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Forest Tenure and Sustainable Forest Management  [PDF]
Jacek P. Siry, Kathleen McGinley, Frederick W. Cubbage, Pete Bettinger
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.55046
Abstract: We reviewed the principles and key literature related to forest tenure and sustainable forest management, and then examined the status of sustainable forestry and land ownership at the aggregate national level for major forested countries. The institutional design principles suggested by Ostrom are well accepted for applications to public, communal, and private lands. The analyses of countries as a whole suggest that problems of forest land loss and sustainable forest management are related to the amount of public lands owned, as well as the difference between developed and developing countries. Developed countries have largely achieved a stable level of land use and resource extraction after centuries of exploitation of forests and natural resources. Many developed countries do have greater amounts of private forest land than developing countries, which have occurred as the countries transfer lands to private owners in the course of development. Public lands and management approaches require diligence, but can be developed to meet the design criteria suggested by tenure rights theorists. Private or communal ownership is often considered superior, but also must meet the criteria suggested above in order to foster sustainable forest management in poor countries.
职业生涯关注下CEO预期任期对盈余管理行为的影响
Impact of CEO’s expected tenure on earnings management behavior in career concerns
 [PDF]

饶育蕾,郭世俊,王颖
RAO Yulei
, GUO Shijun, WANG Ying

- , 2016, DOI: 1672-3104(2016)03-0098-09
Abstract: 摘 要: 从CEO职业生涯关注视角,选取2007―2014年我国沪深A股上市公司为样本,实证检验CEO预期任期对盈余管理行为的影响。结果发现:CEO预期任期与公司应计和真实盈余管理行为呈负相关关系,说明长的预期任期在某种程度上能抑制公司的盈余管理行为。进一步研究发现,上述结论在非面临换届的样本组中成立,而面临换届压力的样本组中CEO的预期任期不能抑制应计盈余管理行为;当CEO为新任职时,预期任期也不能抑制应计盈余管理行为;对于已过退休年龄的CEO而言,预期任期对应计盈余和真实盈余管理行为均不具有影响关系。
Abstract: By taking the perspective of CEO’s career concerns, the present study selects samples from Chinese listed companies from 2007 to 2014 to undertake an empirical test on the impact of CEOs’ expected tenure on earnings management behavior. It is found that the longer the CEO’s expected tenure, the less accrual earnings management and real earnings management of listed companies, which illustrates that longer expected tenure can suppress, to a certain extent, the earnings management in the company. Further study shows that this relationship is also significant in the group without transition pressure. For the group with transition pressure, CEO’s expected tenure does not inhibit accrual earnings management. Besides, this relationship is the same for the new CEO. However, for some CEOs who are over retirement age, expected tenure does not inhibit accrual earnings management and real earnings management
Ecological-economic evaluation of the agricultural land tenure in the market management system of agricultural
E.V. Mishenin,T.I. Piznyak
Marketing ì Mened?ment Innovacìj , 2011,
Abstract: A scientific guidance for evaluation of the ecological-economic management level during the ecological audit in the agricultural natural resource use has been formulated. Such evaluation is based on an integral valuation of the ecological state of the land.
Can REDD+ Save the Forest? The Role of Payments and Tenure  [PDF]
Edward B. Barbier,Anteneh T. Tesfaw
Forests , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/f3040881
Abstract: A recent policy response to halting global forest deforestation and degradation, and any resulting greenhouse gas emissions is REDD+, which also includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. Although still in its infancy, the success of REDD+ will depend significantly on whether it can be economically viable and if any resulting payments are sufficient to cover the opportunity cost plus any transaction cost. Where tenure security over forest is weak, REDD+ can pose a risk for forest communities, who could be dispossessed, excluded and marginalized. This review of existing studies explores how payment for avoided deforestation, and forest tenure impact the success of REDD+ projects in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and equity. Effectiveness refers to the difference between deforestation with and without REDD+, efficiency refers to avoiding deforestation at minimal cost, and equity refers to the implication of REDD+ on benefit sharing. We conclude that the potential success or failure of REDD+ as a means to reduce deforestation and carbon emission on forest commons depends critically on designing projects that work within existing informal tenure institutions to ensure that carbon storage benefits align with livelihood benefits.
Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Customary Marine Tenure in the Indo-Pacific  [cached]
Joshua Cinner
Ecology and Society , 2005,
Abstract: For generations communities in the Western Pacific have employed a range of resource management techniques (including periodic reef closures, gear restrictions, entry limitations, and the protection of spawning aggregations) to limit marine resource use. Localized control over marine resources, commonly known as customary marine tenure (CMT), is the legal and cultural foundation for many of these practices. Because of their perceived potential to meet both conservation and community goals, these traditional resource management techniques are being revitalized by communities, governments, and NGOs as an integral part of national and regional marine conservation plans in the Pacific. However, the viability of conservation strategies built on a foundation of marine tenure may be in question, as it remains unclear whether marine tenure systems will be able to withstand the profound social and economic changes sweeping the Pacific region. Numerous studies have suggested that changes in marine tenure are attributed to social and economic factors, however, specific relationships between socioeconomic conditions and marine tenure are still not well understood. This paper examines the social and economic characteristics of 21 coastal communities in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, and explores the characteristics of the communities that employ exclusive marine tenure to answer the following questions: Which socioeconomic factors are related to the presence of CMT regimes? How might socioeconomic factors influence the ability of communities to employ or maintain CMT regimes? Distance to market, immigration, dependence on fishing, and conflicts were found to be related to the presence of highly exclusive marine tenure systems. Exploring these relationships will help conservation practitioners better understand how future social changes may influence the foundation of conservation and development projects.
Thou Shalt Not Think: Editors’ Voice in an English Textbook to Propagate Vested Agendas  [PDF]
Jabreel Asghar
Education Research International , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/806320
Abstract: Textbooks, particularly in developing countries, are used as a tool to propagate the agendas of state and other groups in power. This paper informs the reader on the issue of how a tertiary level English textbook used editors’ voice to form the opinion of its readers by shaping facts and perspectives depicted in the texts. The editors of the textbook not only censored the information to block autonomous learning, but also attempted to misrepresent the themes of various texts to meet the censorship guidelines set by the textbook-board and/or the state. The paper aims to raise the question of learner autonomy and learners’ right to access information in its original form to be interpreted independently in the schematic background of each individual. By pointing out the issue and initiating the discussion, the paper hopes to bring awareness in the less explored area of the use of language power in the Pakistani educational context. 1. Introduction Textbooks have a central role in educational setting and are considered an essential tool to achieve the learning goals. This status has given substantial significance to textbook as a learning tool, due to which greater care is required while selecting and designing the contents, structure, and layout of textbooks in order to suit learning needs and goals. Apart from catering to learners’ interests and learning needs, the texts and the selection of texts may have a hidden agenda to promote the desired ideologies of various sections of a society and state. Such a dimension of textbooks also accentuates the power of education which a state or certain group/s may exploit by controlling the learning materials and hence minds of people. This paper specifically refers to the controlling power of involved groups in developing a textbook [1] by analysing the predetermined and moulded message of texts embedded in a follow-up section titled as “Theme” written by the editors of the book. The purpose of this section in the textbook is to inform learners of the main idea of the text and other related information essential to understand the texts. However, the editors of the textbook have taken this opportunity to propagate certain notions, misleading students’ understanding of the texts towards false or inaccurate perception of the world. This paper uncovers this particular aspect of misusing the language power to serve vested interest of certain individuals and/or groups to intentionally or unintentionally shape the desired ideologies among students at a stage which is significant in forming their own view of the world. 2.
Land tenure insecurity, vulnerability to climate-induced disaster and opportunities for redress in southern Africa  [cached]
Tigere Chagutah
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.4102/jamba.v5i2.79
Abstract: Land tenure is an important variable impacting on vulnerability to climate-related disaster. Land tenure insecurity is widespread in southern Africa and manifests itself in a number of ways that accentuate vulnerability to climate change impacts. Insecure tenure is seen to heighten vulnerability against growing demand for land for residential purposes and working space in urban areas while in the rural areas insecure tenure militates against diversified livelihoods and hinders investment in appropriate technologies and uptake of sound environmental management practices. Using the focused synthesis method, this article (1) maps the intersections between land tenure insecurity and vulnerability to climate-induced disaster in southern Africa; and (2) identifies the opportunities tenure reforms hold for vulnerability reduction in a region predicted to suffer widespread impacts from climate change. The paper contends that land tenure is a critical component of the milieu of factors – economic, social, cultural, institutional, political and even psychological – that are known to shape vulnerability and determine the environment that people live in. The study finds that land tenure reforms can help to reduce vulnerability and enhance community resilience to climate change. In this regard, the article outlines how tenure reforms can help build diverse household livelihoods, improve environmental management, particularly in the rural areas, and encourage investment in robust housing and safe neighbourhoods among the urban poor – all of which are integral to the region’s response to climate change.
