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The Challenge of Managing Marine Biodiversity: A Practical Toolkit for a Cartographic, Territorial Approach  [PDF]
Carlo Nike Bianchi,Valeriano Parravicini,Monica Montefalcone,Alessio Rovere,Carla Morri
Diversity , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/d4040419
Abstract: An approach to the management of marine biodiversity was developed based on two levels of environmental diagnostics: (1) the characterization (to identify types), and (2) the evaluation (to define status and values). Both levels involve the production of maps, namely: (i) morphobathymetry and sedimentology; (ii) habitats; (iii) natural emergencies; (iv) degradation and risk; (v) weighted vulnerability; (vi) environmental quality; and, (vii) susceptibility to use. A general methodological aspect that must be stated first is the need of dividing the mapped area in territorial units corresponding to submultiples of the UTM grid and having different sizes according to the scale adopted. Territorial units (grid cells) are assigned to one of five classes of evaluation, ranging from high necessity of conservation or protection to non-problematic, unimportant or already compromised (according to the specific map) situations. Depending on the scale, these maps are suited for territorial planning (small scales, allowing for a synoptic view) or for administration and decision making (large scales, providing detail on local situations and problems). Mapping should be periodically repeated (diachronic cartography) to assure an efficient tool for integrated coastal zone management.
Managing Organizational Ineffectiveness: The Managerial Challenge  [PDF]
Okoh, L.,Onoriode, H.
International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment , 2011,
Abstract: Effective and efficient management of business organizations is a determinant of its success. Such success in turn depends on the quality of management. A necessary condition for an organization to keep afloat is its ability to relate input to output. This study examined organizational ineffectiveness as one of the managerial challenges and the possible method of managing it. From the review, it is evident that any organisation that lacks quality management is bound to slip off the entity concept governing business existence. The study therefore concluded that for organizations to succeed and compete favourably, it must be effectively managed and for it to be effectively managed, the quality and calibre of the management team must be highly sophisticated with a good blend of traditional and modern managerial technicalities. Thus, it was recommended that there should be adequate motivation, effective/efficient utilization of available resources, effective control and coordination, participatory democracy and management, effective information management and communication in organizations.
More Than Just Records: Analysing Natural History Collections for Biodiversity Planning  [PDF]
Darren F. Ward
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050346
Abstract: Natural History Collections (NHCs) play a central role as sources of data for biodiversity and conservation. Yet, few NHCs have examined whether the data they contain is adequately representative of local biodiversity. I examined over 15,000 databased records of Hymenoptera from 1435 locations across New Zealand collected over the past 90 years. These records are assessed in terms of their geographical, temporal, and environmental coverage across New Zealand. Results showed that the spatial coverage of records was significantly biased, with the top four areas contributing over 51% of all records. Temporal biases were also evident, with a large proportion (40%) of records collected within a short time period. The lack of repeat visits to specific locations indicated that the current set of NHC records would be of limited use for long-term ecological research. Consequently, analyses and interpretation of historical data, for example, shifts in community composition, would be limited. However, in general, NHC records provided good coverage of the diversity of New Zealand habitats and climatic environments, although fewer NHC records were represented at cooler temperatures (<5°C) and the highest rainfalls (>5000 mm/yr). Analyses of NHCs can be greatly enhanced by using simple techniques that examine collection records in terms of environmental and geographical space. NHCs that initiate a systematic sampling strategy will provide higher quality data for biodiversity research than ad hoc or point samples, as is currently the norm. Although NHCs provide a rich source of information they could be far better utilised in a range of large-scale ecological and conservation studies.
Biodiversity  [cached]
Editorial Office
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 2006, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v71i2-4.252
Abstract: The origin of life and the development of biodiversity
An approach to measuring biodiversity and its use in analysing the effect of nitrogen deposition on woodland butterfly populations in the Netherlands
Feest A,Spanos K
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry , 2009, DOI: 10.3832/ifor0487-002
Abstract: The current use of the term biodiversity is problematic in that it is frequently reduced to a paradigm of species richness through the interpretation of the CBD definition that identifies variability as the operative factor. Species richness actually conveys the least amount of information of all of the possible indices that could be used so a data treatment process has been established whereby taxonomic groups that have been sampled in a well-structured way can yield data that can be far more informative. An example using "biodiversity quality" indices for macrofungi following entry into a bespoke computer programme (Fungib) shows that these data can be established and they are capable of being assessed for statistical difference either between sites or over time. A case study showing how this approach can provide information on the mechanism whereby nitrogen deposition affects butterflies is given. It is clear that this approach can be of considerable use in establishing progress towards achieving the 2010 target of reducing the rate of loss of biodiversity by 2010 established by the CBD.
African Fish Biodiversity, Fishbase and Fishculture
Boden, G.,Musschoot, T.,Snoecks, J.
Tropicultura , 2004,
Abstract: At present, about 28 600 fish species are considered valid, whilst the total number is estimated at 30 000 to 35 000. For Africa, about 3 000 valid fresh- and brackish water species are currently recognized. Conserving the biodiversity of these fishes and at the same time managing their exploitation in a sustainable way is a difficult exercise. In sub-Saharan Africa, the importance of aquaculture is not very high. Nonetheless, 18 different species are used commercially, of which six have a non-African origin. Documenting and characterizing the ichthyodiversity is vital for conservation and sustainable development purposes. The presence of a large collection, a specialised library and a considerable know-how in the Africa Museum has led to various revisions, checklists, species (re)descriptions and regional guides. All the information on African fishes is currently being entered in FishBase, a huge freely accessible database with information on the taxonomy, ecology and various other aspects of the biology of fishes, based on scientific publications and reviewed by specialists. FishBase also includes high quality tools for applied research on fishes, such as a disease wizard, biogeography tools, trophic pyramids, and the species invasiveness tool.
