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Radical Neoliberalism in British Columbia: Remaking Rural Geographies  [cached]
Nathan Young
The Canadian Journal of Sociology , 2008,
Abstract: This paper argues that rural regions of British Columbia, Canada, are currently the subject of a radical political-economic experiment dismantling traditional Fordist and Keynesian approaches to economic development and replacing them with neoliberal strategies. This experiment targets both corporate resource economies and local or community-based economies. The paper argues that current reforms aim to enhance flexibility in major resource sectors (particularly in forestry) by "liberating" corporate actors from traditional obligations to environment, labour, and communities. This strategy is buttressed by concurrent reforms to community development policies to promote "entrepreneurial" forms of development that (it is assumed) can be achieved independently of the dominant resource economy. Using field research from several case communities in coastal British Columbia, the paper argues that these developments are having a strong impact on traditional economic structures and practices, as neoliberal reforms seek to disaggregate corporate and community-level economies.
A Comprehensive DNA Barcode Library for the Looper Moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) of British Columbia, Canada  [PDF]
Jeremy R. deWaard,Paul D. N. Hebert,Leland M. Humble
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018290
Abstract: The construction of comprehensive reference libraries is essential to foster the development of DNA barcoding as a tool for monitoring biodiversity and detecting invasive species. The looper moths of British Columbia (BC), Canada present a challenging case for species discrimination via DNA barcoding due to their considerable diversity and limited taxonomic maturity.
Taxonomic synopsis of invasive and native Spartina (Poaceae, Chloridoideae) in the Pacific Northwest (British Columbia, Washington and Oregon), including the first report of Spartina ×townsendii for British Columbia, Canada
Jeffery Saarela
PhytoKeys , 2012, DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.10.2734
Abstract: Five species of the grass genus Spartina are invading salt marshes along the Pacific coast of North America, of which three have been documented in British Columbia, Canada, in only the last decade. A taxonomic synopsis of the two native (S. gracilis, S. pectinata) and five introduced Spartina taxa (S. anglica, S. alterniflora, S. densiflora, S. patens, S. ×townsendii) in the Pacific Northwest is presented to facilitate their identification, including nomenclature, a new taxonomic key, new descriptions for a subset of taxa, and representative specimens. Spartina ×townsendii is newly reported for the flora of British Columbia. The non-coastal species S. pectinata is reported from an urban site in British Columbia, the first confirmed report of the taxon for the province. Lectotypes are newly designated for S. anglica C.E. Hubb., S. maritimasubvar.fallax St.-Yves, and S. cynosuroides f. major St.-Yves.
Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada
Cheryl Lans, Nancy Turner, Gerhard Brauer, Grant Lourenco, Karla Georges
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-2-31
Abstract: Trinidad and Tobago is located northeast of the Venezuelan coast and has a humid tropical climate. British Columbia (BC) is the western-most province in Canada and has a temperate climate. This paper describes a selection of the ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and Tobago and in British Columbia. These places are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American horse racing circuit. Since racehorses and jockeys are often in transition from other regions and between Canada (including Woodbine racetrack in Ontario, the Aqueduct racetrack and Belmont Park, both in New York) and the Caribbean, one of the goals of this research was to investigate commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine between these two regions. Very little research has been conducted on ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses and there are few comparative studies. There are some shared cultural features between Canada and the Caribbean derived from common Amerindian culture, British colonial histories, and substantial and continuous migration from the Caribbean to North America. An estimated 150,000 Trinidadians are currently living in Canada.The population of Trinidad, just over 1 million people has equal proportions of African-origin and East Indian-origin (39%). Approximately 15% of the population consists of mixed raced persons and the remainder consists of minority groups (>2%) of European-origin, Middle-Eastern-origin and Chinese-origin people. British Columbia has a total population of 4.168 million people. The 1996 census revealed that 50% of the population was of European origin and 27% of Asian origin. The population of Chinese origin is estimated at 253,382. The 2001 Census revealed that the top 10 languages spoken in BC are: English, Chinese (including Cantonese and Mandarin), Punjabi, then five Western European languages, Tagalog and Korean.There are major differences in vegetation between the two areas. However a few studies hav
Integrated Management of Mountain Caribou and Forestry in Southern British Columbia
Keith Simpson,John P. Kelsall,Maria Leung
Rangifer , 1996,
Abstract: Integrated Management of Mountain Caribou and Forestry in Southern British Columbia
Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Associated with Mussels, British Columbia, Canada  [PDF]
Marsha Taylor,Lorraine McIntyre,Mark Ritson,Jason Stone,Roni Bronson,Olga Bitzikos,Wade Rourke,Eleni Galanis,Outbreak Investigation Team
Marine Drugs , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/md11051669
Abstract: In 2011, a Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) outbreak occurred in British Columbia (BC), Canada that was associated with cooked mussel consumption. This is the first reported DSP outbreak in BC. Investigation of ill individuals, traceback of product and laboratory testing for toxins were used in this investigation. Sixty-two illnesses were reported. Public health and food safety investigation identified a common food source and harvest area. Public health and regulatory agencies took actions to recall product and notify the public. Shellfish monitoring program changes were implemented after the outbreak. Improved response and understanding of toxin production will improve management of future DSP outbreaks.
