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Wild food plants of Remote Oceania
Will C. McClatchey
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 2012, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.2012.034
Abstract: Agricultural societies partly depend upon wild foods. Relationships between an agricultural society and its wild foods can be explored by examining how the society responds through colonization of new lands that have not been previously inhabited. The oldest clear example of this phenomenon took place about 5000 years ago in the tropical Western Pacific at the “boundary” interface between Near and Remote Oceania. An inventory of wild and domesticated food plants used by people living along “the remote side of ” that interface has been prepared from the literature. This was then assessed for the roles of plants at the time of original colonization of Remote Oceania. The majority of species are wild foods, and most of these are used as leafy vegetables and fruits. The wild food plants mostly serve as supplements to domesticated species, although there are a few that can be used as substitutes for traditional staples.
The use of wild plants as food in pre-industrial Sweden
Ingvar Svanberg
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 2012, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.2012.039
Abstract: This paper is a review of the actual gathering and use of wild edible plants in the 18th and 19th centuries, with a brief concluding discussion on the present day use of wild plants as food within Sweden. The peasants and the nomads in pre-industrial Sweden utilised very few wild plant taxa as food. Many even despised the wild fruits and green plants. Some plants and fruits were earlier mostly eaten fresh on the spot, or gathered for consumption in bread, gruel or soup. Other fruits were dried or preserved in other ways. In times of food shortages the amount of wild plants increased in the diet, but still the peasantry and nomads were often able to use fish and game to provide enough nutrients. With access to cheap sugar in the early 20th century wild fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus L., V. vitis-idaea L., and Rubus chamaemorus L.) increased in importance, especially among urban-dwellers and within food industry. In the last few decades fungi have also become part of the urban diet. Fifty years ago working class people gathered only Cantharellus cibarius (Fr.) and occasionally Boletus edulis Bull. Nowadays more taxa are utilised within the Swedish households, and especially the easy to pick Cantharellus tubaeformis (Pers.) has become very popular recently. Harvesting fruits and mushrooms in the forests is a popular pastime for many urban people, but also a source of income for immigrants and especially foreign seasonal labour. The only traditional green wild food plant that is regularly eaten in contemporary Sweden is Urtica dioica L.
Potential for Commercialization and Value Chain Improvement of Wild Food and Medicinal Plants for Livelihood Enhancement in Uganda  [cached]
Akankwasah Barirega,John RS Tabuti,Patrick Van Damme,Jacob Godfrey Agea
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Uganda is endowed with a wide diversity of wild plant species that can be commercialized for livelihood enhancement and poverty reduction. These wild plants are increasingly becoming a valuable source of livelihoods for many people through household use as well as trading as medicine, food and craft materials. However existing literature on commercialization of wild food and medicinal plants in Uganda is largely anecdotal and disjointed. In this review, we analyze available literature on importance of wild plants in sustaining people’s livelihoods, value chains as production and marketing approaches in commercialization of wild plants, the demand and supply for wild plants products and its implication for commercialization of wild food and medicinal plants, ecological implications for commercializing wild plants and the potential for wild plant commercialization to contribute to household income. The literature points to gaps in literature, which necessitate further studies to assess the importance of wild plants in the daily life of households, market potential of the wild plants and their contribution to the local people’s livelihoods.
Wild edible plants in Ethiopia: a review on their potential to combat food insecurity  [PDF]
Lulekal, Ermias,Asfaw, Zemede,Kelbessa, Ensermu,Van Damme, Patrick
Afrika Focus , 2011,
Abstract: This work reviews literature on ethnobotanical knowledge of wild edible plants and their potential role in combating food insecurity in Ethiopia. Information on a total of 413 wild edible plants belonging to 224 genera and 77 families was compiled in this review. Shrubs represented 31% of species followed by trees (30%), herbs (29%) and climbers (9%). Families Fabaceae (35 species), Tiliaceae (20) and Capparidaceae (19) were found to be represented by the highest number of edible species. About 56% (233) of species have edibility reports from more than one community in Ethiopia. Fruits were reported as the commonly utilized edible part in 51% of species. It was found that studies on wild edible plants of Ethiopia cover only about 5% of the country’s districts which indicates the need for more ethnobotanical research addressing all districts. Although there have been some attempts to conduct nutritional analyses of wild edible plants, available results were found to be insignificant when compared to the wild edible plant wealth of the country. Results also show that wild edible plants of Ethiopia are used as supplementary, seasonal or survival food sources in many cultural groups, and hence play a role in combating food insecurity. The presence of anthropogenic and environmental factors affecting the wild plant wealth of the country calls for immediate action so as to effectively document, produce a development plan and utilize the plants.