A New Technique for Analysing Interacting Factors Affecting Biodiversity Patterns: Crossed-DPCoA  [PDF]
Sandrine Pavoine, Jacques Blondel, Anne B. Dufour, Amandine Gasc, Michael B. Bonsall
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054530
Abstract: We developed an approach for analysing the effects of two crossed factors A and B on the functional, taxonomic or phylogenetic composition of communities. The methodology, known as crossed-DPCoA, defines a space where species, communities and the levels of the two factors are organised as a set of points. In this space, the Euclidean distance between two species-specific points is a measure of the (functional, taxonomic or phylogenetic) dissimilarity. The communities are positioned at the centroid of their constitutive species; and the levels of two factors at the centroid of the communities associated with them. We develop two versions for crossed-DPCoA, the first one moves the levels of factor B to the centre of the space and analyses the axes of highest variance in the coordinates of the levels of factor A. It is related to previous ordination approaches such as partial canonical correspondence analysis and partial non-symmetrical correspondence analysis. The second version projects all points on the orthogonal complement of the space generated by the principal axes of factor B. This second version should be preferred when there is an a priori suspicion that factor A and B are associated. We apply the two versions of crossed-DPCoA to analyse the phylogenetic composition of Central European and Mediterranean bird communities. Applying crossed-DPCoA on bird communities supports the hypothesis that allopatric speciation processes during the Quaternary occurred in open and patchily distributed landscapes, while the lack of geographic barriers to dispersal among forest habitats may explain the homogeneity of forest bird communities over the whole western Palaearctic. Generalizing several ordination analyses commonly used in ecology, crossed-DPCoA provides an approach for analysing the effects of crossed factors on functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity, environmental and geographic structure of species niches, and more broadly the role of genetics on population structures.
Managing Potato Biodiversity to Cope with Frost Risk in the High Andes: A Modeling Perspective  [PDF]
Bruno Condori, Robert J. Hijmans, Jean Francois Ledent, Roberto Quiroz
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081510
Abstract: Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes –representing genetic variability- were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri) and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme). The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance –e.g. clean seed, strategic watering- to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the impact of frosts and thus the vulnerability of the system to abiotic stressors.
Imaging and Documenting Gammarideans  [PDF]
Carolin Haug,Gerd Mayer,Verena Kutschera,Dieter Waloszek,Andreas Maas,Joachim T. Haug
International Journal of Zoology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/380829
Abstract: We give an overview of available techniques for imaging and documenting applied to gammarideans and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Although recent techniques, such as confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB SEM), or computed microtomography (μCT), provide new possibilities to detect and document structures, these high-tech devices are expensive, and access to them is often limited. Alternatively, there are many possibilities to enhance the capabilities of established techniques such as macrophotography and light microscopy. We discuss improvements of the illumination with polarized light and the possibilities of utilizing the autofluorescence of animals such as the gammarideans. In addition, we present software-based enhancing tools such as image fusion and image stitching. 1. Introduction Imaging and documenting specimens is an important part of the basic biological investigations, particularly of morphological and taxonomic work. Informative images are also required for oral or poster presentations. In recent years, new documentation techniques for zoomorphological investigations have been developed. Studying the morphology appears to have become an increasingly “high-tech” field of science, demanding complex machines and fast computers with complicated software packages. Despite this, new ideas involving facile and inexpensive methods and free computer software capable of running on older computers have become available and can improve classical morphological approaches significantly. Notable among these new high-tech methods are tools for three-dimensional documentation, such as different types of computed tomography (CT) (e.g., [1]) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM) (e.g., [2, 3]). The new tools for enhancing more classical methods are mainly based on computer algorithms, such as image fusion or image stitching (e.g., [4, 5]), in addition to 3D approaches such as structure from motion (e.g., [6, 7]). Furthermore, the combination of different methods and also the adoption of techniques from one field into another have yielded promising results. New techniques can also offer new insights. Former complex preparation processes that were necessary to answer certain questions may become superfluous (at least in some cases). They have been superseded by new methods yielding comparable results which may be faster and/or do not require the destruction of rare specimens. Examples of such cases are computer tomography substituting serial sectioning [8] and fluorescence microscopy
Balance between food production, biodiversity and ecosystem services in Brazil: a challenge and an opportunity
Martinelli, Luiz Antonio;Filoso, Solange;
Biota Neotropica , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-06032009000400001
Abstract: brazil has a unique position in the world. it is one of the few countries that can be one of the most important producers of food, fiber and biofuel and at the same time maintain its mega biodiversity endowment and vital ecosystems services properly running. this is a challenge that only can be achieved by recognizing the importance of agribusiness sector to the brazilian economy, but also that ecosystems have limits and we should not endless expand agriculture in the name of "development". ecosystem services have to be recognized also as a "development" to be kept for the next generations. agriculture only exists where ecosystems are able to maintain its basic functioning. therefore, a well preserved nature it is the most precious asset of agriculture.
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