Carbon Credits on Private Lands in British Columbia  [PDF]
Balbinder Deo, Han Donker, Michael Schulz
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2012.34019
Abstract:

This study assesses the production potential of carbon credits on private land in Central British Columbiathrough pine forest plantation projects. This study identifies the quality characteristics for determining the quality standards for carbon credits, and then uses those quality characteristics along with the standardized procedure to assess the quality and quantity of carbon that can be fixed in forest projects and thus be registered on the carbon exchange as carbon credits or offsets for trading on per hectare basis. Using the Table Interpolation Program for Stand Yields (TIPSY) which is a tree growth simulation model, sites of various productivities (Site Index values of 24, 21, 18, and 12) in the PGTSA, BC, Canada were modeled to generate data related to stands of trees for timber volume, lumber production, and subsequent carbon credit/offsets generation. Using data and information from the industry and the Government of British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Range (BCMoFR), cost-related data for forest stand establishment and maintenance was generated. Using market pricing methodology for offsets in the over the counter (OTC) market, Internal Rate of Return (IRR) calculations were performed. The results of the study indicated that rate of return varied in the range of 0.27% to 0.51% over a period of 57 to 100 years. Only three out of sixteen modeled production scenarios indicated positive rates of return. Overall, the study concluded that sequestering carbon in forest projects on private land inPGSTA,BCis not restricted by any production quality criterion, but that it is financially unviable given the current costing and carbon offset pricing regimes.

Temporal and spatial trends in precipitation chemistry in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia  [cached]
Julian AHERNE,Alyse MONGEON,Shaun A. WATMOUGH
Journal of Limnology , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/jlimnol.2010.s1.4
Abstract: During the 1960s and 1970s, scientific evidence on the impacts of atmospheric acid deposition led to international negotiations to control emissions of compounds (primarily sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) oxides) that undergo long-range transport. More recently, there has been growing interest in acid rain research in western Canada, e.g., the Georgia Basin, British Columbia, where S and N emissions are expected to increase during the next two decades. In the current study, long-term trends (1990–2007) in precipitation chemistry were evaluated at four stations (Saturna, British Columbia; Egbert, Ontario; Chapais Quebec; and Kejimkujik, Nova Scotia) using the Mann-Kendall statistical test. Precipitation chemistry at Saturna suggests that the Georgia Basin is less influenced by anthropogenic (S and N) emissions compared with monitoring stations in eastern Canada; nonetheless, long-term (1990–2007) trends in precipitation chemistry at Saturna [pH (significant increase) sulphate (significant decrease) and nitrate (decrease)] mirrored those at sites in eastern Canada suggesting all stations (across Canada) have responded similarly to large-scale emissions reductions under the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement. The chemistry of precipitation and snow in the current study was well characterised by location and elevation, providing a way to estimate long-term mean annual base cation and chloride precipitation chemistry (ions showing no trend) at unmonitored sites for contiguous regions in the Georgia Basin.
Population Ecology of Caribou in British Columbia
D.R. Seip,D.B. Cichowski
Rangifer , 1996,
Abstract: The abundance and geographic range of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) decreased in many areas of British Columbia during the 1900's. Recent studies have found that predation during the summer is the major cause of mortality and current population declines. Increased moose {Alecs alces) populations may be related to past and current caribou declines by sustaining greater numbers of wolves (Canis lupus). Mortality rates were greater in areas where caribou calved in forested habitats, in close proximity to predators and moose. Caribou populations which had calving sites in alpine areas, islands, and rugged mountains experienced lower mortality and were generally stable or increasing. A predator-induced population decline in one area appeared to stabilize at low caribou densities, suggesting that the wolf predation rate may be density dependent.
A~nitrogen budget for the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia  [PDF]
J. N. Sutton,S. C. Johannessen,R. W. Macdonald
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-10-7135-2013
Abstract: Balanced budgets for dissolved inorganic N (DIN) and particulate N (PN) were constructed for the Strait of Georgia (SoG), a semi-enclosed coastal sea off the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. The dominant control on the N budget is the advection of DIN into and out of the SoG via Haro Strait. The annual influx of DIN by advection from the Pacific Ocean is 29 990 (±19 500)Mmol yr 1. The DIN flux advected out of the SoG is 24 300 (±15 500)Mmol yr 1. Most of the DIN that enters the SoG (~23 400 Mmol yr 1) is converted to particulate N (PN) in situ by primary production. However, most of the PN produced by primary production is remineralized (~22 000 Mmol yr 1) back into DIN within the top 50 m. The PN budget for the SoG was further constrained by nitrogen isotope composition (δ15N) that indicated regional differences in the source of PN. The southern Strait receives a much higher proportion of terrigenous PN, relative to marine PN, than does the northern Strait. The difference is due to the influence of the Fraser River, which discharges 1950 Mmol yr 1 of PN and 1660 Mmol yr 1 of DIN into the southern Strait. The overall anthropogenic contribution of PN and DIN to the SoG is minimal relative to natural sources (>30 000 Mmol yr 1). It is unlikely that the Strait will be affected by eutrophication in the near future, although anthropogenic N sources, such as wastewater outfalls, may have significant local effects.
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