Prioritizing Wild Medicinal and Food Plants with Potential for Commercialization and Value Chain Improvement for Livelihood Enhancement and Poverty Reduction in Uganda
Akankwasah Barirega,Jacob Godfrey Agea,Patrick Van Damme
Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Uganda is endowed with a diversity of wild and cultivated plant species that can be commercialized for livelihood enhancement and poverty reduction. These wild plants are increasingly becoming a valuable source of livelihoods for many people through household use and trading as medicine, food or craft materials. However existing literature on commercialization of wild food and medicinal plants in Uganda is largely anecdotal and disjointed. The objectives of this study were to (i) to identify wild food and medicinal plants sold in capital markets in Kampala (ii) To rank wild food and medicinal plants with potential for commercialization (iii) To identify challenges affecting wild medicinal and food plants trade in Uganda. A market survey was conducted in the markets of Kampala Capital City to identify wild and semi wild food and medicinal plants on the market. A total of 48 wild and semi wild food and medicinal plant species were recorded on the market. Using commercialization index, the wild plants were ranked according to their commercialization potential. It is evident from this study that wild plants with commercialization potential do exist on the Ugandan markets. It is recommended that in-depth value chain analysis of potential plants be conducted and business capacity of traders be developed.
Wild plants used for food by Hungarian ethnic groups living in the Carpathian Basin
Andrea Dénes,Nóra Papp,Dániel Babai,Bálint Czúcz
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 2012, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.2012.040
Abstract: A list of plant species used for food in Hungary and among Hungarian ethnic groups of the Carpathian Basin during the 19th and 20th centuries was compiled from 71 ethnographic and ethnobotanical sources and a survey among contemporary Hungarian botanists. Species used as food, spice, beverage or occasional snacks were collected. Sources mention 236 plant species belonging to 68 families. Most wild fleshy fruits (mostly Rosa, Rubus, Cornus, Ribes, Vaccinium spp.), dry fruits and seeds (Fagus, Quercus, Corylus, Castanea, Trapa spp.), several green vegetables (e.g. Rumex, Urtica, Humulus, Chenopodiaceae spp., Ranunculus ficaria), bulbs and tubers (Lathyrus tuberosus, Helianthus tuberosus, Chaerophyllum bulbosum, Allium spp.) used for food in Europe, are also known to be consumed in Hungary. A characteristic feature of Hungarian plant use was the mass consumption of the underground parts of several marsh (e.g. Typha, Phragmites, Sagittaria, Alisma, Butomus, Bolboschoenus spp., as well as the endemic Armoracia macrocarpa) and steppe species (e.g. Crambe tataria, Rumex pseudonatronatus). Consuming wild food plants is still important among Hungarians living in Transylvania: even nowadays more than 40 species are gathered and used at some locations.
Archival data on wild food plants used in Poland in 1948
?ukasz ?uczaj
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-4-4
Abstract: Herbarium specimens were identified and a database was created.Ninety-eight taxa identified to genus or species level, including 71 botanical species, identified using herbarium specimens, were found. On average only 11 edible plant species per locality were listed, the longest list included 39 species. No correlation between latitude and the number of edible species was found, whereas there was small but significant correlation with the longitude. Fruits were the most frequently collected part of plants. Most plants were primarily collected by women and children. Children both helped parents to collect wild fruits and also ate many species raw, which were not consumed by adults, but had often been eaten in the past. Eighteen of the taxa had not been reported in a recent comprehensive review of edible plants of Poland. Stratiotes aloides, used as a famine vegetable in the ?ód? region, has never been reported as edible in any ethnobotanical literature.The results undermine the conclusions of a recent comprehensive review of edible plants of Poland, which stated that many more wild edible plants have been collected in the Carpathians than in lowland Poland. However such results were shown to be caused by the substantially larger number of ethnographic studies undertaken in the Carpathians. In fact, large numbers of edible plant species were collected in the mid-20th century in a few regions, particularly along the eastern border, in the Carpathians and in communities originating from the expanded Soviet Union, which had been resettled to the north-west of Poland in 1945.?uczaj & Szymański recently published a review of the literature concerning wild edible plants of Poland, including a list of species which have been consumed in Poland over the last 200 years [1]. During the literature search for this review, vast amounts of unpublished archival material on the gathering of wild plants were discovered (stored in universities, museums, the Polish Folklore Society in Wr
Toxicological and toxicogenetic effects of plants used in popular medicine and in cattle food
Ribeiro, Lúcia R.;Bautista, Ana Rita P. L.;Silva, Ana Rita;Sales, Liana A.;Salvadori, Daisy M. F.;Maia, Paulo C.;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1991, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761991000600022
Abstract: toxicological and toxicogenetic effects of aqueous (tea) and hexanica fruit extract of indigofera suffruticosa mill, and hydroalcoholic root extract od solanum agrarium stendt. were evaluated in balb c male mice intraperitoneally exposed. a hepatotoxic effect was observed just for animals treated with aqueous fruit extract of i. suffruticosa. in relation to the toxicogenetic effect, just the group trreated with 12.5% of toxic dose of aqueous fruit extract of i. suffruticosa showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations (cytogenetic effect), although a slight increase was also observed for the highest dose (25% of lf50_ of hydroalcoholic root extract of s. agrarium. the results obtanied show that before s. agrarium is used as medicine and before the wide use of i. suffruticosa in cattle food, careful evaluation must be done.
Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria)
Christoph Schunko, Christian R Vogl
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-6-17
Abstract: Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here.Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam).Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons between regions and over time possible. The classification following gathering and use variables can be used to better understand how people classify the elements of their environment. The findings of this study add to discussions about food heritage, popularized by organizations like Slow Food, and bear significant potential for organic farmers.In Europe fast changing lifestyles and especially lack of time have recently caused a severe reduction of gathering wild plants and mushrooms [1,2], which in turn results in a l
Contribution of Wild and Semi-Wild Food Plants to Overall Household Diet in Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, Uganda
Jacob Godfrey Agea,James Munga Kimondo,Clement Akais Okia,Refaat Atalla Ahmed Abohassan,Joseph Obua,John Hall,Zewge Teklehaimanot
Agricultural Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/aj.2011.134.144
Abstract: The contribution of Wild and Semi-wild Food Plants (WSWFPs) to overall household diet was assessed in Mutunda and Kiryandongo, sub-counties of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, Uganda. The assessments were made using a combination of methods namely: household using semi-structured questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). A total of 385 households from the two sub-counties were selected for household survey following the method described by Krejcie and Morgan. Each informant was asked to list, the preferred WSWFPs consumed in the area and to estimate the amount harvested by members of his or her household in the previous 12 months period. In addition, they were asked to report whether or not WSWFPs were used by members of the household during the previous 12 months period. They were also asked to report whether or not the WSWFPs was given away and/or received by members of the household during the previous 12 months period. In addition, they were asked to estimate how long in a year their household members depend on WSWFPs. FGDs were held to construct seasonal calendar of availability of different WSWFPs consumed in the area. Contribution of WSWFPs to household diet was computed using two generic types of measures-mean per capita harvest and mean per capita use (consumption). The durations upon which households depend on WSWFPs was computed and presented in a chart. About 62 WSWFPs belonging to 31 botanical families were reported as commonly being consumed in the study area. Their consumption comprised a major part (7-9 months) of the dietary intake of the poor households. Many are almost available throughout the year for gathering with exception of a few species that are gathered mainly in the rainy or dry seasons. Mean per capita harvests varied substantially by species as high as 31.59 g day-1 in Amaranthus dubius to about 0.04 g day-1 as in Lantana camara. Like mean per capita harvest, mean per capita consumption also varied from one species to another. Mean per capita consumption of some the WSWFPs such as Hyptis spicigera (107.02 g day-1) and Borassus aethiopum (91.82 g day-1) were higher than the reported vegetable and fruit per capita consumption of 79.45 g day-1 in sub-Saharan Africa although, much although much lower than the world average of 205.48 g consumed per person per day. There is a need for policy-makers and technocrats both at the local (counties, sub-counties, parishes, villages) and national levels (e.g., Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries) to create policies by-laws or any other avenues for mainstreaming, the management of some of the WSWFPs with high per capita harvest and per capita consumption rates into the existing, the farming systems and/or any the programs (e.g., Plan for Modernisation of Agriculture) aimed at addressing household poverty and food insecurity. While wild foods cannot entirely bridge, the existing supply and demand gaps of poor household food requirements without them, the gaps woul
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