The Methodology Used to Interpret Customary Land Tenure
G Pienaar
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2012,
Abstract: Customary land tenure is normally not based on codified or statutory sources, but stems from customary traditions and norms. When westernised courts have to interpret and adjudicate these customary traditions and norms, the normal rules of statutory interpretation cannot be followed. The court has to rely on evidence of the traditional values of land use to determine the rules connected to land tenure. Previously courts in many mixed jurisdictions relied on common or civil law legal principles to determine the nature of customary land tenure and lay down the principles to adjudicate customary land disputes among traditional communities, or between traditional and westernised communities in the same jurisdiction. Many examples of such westernised approach can be found in case law of Canada and South Africa. The interpretation of the nature of customary land tenure according to common law or civil law principles has been increasingly rejected by higher courts in South Africa and Canada, e.g. in Alexkor Ltd v The Richtersveld Community 2004 5 SA 469 (CC) and Delgamuukw v British Columbia 1997 3 SCR 1010. This paper explores the methodology the courts should follow to determine what the distinctive nature of customary land tenure is. As customary land tenure is not codified or based on legislation, the court has to rely, in addition to the evidence of indigenous peoples, on the expert evidence of anthropologists and sociologists in determining the nature of aboriginal title (in Canada) and indigenous land tenure (in South Africa). The court must approach the rules of evidence and interpret the evidence with a consciousness of the special nature of aboriginal claims and the evidentiary difficulties in proving a right which originates in times where there were no written records of the practices, customs and traditions engaged in. The court must not undervalue the evidence presented simply because that evidence does not conform precisely with the evidentiary standards that would be applied in, for example, a private law tort case. KEYWORDS: Aboriginal title; customary land tenure; natural law; legal positivism; mixed jurisdiction; indigenous law; interpretation (of customary law); evidence (of customary land tenure)
Promotion and tenure in nursing education: Lessons learned  [cached]
Lisa G. O'Connor,Celeste K. Yanni
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/jnep.v3n5p78
Abstract: Current nursing faculty spend part of their careers in service settings before they move to the academic milieu. The promotion and tenure of process may not be familiar to novice nurse educators prior to their entry into the academy. Fewer nursing academics successfully achieve tenure than other disciplines outside of allied health. These low numbers have been attributed to underperformance in the domain of scholarship by these female professionals socialized to practice and service. This article explains the essential components of the tripartite process necessary for achieving success in the promotion and tenure process. The authors draw on their own experiences and that of their colleagues locally and nationally to demystify this career path. Intended as a primer on the promotion and tenure process for new nurse educators the article concludes with eight bulleted admonitions and commentary to inform and streamline successful achievement of career goals.
Tenure, tourism and timber in Quintana Roo, Mexico: Land tenure changes in forest Ejidos after agrarian reforms  [cached]
James A. Barsimantov,Alexis E. Racelis,Grenville Barnes,Maria DiGiano
International Journal of the Commons , 2010,
Abstract: We present and apply an analytical framework for understanding land tenure change in the wake of radical land policy modifications in Mexico’s communal tenure system. We posit that the changes in land tenure vary as a result of a complex interplay of drivers external and internal to the land tenure unit. Using interview and socio-economic data, we apply this framework to six ejidos in Quintana Roo, Mexico in order to understand the extent to which these ejidos have shifted towards private individual property as promoted in the 1992 amendment of Article 27 of the Mexican Constitution. In our case study ejidos, we conclude that external factors, including community forestry, tourism, and urbanization, have synergized with factors internal to the ejido, such as ethnicity, livelihood strategies, migration, and attitudes, leading to different trajectories in land tenure arrangements.
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