up to at least the point where the entire demand is satisfied, has continuously been advocated by the Swedish Competition Authority [1] and the Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate [2]. One company can consequently always provide the entire market at lower cost than two or more companies. However, just because a company that holds a natural monopoly position in a local market for district heating does not necessarily mean that the company can exercise a monopoly power, the market needs to lack close substitutes. District heating companies have the natural monopoly power for providing district heating but not in the entire heat market covering other alternative systems such as pellet burners and different kind of heat exchangers. Close substitutes combined with high (positive) cross-price elasticity and high own price elasticity reduce any natural
Study on the Exigency Demands of Residential Buildings` Users  [PDF]
Razvan Giusca,Raluca Giusca,V. Corobceanu
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of the study is to emphasize the actual demands of residential buildings` users and to explore new methods, yet less used, that could improve the buildings environmental comfort. The residential buildings, constructed by man in order to function as shelter where multiple processes of the social and material life takes place, are influenced by many factors that have to be taken under consideration when projecting, constructing, using and post-using them. All aspects emphasized in this study should be first considered in the processes of their interaction and interdependency and then to be systemically approached and analyzed. During the second half of the twentieth century, the urban population knew an incredible growth. This growth led to an exponential increase of the energy consumption and a more than alarming exceeding of noxious gases in the air and wastage. There was a time when the energy consumption was considered an indication of the quality of life. Therefore, from the point of view of the energy consumption, many differences appeared between the developed countries and the developing ones. At the same time a person living in one of the developed countries has energy consumption twenty-five times greater than one living in a poor country. A popular idea was that we can fight poverty with increased energy consumption. However, the facts showed a disturbing reality energy wastage.
Life Cycle Energy of Low Rise Residential Buildings in Indian Context  [PDF]
Talakonukula Ramesh, Ravi Prakash, Karunesh Kumar Shukla
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2014.34012
Abstract: Life cycle energy of the building accounts for all energy inputs to the buildings during their intended service life. Buildings need to be constructed in such a way that energy consumption in their life cycle is minimal. Life Cycle Energy (LCE) consumption data of buildings is not available in public domain which is essentially required for building designers and policy makers to formulate strategies for reduction in LCE of buildings. The paper presents LCE of twenty (20) low rise residential buildings in Indian context. LCE of the studied buildings is varying from 160 - 380 kWh/m2 year (Primary). Based on the LCE data of studied buildings, an equation is proposed to readily reckon LCE of a new building.
Indoor Environmental Quality of Air Conditioned Residential Buildings in Extreme Dry Desert Climate  [PDF]
Farraj F. Al-Ajmi
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2018.68005
Abstract: In this study, the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in air conditioned residential buildings in a dry desert climate is examined from the perspective of occupants via two aspects: thermal comfort and indoor air quality. The study presents statistical data about the domestic-occupant thermal comfort sensations together with data describing the indoor air quality in Kuwaiti residential buildings. With respect to the latter, the overall IEQ acceptance using two measurements namely: physical measurements and subjective information collected via questionnaires, was used to evaluate 111 occupants living in twenty five air-conditioned residential buildings in the state of Kuwait. The operative temperature based on Actual Mean Vote (AMV) and Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) was identified using linear regression analysis of responses on the ASHRAE seven-point thermal sensation scale and was found to be 25.2°C and 23.3°C, respectively, in the summer season. Indoor air quality (IAQ) with respect to carbon dioxide concentration level was compared with the acceptable limits of international standards, i.e. ASHRAE Standard 62.1 [1]. The proposed overall IEQ acceptance findings in residential buildings show CO2 concentration level between 909 and 1250 ppm. However, this may be considered a higher level of CO2 concentration, which may require increasing ventilation rate through window operation or mechanical ventilation.
Seismic capacity evaluation of unreinforced masonry residential buildings in Albania  [PDF]
H. Bilgin,O. Korini
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-12-3753-2012
Abstract: This study evaluates seismic capacity of the unreinforced masonry buildings with the selected template designs constructed per pre-modern code in Albania considering nonlinear behaviour of masonry. Three residential buildings with template designs were selected to represent an important percentage of residential buildings in medium-size cities located in seismic regions of Albania. Selection of template designed buildings and material properties were based on archive and site survey in several cities of Albania. Capacity curves of investigated buildings were determined by pushover analyses conducted in two principal directions. The seismic performances of these buildings have been determined for various earthquake levels. Seismic capacity evaluation was carried out in accordance with FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) 440 guidelines. Reasons for building damages in past earthquakes are examined using the results of capacity assessment of investigated buildings. It is concluded that of the residential buildings with the template design, with the exception of one, are far from satisfying required performance criteria. Furthermore, deficiencies and possible solutions to improve the capacity of investigated buildings are discussed.
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